Month Follow-up Period (month + follow-up_period)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts


Research Summary: Clinicians and researchers have strongly recommended culturally-focused counseling with African-American men arrested for domestic violence. An experimental clinical trial tested the effectiveness of this approach against conventional cognitive-behavioral counseling in all-African-American groups and in racially-mixed groups (N = 501). No significant difference was found in the reassault rate reported by the men's female partners over a 12-month follow-up period (23% overall). During that period, men in the racially-mixed groups were, moreover, half as likely to be rearrested for domestic violence as the men in the culturally-focused groups. The men's level of racial identification did not significantly affect the outcomes of the counseling options. Policy Implications: Simply adding a culturally-focused counseling group to domestic violence programs does not seem in itself to improve outcomes. In the current study, the culturally-focused counseling was an appendage to an existing agency closely linked to the criminal justice system. Culturally-focused counseling may prove to be more effective within community-based organizations tied to local services and supports. [source]

Recurrent trauma histories of two ,unlucky teeth': 42-month follow-up

Zuhal K
The fracture type, severity of dislocation, mobility of fragments and diastasis have negative influence on the healing process. The aim of this study was to describe the treatment and the 42-month follow-up period of three trauma histories in a 12-year-old patient in 1 year and to emphasize the negative effects of recurrent traumas on the healing pattern and prognosis of root fractures. [source]

Preventing depression: a randomized trial of interpersonal psychotherapy-adolescent skills training,

Jami F. Young Ph.D.
Abstract Background: The study evaluated the efficacy of an indicated prevention program for adolescent depression. Methods: Fifty-seven adolescents with elevated depression symptoms were randomized to receive Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training (IPT-AST) or school counseling (SC). Hierarchical linear modeling examined differences in rates of change in depression symptoms and overall functioning and analysis of covariance examined mean differences between groups. Rates of depression diagnoses in the 18-month follow-up period were compared. Results: Adolescents in IPT-AST reported significantly greater rates of change in depression symptoms and overall functioning than SC adolescents from baseline to post-intervention. At post-intervention, IPT-AST adolescents reported significantly fewer depression symptoms and better overall functioning. During the follow-up phase, rates of change slowed for the IPT-AST adolescents, whereas the SC adolescents continued to show improvements. By 12-month follow-up, there were no significant mean differences in depression symptoms or overall functioning between the two groups. IPT-AST adolescents reported significantly fewer depression diagnoses in the first 6 months following the intervention but by 12-month follow-up the difference in rates of diagnoses was no longer significant. Conclusions: IPT-AST leads to an immediate reduction in depression symptoms and improvement in overall functioning. However, the benefits of IPT-AST are not consistent beyond the 6-month follow-up, suggesting that the preventive effects of the program in its current format are limited. Future studies are needed to examine whether booster sessions lengthen the long-term effects of IPT-AST. Depression and Anxiety, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Upper Eyelid Full-Thickness Skin Graft in Facial Reconstruction

Dogan Tuncali MD
Background The potentially available upper eyelid skin, as an alternative donor site, deserves more attention in clinical use. Objective The objective of this study was to prospectively evaluate the clinical behavioral characteristics of upper eyelid full-thickness skin grafts in facial reconstruction. Methods Sixteen patients who concluded the 12-month follow-up period were included in the study. Graft dimensions were measured in place before the graft harvest. Defect sizes were measured following lesion excision and postgrafting. Graft sizes were measured postoperatively at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Results The largest and smallest grafts were 46 × 22 mm and 40 × 15 mm (average 43.1 × 19.3 mm) in size, respectively. The largest and smallest defect dimensions were 33 × 23 mm and 17 × 9 mm (average 22.6 × 15.6 mm), respectively. The average postgrafting size was 21.1 × 14.6 mm. Grafts and donor sites healed very well. Generally, an acceptable to good texture and color match was observed beyond 6 months. Wound bed contraction was not observed beyond the first month (p < .05). Conclusion Special characteristics of hairless skin, good color and texture matching, and inconspicuous and hidden donor scar make the upper eyelid a good alternative donor site for small- to medium-sized facial skin defects. The main disadvantages that limit its clinical use are the age of the patient, a lack of adnexal structures, comparatively limited sun exposure, and possible insufficient thickness, especially when deep defects are of concern. DOGAN TUNCALI, MD, LEVENT ATES, MD, AND GÜRCAN ASLAN, MD, HAVE INDICATED NO SIGNIFICANT INTEREST WITH COMMERCIAL SUPPORTERS. [source]

Prescribing drug of choice to opiate dependent drug users: a comparison of clients receiving heroin with those receiving injectable methadone at a West London drug clinic

Abstract Fifty-eight long-term treatment resistant opiate-dependent drug users were offered the choice of receiving injectable heroin or injectable methadone at a West London drug clinic. Drugs were dispensed on-site at the clinic with weekend take-home. There was no routine ongoing supervised injecting. A ceiling dose of 200mg/day of heroin or methadone was set. One-third chose injectable methadone. Compared to those choosing heroin, these drug users were less likely to have used heroin or crack/cocaine before entering treatment, and were more likely to have previously received treatment with injectable methadone. Drug users reported choosing methadone because it was their primary drug of addiction, and compared with heroin has a longer duration of action and increased strength. Problems with each drug were reported: those choosing heroin complained that the upper dose limit was too low to maintain them adequately, and some receiving methadone complained of discomfort while injecting intravenously. While those choosing each drug had different baseline characteristics, both groups were well retained in treatment and at 3 months made significant reductions in drug use and crime, which were sustained over the 12-month follow-up period. There was no significant difference between treatment outcome between each group. There is an urgent need to conduct randomized controlled trials to establish the effectiveness of prescribing injectable methadone and heroin to inform policy and practice. [source]

Substance misuse over the first 18 months of specialized intervention for first episode psychosis

Jason A. R. Carr
Abstract Aim: Examine substance misuse over the first 18 months of first-episode psychosis treatment. Method: Clinicians rated alcohol and drug (mostly cannabis) misuse for 243 individuals followed prospectively. Assessments were completed at baseline and after 3, 6 and 18 months. Interventions relating to substance misuse included ongoing assessment of use, education and counselling to avoid. Results: Alcohol and drug misuse declined significantly between baseline and 3 months, especially among patients with a substance abuse or dependence diagnosis at baseline. Overall, these reductions were maintained over the 18-month follow-up period. The exception was worsening alcohol misuse over time among patients with alcohol abuse or dependence on entry. Conclusions: With good usual care, education and support, alcohol and drug misuse declined significantly during the first months of psychosis treatment. The improvements in drug misuse were generally maintained over the 18-month follow-up, and worsening alcohol misuse over time may be the greater issue. [source]

Effects of varying the monetary value of voucher-based incentives on abstinence achieved during and following treatment among cocaine-dependent outpatients

ADDICTION, Issue 2 2007
Stephen T. Higgins
ABSTRACT Aims This study examined whether increasing the amount of abstinence achieved during outpatient treatment for cocaine dependence is an effective method for increasing longer-term cocaine abstinence. Design A two-condition, parallel groups, randomized controlled trial was conducted. Setting The trial was conducted in a university-based research clinic. Participants A total of 100 cocaine-dependent outpatients participated in the trial. Intervention Participants were assigned randomly to receive treatment based on the community reinforcement approach (CRA) plus voucher-based incentives set at a relatively high monetary value (maximal value = $1995/12 weeks) or CRA with vouchers set at a relatively low monetary value (maximal value = $499/12 weeks). Vouchers were earned contingent on cocaine-negative urinalysis results during the initial 12 weeks of the 24-week outpatient treatment. Measurements Outcomes were evaluated using urine-toxicology testing, questionnaires and other self-report instruments. Findings Increasing voucher value increased the duration of continuous cocaine abstinence achieved during the 24-week treatment period. Point-prevalence cocaine abstinence assessed every 3 months throughout an 18-month follow-up period was greater in the high- than low-value voucher conditions. The duration of abstinence achieved during treatment predicted abstinence during follow-up, although that relationship weakened over time. Conclusions Increasing the value of abstinence-contingent incentives during the initial weeks of treatment appears to represent an effective method for increasing during-treatment and longer-term cocaine abstinence, but the positive association of during-treatment abstinence with longer-term outcome dissipates with time. [source]

Clinical features of non-hypertensive lobar intracerebral hemorrhage related to cerebral amyloid angiopathy

M. Hirohata
Background and purpose: The present study aims to clarify the clinical features of non-hypertensive cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related lobar intracerebral hemorrhage (CAA-L-ICH). Methods: We investigated clinical, laboratory, and neuroimaging findings in 41 patients (30, women; 11, men) with pathologically supported CAA-L-ICH from 303 non-hypertensive Japanese patients aged ,55, identified via a nationwide survey as symptomatic CAA-L-ICH. Results: The mean age of patients at onset of CAA-L-ICH was 73.2 ± 7.4 years; the number of patients increased with age. The corrected female-to-male ratio for the population was 2.2, with significant female predominance. At onset, 7.3% of patients received anti-platelet therapy. In brain imaging studies, the actual frequency of CAA-L-ICHs was higher in the frontal and parietal lobes; however, after correcting for the estimated cortical volume, the parietal lobe was found to be the most frequently affected. CAA-L-ICH recurred in 31.7% of patients during the average 35.3-month follow-up period. The mean interval between intracerebral hemorrhages (ICHs) was 11.3 months. The case fatality rate was 12.2% at 1 month and 19.5% at 12 months after initial ICH. In 97.1% of patients, neurosurgical procedures were performed without uncontrollable intraoperative or post-operative hemorrhage. Conclusions: Our study revealed the clinical features of non-hypertensive CAA-L-ICH, including its parietal predilection, which will require further study with a larger number of patients with different ethnic backgrounds. [source]

Two new potent and convenient predictors of mortality in older nursing home residents in Japan

Orie Tajima
Background: Malnourishment is closely connected with poor health outcomes in frail elderly. However, the relative importance of specific nutritional predictors of mortality remains unclear in the Japanese population. We investigated the potent nutritional factors associated with mortality from nutritional assessments of three parameters in Japanese frail elderly. Methods: Ninety residents in a nursing home in Japan, aged 65 and over (18 men, 72 women; mean age 82.2 ± 8.0 years) were enrolled in a 38-month follow-up study. The eligibility condition for analysis was having lived at the nursing home for more than 30 days, so three participants were excluded. Three nutritional parameters, which included: anthropometric measurements (body mass index, mid-arm circumference, triceps skinfold thickness and calf circumference); serum markers (albumin, total protein, prealbumin, retinol binding protein and total cholesterol); and food intake, were assessed. After categorizing each putative factor according to tertile distribution, risk of mortality was analyzed using Cox proportional hazard models. Results: At the end of the 38-month follow-up period, 29 participants had died. After adjustment for gender, age, clinical status, and functional status, three indicators (i.e. mid-arm circumference, triceps skinfold thickness and lipid intake) showed a significant relationship with mortality. When all of the putative factors were included in a stepwise procedure, mid-arm circumference and lipid intake were significantly associated with adjusted mortality. Conclusion: Among institutionalized Japanese frail elderly, lower levels of mid-arm circumference and lipid intake could potently predict an increased risk of mortality. These two indicators may be useful for many kinds of assessments and intervention for the improvement of health conditions in Japanese frail elderly. [source]

Transurethral needle ablation of the prostate: An initial Japanese clinical trial

Masaru Murai
Abstract Objectives: Transurethral needle ablation of the prostate is a new alternative endoscopic thermal therapy that uses a low-energy radio frequency delivered into the prostatic adenoma. Herein is reported the initial clinical experience by multiple institutes in Japan of transurethral needle ablation of the prostate for the treatment of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia. Methods: A total of 93 patients were treated with this technique. Transurethral needle ablation of the prostate was generally performed under low-spinal anesthesia. Before and after the procedure, international symptom score (IPSS), quality of life (QOL) score, peak urinary flow rate (Qmax), postvoid residual urine volume and prostate size were evaluated. Results: There was a reduction of IPSS of more than 50% when compared with that of pretreatment, being 51.3% (57/93 patients) and 60.2% (56/93 patients) at 3 months and 6 months after the procedure, respectively. Sixty-seven patients who were available for a 12-month follow-up period demonstrated a markedly decreased mean IPSS when compared with that measured before the treatment for a statistically significant difference (P < 0.01). Fifty-eight patients who were available for uroflowmetric study at 12 months exhibited a notably increased mean Qmax of 11.2 ± 4.5 mL/s, which was a statistically significant increase when compared with that found before treatment (P < 0.05). Although all patients suffered some degree of gross hematuria after the procedure, none of them required any specific treatment for complications. Conclusion: Transurethral needle ablation technique for the treatment of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia is safe and effective. However, a much longer follow-up study is essential for fully evaluating the extended effectiveness of this technique. [source]

Apathy may herald cognitive decline and dementia in Parkinson's disease,

Kathy Dujardin PhD
Abstract Apathy is usually defined as a lack of motivation. It may occur as part of another disorder (notably depression and dementia) or as an isolated syndrome. In Parkinson's disease (PD), apathy is common and several studies have reported an association between this condition and more severe cognitive symptoms, such as executive dysfunction. However, this association has not been thoroughly investigated. The aim of this study (in nondepressed, nondemented PD patients) was to examine whether or not cognitive decline and/or dementia occurred more frequently in apathetic subjects than in nonapathetic subjects. Forty consecutive PD patients participated in the study (20 with apathy and 20 without). None of the subjects were either demented or depressed at the time of study entry. The patients' cognitive functions were extensively assessed twice: at study entry and after an 18-month follow-up period. At study entry, the apathetic PD patients had significantly lower global cognitive status and executive function scores than the nonapathetic subjects. After a median period of 18 months, the rate of conversion to dementia was found to be significantly higher in the apathetic group than in the nonapathetic group (8 of 20 and 1 of 20, respectively). Even in nondemented patients, the decrease over time in cognitive performance (mainly executive function but also memory impairment) was significantly greater in apathetic subjects than in nonapathetic subjects. These findings suggest that in nondemented, nondepressed PD patients, apathy may be a predictive factor for dementia and cognitive decline over time. © 2009 Movement Disorder Society [source]

Severe Congenital Systemic Juvenile Xanthogranuloma in Monozygotic Twins

Rattanavalai Chantorn M.D.
Juvenile xanthogranuloma with extracutaneous involvement is a rare disease in which significant morbidity and occasional deaths may occur. Monozygotic twins with congenital systemic juvenile xanthogranuloma who presented with multiple skin lesions, hepatosplenomegaly, liver failure, and bone marrow involvement were reported. The diagnosis of systemic juvenile xanthogranuloma was confirmed by histology and immunohistochemical stains of the skin with liver biopsies revealing dense infiltration of lymphohistiocytes with typical Touton giant cells staining positive for CD68 and negative for CD1a and S-100 protein. Both of them received systemic prednisolone 1 mg/kg/day which was gradually tapered off with time according to clinical and investigative responses. At the 17-month follow-up period, both patients showed remarkable regression in all symptoms and laboratory studies. [source]

Photodynamic therapy for the treatment of a giant superficial basal cell carcinoma

Donato Calista
Summary A 74-year-old man was referred to our department for the treatment of a 15 × 15 cm superficial basal cell carcinoma (BCC) on his lumbar region. As surgical excision was considered too destructive, photodynamic therapy (PDT) was proposed. Methyl 5-aminolevulinate (MAL) cream was applied under occlusion for 3 h before illumination with a light-emitting diode lamp with an emission peak of 632 nm, a fluence rate of 83.3 mW/cm, and a light dose of 37 J/cm. A second MAL-PDT session was repeated 1 week later. The neoplastic area healed in 30 days. No recurrence has occurred after a 40-month follow-up period, but clinical observation continues. Although surgery still remains the treatment of choice for giant BCC, for which the local invasiveness and metastatic potential are well known, we offered our patient the option of PDT because we believed that classical surgery could hardly provide the same satisfactory outcome. As far as we know, this is the first case of giant BCC treated with PDT. [source]

Actinic keratosis treated with an immune response modifier: a case report of six patients

L. Bianchi
Summary Actinic keratoses (AKs) are intraepidermal tumours, which result from the proliferation of transformed neoplastic keratinocytes. They are typically induced by chronic exposure to ultraviolet radiation, and can often develop into squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Six patients, who presented with AKs located on the head, face and chest, were treated with the immune response modifier, imiquimod, as a 5% cream five times per week for up to 8 weeks. The majority of patients experienced mild to moderate side-effects, consisting of erythema, itching and burning. Topical application of imiquimod for 4,8 weeks resulted in complete clearance in all patients. No new or recurrent lesions were observed during a 6,8 month follow-up period. [source]

Amniotic membrane grafting in the surgical management of primary pterygium

Rohan W Essex FRANZCO
Abstract Background:,To evaluate the efficacy of amniotic membrane transplantation in primary pterygium surgery. Methods:,Patients presenting to the outpatient clinic of the Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital with primary pterygium requiring surgical management were included in this study. The pterygia were excised to bare sclera and the conjunctival defects were closed with amniotic membrane grafts. The primary outcome was pterygium recurrence. Results:,Twenty-eight pterygia of 26 patients were included. Twenty-three patients (88%, 25 eyes) completed 12 months follow up. By 12 months postoperatively 16 of these eyes (64%) had developed corneal recurrence and a further two had developed a limbal recurrence (9%). Five required repeat surgery during the 12 month follow-up period. No association was found between pterygium recurrence and pterygium size (P = 0.33), amniotic membrane graft dimension (P = 0.12), patient age (P = 0.53) or patient sex (P = 0.63). Conclusion:,Amniotic membrane grafting for primary pterygium was associated with an unacceptably high recurrence rate in this population. [source]

Effects of mild aerobic physical exercise on membrane fluidity of erythrocytes in essential hypertension

Kazushi Tsuda
Summary 1.,The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of aerobic physical exercise on membrane function in mild essential hypertension. 2.,Hypertensive patients were divided into an exercise group (n = 8) and a non-exercise (control) group (n = 8). Physical exercise within the intensity of the anaerobic threshold level was performed twice a week for 6 months. Membrane fluidity of erythrocytes was examined by means of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and spin-labelling methods before and after the trial period in both groups. 3.,After physical exercise, blood pressure decreased significantly. 4.,Compared with the non-exercise group, in the exercise group both the order parameter (S) and the peak height ratio (ho/h -1) in the EPR spectra of erythrocytes were significantly reduced (S, 0.717 ± 0.004 vs 0.691 ± 0.008, respectively (n = 8), P < 0.05; ho/h -1, 5.38 ± 0.06 vs 4.89 ± 0.06, respectively (n = 8), P < 0.05). These findings indicated that exercise increased membrane fluidity and improved the membrane microviscosity of erythrocytes. 5.,There was no direct correlation between blood pressure reduction and the exercise-induced increase in membrane fluidity of erythrocytes. 6.,In the non-exercise (control) group, blood pressure and membrane fluidity were not changed after a 6 month follow-up period. 7., The results show that aerobic physical exercise increased erythrocyte membrane fluidity and improved the rigidity of cell membranes in hypertensive patients. The improvement of rheological properties of erythrocytes may explain, in part, the cellular mechanisms for the beneficial effects of physical exercise in hypertension. [source]

In-patient comparison of immediate and conventional loaded implants in mandibular molar sites within 12 months

Güncü, M. Bar
Abstract Objectives: The aim of this prospective clinical study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of dental implants placed in the mandibular molar sites and immediately functionally restored compared with conventionally loaded controls in an in-patient study. Material and methods: Twenty-four dental implants were placed in 12 patients who had first molar loss bilaterally in the mandibular area. One site of the patient was determined as immediately loaded (IL) and the other side was conventionally loaded (CL). Resonance frequency analyses for implant stability measurements, radiographic examinations for marginal bone levels and peri-implant evaluations were performed during the clinical follow-up appointments within 12 months. Results: During the 12-month follow-up period, only one implant was lost in the IL group. The mean implant stability quotient values were 74.18±5.72 and 75.18±3.51 for Groups IL and CL at surgery, respectively, and the corresponding values were 75.36±5.88 and 75.64±4.84 at 1-year recall, respectively. The difference was not statistically significant between the two groups during the 12-month study period (P>0.05). When peri-implant parameters were evaluated, excellent peri-implant health was demonstrated during the 1-year observation period and all implants showed less than 1 mm of marginal bone resorption during the first year. Conclusions: In the present study, immediate functionally loading did not negatively affect implant stability, marginal bone levels and peri-implant health when compared with conventional loading of single-tooth implants. [source]

Evaluation of a mental health treatment court with assertive community treatment,

Merith Cosden Ph.D.
Without active engagement, many adults with serious mental illnesses remain untreated in the community and commit criminal offenses, resulting in their placement in the jails rather than mental health facilities. A mental health treatment court (MHTC) with an assertive community treatment (ACT) model of case management was developed through the cooperative efforts of the criminal justice and mental health systems. Participants were 235 adults with a serious mental illness who were booked into the county jail, and who volunteered for the study. An experimental design was used, with participants randomly assigned to MHTC or treatment as usual (TAU), consisting of adversarial criminal processing and less intensive mental health treatment. Results were reported for 6 and 12 month follow-up periods. Clients in both conditions improved in life satisfaction, distress, and independent living, while participants in the MHTC also showed reductions in substance abuse and new criminal activity. Outcomes are interpreted within the context of changes brought about in the community subsequent to implementation of the MHTC. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]