Months' Observation (month + observation)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Food choices and habitat use by the Tana River yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus): a preliminary report on five years of data

Vicki K. Bentley-Condit
Abstract The Tana River Primate National Reserve, Kenya (TRPNR) yellow baboons' (Papio cynocephalus) long-term habitat usage and food preferences are relatively under-reported. The author presents a preliminary food catalog and analyses of 5 years of data (January 88,October 92; n=55 mo; 875 observation days; 4,893 hourly scans) for the Mchelelo troop (x,=75 individuals). The author predicted that the TRPNR baboons would spend more time on the much larger savanna, show a seasonal preference for fruits/seeds, and show rainfall-influenced food preferences. Although more time was spent on the proportionately larger savanna than in the forests, more than 42% of the observations occurred in forests that accounted for only 8.7% of the area regularly used by the baboons. Fruits/seeds consumption was high throughout the period and a significantly higher proportion of each month's observations reflected fruits/seeds rather than grasses/herbs/corms consumption. Two forest species' (Phoenix reclinata and Hyphaene compressa) were particularly important. Regression analysis showed fruits/seeds consumption predicted most of the grasses/herbs/corms consumption variance. There was no statistical difference in rainy vs. non-rainy season fruits/seeds or grasses/herbs/corms consumption. One implication of these data is the baboons' potential impact on the critically endangered Tana River mangabeys (Cercocebus galeritus), which also rely heavily on P. reclinata and H. compressa. Another is what the "savanna" designation may or may not tell us about baboons. Am. J. Primatol. 71:432,436, 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

A Comparison of CV-Catheters (CV) Grafts (GR) and Fistulae (FI) in Quotidian Hemodialysis

C Kjellstrand
We studied longevity and complications from CV, GR, and FI in 23 patients on quotidian hemodialysis. There were a total of 409 patient months, mean 18,10 months observation and a total of 9209 dialyses. There were 14 FI, 5 GR and 4 CV. 1, 1 and 2 replacements were necessary during a total observation time of 254, 105 and 50 patient months, respectively. For fistulae there were 0.02 replacements/year vs. 0.30 for GR and 0.41 for CV. P = 0.042 FI vs. other. The cumulative survival at 15 months was 100% for FI, 80% for GR and 20% for CV. P = 0.041. The cumulative survival at 3 years were 80% for fistulae and grafts, no CV lasted beyond 15 months. P = 0.013. There were 27 events requiring hospitalization or outpatient intervention. FI: 0.42/patient year, GR 1.22/patient year and CV 1.36/patient year. P = 0.080, FI vs. Other. Patients reported more problems between dialysis for FI, 3.2% of the days and least on GR (0.2%), CV (0.4%). P < 0.0001. Of the problems 85% were pain and redness. To the contrary there were more problems during dialysis with CV, 9.1% vs. FI 2.7%, and GR 0.9%. P < 0.0001. The complications and survival data are similar to those reported by others for quotidian hemodialysis and no different from reports on conventional 3 times per week dialyses. Conclusion: Daily hemodialysis does not adversely affect the different types of blood access. The survival and intervention need of accesses is best for fistulae, worst for CV, but GR, when functioning, have fewer problems between and during dialyses. [source]

Rosiglitazone combined with insulin preserves islet , cell function in adult-onset latent autoimmune diabetes (LADA)

Zhiguang Zhou
Abstract Background LADA is thought to result from the chronic autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing pancreatic , cells. In addition to antidiabetic effects, the newly developed insulin sensitizer-thiazolidinediones have the potential to increase the insulin content of islet cells by downregulating local inflammation and autoimmune response. Therefore, we hypothesized that LADA patients might benefit from thiazolidinediones treatment. Methods LADA patients, with a fasting C-peptide (FCP) of 0.3 nmol/L or more, were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive subcutaneous insulin alone (insulin group, n = 12) or rosiglitazone plus insulin (insulin + RSG group, n = 11) to compare the impacts on islet , cell function. Plasma glucose, HbA 1c, fasting C-peptide (FCP) and C-peptide after 2 h 75-g glucose load (PCP) were determined every 6 months. GAD-Ab and C-peptide were measured with radioimmune assays. Islet , cell function was evaluated by PCP and ,CP(,CP = PCP-FCP). Results All of the 23 patients have been followed up for 6 months, 17 cases for 12 months and 14 for 18 months. (1) During 6 months' follow-up, there were no significant changes for ,CP and PCP levels in both groups. (2) PCP and ,CP levels in insulin + RSG group patients stayed steady during the 12 months' observation (P = 0.161 for both PCP and ,CP), while in the insulin alone group, both FCP (P = 0.021) and PCP (P = 0.028) levels decreased significantly. Furthermore, PCP (P = 0.004) and ,CP(P = 0.015) differences between 12th month and baseline were higher in insulin + RSG group than those in the insulin group. (3) When observed up to 18 months, PCP and ,CP levels in insulin + RSG group patients still stayed steady, while PCP and ,CP levels decreased more in the insulin alone group. Conclusions This pilot study suggests that rosiglitazone combined with insulin may preserve islet , cell function in LADA patients. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Association between painful physical symptoms and clinical outcomes in Taiwanese patients with major depressive disorder: A three-month observational study

Kuang-Peng Chen MD
Abstract Introduction: Reports from non-Asian populations indicate that painful physical symptoms are associated with poorer clinical and functional outcomes in patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). This paper shows the changes in disease characteristics and quality of life in Taiwanese MDD patients, with or without painful physical symptoms, over 3 months' observation. Methods: Taiwanese patients from an observational study of six East Asian countries/regions were classified as painful physical symptom positive (PPS+) or negative (PPS,) based on a mean score of ,2 or <2, respectively, on the modified Somatic Symptom Inventory. Changes from baseline in outcomes were compared between the groups. Results: Of 194 patients with MDD, 69% were PPS+ at baseline. These PPS+ patients were more depressed (17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale total; mean [SD] 27.1 [6.26] versus 21.8 [5.94] PPS,, P<0.001), in more pain (Visual Analog Scale overall; median [range] 73.5 [9,100] versus 40 [0 to 80] PPS,, P<0.001) and had poorer quality of life at baseline (EuroQoL; mean [SD] 42.9 [18.26] versus 59.8 [18.21] PPS,,P<0.001). At endpoint (n=118), PPS, patients showed greater improvement on depression outcomes (Clinical Global Impression of Severity; P=0.011) and had a higher remission rate (52.8 % versus 14.6% PPS+, P=0.007). Discussion: Painful physical symptoms were frequently observed in Taiwanese patients with MDD. As PPS are associated with more severe depression, poorer quality of life, and poorer remission outcomes, clinical management should address both the mental and physical symptoms associated with this disorder. [source]