Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Earth and Environmental Science

Kinds of Monsoon

  • asian monsoon
  • asian summer monsoon
  • east asian summer monsoon
  • indian summer monsoon
  • summer monsoon
  • winter monsoon

  • Terms modified by Monsoon

  • monsoon activity
  • monsoon circulation
  • monsoon climate
  • monsoon forest
  • monsoon period
  • monsoon rain
  • monsoon rainfall
  • monsoon region
  • monsoon season
  • monsoon system
  • monsoon trough

  • Selected Abstracts

    Monsoon in the Americas: Opportunities and Challenges

    Thomas M. Rickenbach
    This article presents a comparative review of the North and South America Monsoon Systems and highlights the challenges and opportunities presented to those regions by the seasonal rains. Monsoon precipitation represents a major component of the water resources available to the southwestern US and to Brazil. Although each system shares classical features of the well-known southwest Indian monsoon, water use, agriculture, public safety, and energy policy in these two countries have been shaped by the unique regional complexities of monsoon rain across each region. A comparison between these two systems may offer perspective for ways by which these societies may adapt to current and future challenges, and take advantage of new opportunities. [source]

    What caused the mid-Holocene forest decline on the eastern Tibet-Qinghai Plateau?

    GLOBAL ECOLOGY, Issue 2 2010
    Ulrike Herzschuh
    ABSTRACT Aim, Atmospheric CO2 concentrations depend, in part, on the amount of biomass locked up in terrestrial vegetation. Information on the causes of a broad-scale vegetation transition and associated loss of biomass is thus of critical interest for understanding global palaeoclimatic changes. Pollen records from the north-eastern Tibet-Qinghai Plateau reveal a dramatic and extensive forest decline beginning c. 6000 cal. yr bp. The aim of this study is to elucidate the causes of this regional-scale change from high-biomass forest to low-biomass steppe on the Tibet-Qinghai Plateau during the second half of the Holocene. Location, Our study focuses on the north-eastern Tibet-Qinghai Plateau. Stratigraphical data used are from Qinghai Lake (3200 m a.s.l., 36°32,,37°15, N, 99°36,,100°47, E). Methods, We apply a modern pollen-precipitation transfer function from the eastern and north-eastern Tibet-Qinghai Plateau to fossil pollen spectra from Qinghai Lake to reconstruct annual precipitation changes during the Holocene. The reconstructions are compared to a stable oxygen-isotope record from the same sediment core and to results from two transient climate model simulations. Results, The pollen-based precipitation reconstruction covering the Holocene parallels moisture changes inferred from the stable oxygen-isotope record. Furthermore, these results are in close agreement with simulated model-based past annual precipitation changes. Main conclusions, In the light of these data and the model results, we conclude that it is not necessary to attribute the broad-scale forest decline to human activity. Climate change as a result of changes in the intensity of the East Asian Summer Monsoon in the mid-Holocene is the most parsimonious explanation for the widespread forest decline on the Tibet-Qinghai Plateau. Moreover, climate feedback from a reduced forest cover accentuates increasingly drier conditions in the area, indicating complex vegetation,climate interactions during this major ecological change. [source]

    Large-scale effect of aerosols on precipitation in the West African Monsoon region

    J. Huang
    Abstract We used multi-year satellite observations to study aerosol effects on the large-scale variability in precipitation of the West African Monsoon (WAM) region, which is often impacted by high concentrations of desert dust and biomass-burning smoke. We find a statistically significant precipitation reduction associated with high aerosol concentration near the coast of the Gulf of Guinea from late boreal autumn to winter. The largest aerosol-related precipitation reduction (,1.5 mm d,1) is about 50% of the climatological mean precipitation in the region and occurs mainly at rain rates in the range of 2,17 mm d,1 off the northern coast of the Gulf of Guinea. This reduction cannot be linearly attributed to known climate and weather factors such as El Niño,Southern Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation, Atlantic sea-surface temperature, or water vapour. The fractional precipitation variance related to aerosol is about 13%, a value comparable to those related to the known climate factors. Based on the spatial pattern and seasonality of the observed precipitation reduction and its dependence on the rain rate, the observed negative correlation cannot be readily attributed to precipitation effects on aerosol by wet deposition or to rain and cloud contamination of satellite aerosol retrievals. We therefore suggest that our results can be taken as observational evidence of aerosol effects on precipitation. The aerosol associated with the observed precipitation reduction can be traced back to various African sources where large quantities of desert dust and biomass-burning smoke are emitted during much of the year. Given that the emissions of dust and smoke have varied considerably over the past several decades, in part attributable to human activities, our observed rainfall reduction may reflect an anthropogenic impact to some degree. Copyright © 2009 Royal Meteorological Society [source]

    Large-scale index for South America Monsoon (LISAM)

    Ana Elizabethe da Silva
    Abstract Time variations and large-scale features of South America summer monsoon are characterized by an index based on the first combined EOF of anomalies of precipitation, specific humidity, air temperature, and zonal and meridional winds at 850 hPa. This index describes intraseasonal to interannual variations of the monsoon. Copyright © 2007 Royal Meteorological Society [source]

    Occurrence of Appias albina albina (Boisduval, 1836) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae: Pierinae) in northern Australia: phenotypic variation, life history and biology, with remarks on its taxonomic status

    Michael F. BRABY
    Abstract Variation in adult phenotype, the life history and general biology of the "White Albatross", Appias albina albina (Boisduval, 1836), are described and illustrated from the monsoon tropics of the northern Australia for the first time. Like elsewhere throughout the species' wide geographical range, the population exhibits sex-limited polymorphism, with females having three distinct color morphs (white, yellow, intermediate). Variation within and among these morphs is compared with populations from elsewhere in South-East Asia, particularly Maluku (including the type locality Ambon), and comments are made on the taxonomic status of the Australian population. The species inhabits coastal semi-deciduous monsoon vine-thicket where its larval food plant Drypetes deplanchei (Brongn. & Gris) Merr. (Euphorbiaceae) grows on lateritic edges and cliffs. The early stages and behaviour are compared with those of A. albina pancheia Fruhstorfer, 1910 from South-East Asia and A. paulina ega (Boisduval, 1836) from Australia. Adults are highly seasonal, their timing of appearance coinciding with annual leaf flush of the larval food plant and onset of the summer monsoon. During this period, the broad flight season lasts about two months, the life cycle is completed in approximately four weeks, and the species is probably univoltine or partially bivoltine. We conclude that breeding populations of A. albina albina in Australia are resident, but it remains to be established how the species survives the long dry season. [source]

    Population genetic studies of hilsa shad, Tenualosa ilisha (Hamilton), in Bangladesh waters: evidence for the existence of separate gene pools

    M. Rahman
    Hilsa shad, Tenualosa ilisha (Hamilton), in Bangladesh is found in inland rivers, estuaries and the marine environment, throughout the year, but the peak catch period is during upstream migration. Tissue (white muscle, liver, brain) samples (total 640 specimens) were collected from three different localities, representing marine, brackish and fresh water, during the monsoon in the summer of the years 1993,1996 to identify genetic markers and study the population structure of this species. The samples were analysed by starch gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing, and stained for 15 enzymes and general muscle proteins. Only phosphoglucomutase, aspartate amino transferase, esterase and unidentified muscle proteins were found to be polymorphic. The allele frequencies for the samples collected in the marine environment deviated from corresponding samples from freshwater and estuarine localities, indicating that hilsa shad in Bangladesh waters comprise more than one gene pool. [source]

    Time series analyses reveal transient relationships between abundance of larval anchovy and environmental variables in the coastal waters southwest of Taiwan

    Abstract We investigated environmental effects on larval anchovy fluctuations (based on CPUE from 1980 to 2000) in the waters off southwestern Taiwan using advanced time series analyses, including the state-space approach to remove seasonality, wavelet analysis to investigate transient relationships, and stationary bootstrap to test correlation between time series. For large-scale environmental effects, we used the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) to represent the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO); for local hydrographic conditions, we used sea surface temperature (SST), river runoff, and mixing conditions. Whereas the anchovy catch consisted of a northern species (Engraulis japonicus) and two southern species (Encrasicholina heteroloba and Encrasicholina punctifer), the magnitude of the anchovy catch appeared to be mainly determined by the strength of Eng. japonicus (Japanese anchovy). The main factor that caused the interannual variation of anchovy CPUE might change through time. The CPUE showed a negative correlation with combination of water temperature and river runoff before 1987 and a positive correlation with river runoff after 1988. Whereas a significant negative correlation between CPUE and ENSOs existed, this correlation was driven completely by the low-frequency ENSO events and explained only 10% of the variance. Several previous studies on this population emphasized that the fluctuations of larval anchovy abundance were determined by local SST. Our analyses indicated that such a correlation was transient and simply reflected ENSO signals. Recent advances in physical oceanography around Taiwan showed that the ENSOs reduced the strength of the Asian monsoon and thus weakened the China Coastal Current toward Taiwan. The decline of larval anchovy during ENSO may be due to reduced China Coastal Current, which is important in facilitating the spawning migration of the Japanese anchovy. [source]

    The geoarchaeological and paleoenvironmental context of Paleoindian sites in western Middle Park, Colorado, USA

    James H. Mayer
    Geoarchaeological investigations in western Middle Park provide important information for understanding the soil-stratigraphic context of Paleoindian components, as well as the latest Quaternary environmental change and landscape evolution in a Southern Rocky Mountain intermontane basin. Paleoindian components are associated with the oldest two of four latest Quaternary stratigraphic units (1,4) recognized in co-alluvial mantles (combined slopewash and colluvium) in uplands and in alluvial valley fills. Limited data suggest accumulation of unit 1 as early as ,12,500 14C yr B.P. in alluvial valleys and by at least ,11,000 14C yr B.P. in uplands was followed by brief stability and soil formation. A relatively widespread disconformity marks earliest Holocene erosion and substantial removal of latest Pleistocene deposits in upland and alluvial settings followed by unit 2 deposition ,10,000,9000 14C yr B.P., perhaps signaling the abrupt onset of an intensified summer monsoon. In situ Paleoindian components in uplands are found in a moderately developed buried soil (the Kremmling soil) formed in units 1 and 2 in thin (,1m) hillslope co-alluvial mantles. The Kremmling soil reflects geomorphic stability in upland and alluvial settings ,9000,4500 14C yr BP, and represents a buried landscape with the potential to contain additional Paleoindian components, although elsewhere in western Middle Park Early Archaic components are documented in morphologically similar soils. Kremmling soil morphology, the relative abundance of charcoal in unit 2 relative to younger units, and charcoal morphology indicate the expansion of forest cover, including Pinus, and grass cover during the early and middle Holocene, suggesting conditions moister than present. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    Evidence for an abrupt climatic change at 8700 14C yr B.P. in rockshelters and caves of Gebel Qara (Dhofar-Oman): Palaeoenvironmental implications

    Mauro Cremaschi
    Geoarchaeological research on the sedimentary fill of rockshelters and caves in the Gebel Qara (Dhofar, Southern Oman) has revealed the onset of heavy rains at 8700 yr B.P. These rains, produced by strengthening of the Southwest monsoon, abruptly altered the dry environment dominant in the area since the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. Comparison of cave fills from the southern and northern fringes of the Gebel Qara indicates that the monsoon effects were limited to the southern and central part of the mountain range, directly facing the sea, and did not penetrate into the Nejd Desert. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    Monsoon in the Americas: Opportunities and Challenges

    Thomas M. Rickenbach
    This article presents a comparative review of the North and South America Monsoon Systems and highlights the challenges and opportunities presented to those regions by the seasonal rains. Monsoon precipitation represents a major component of the water resources available to the southwestern US and to Brazil. Although each system shares classical features of the well-known southwest Indian monsoon, water use, agriculture, public safety, and energy policy in these two countries have been shaped by the unique regional complexities of monsoon rain across each region. A comparison between these two systems may offer perspective for ways by which these societies may adapt to current and future challenges, and take advantage of new opportunities. [source]

    Is rainfall intensity significant in the rainfall,runoff process within tropical rainforests of northeast Queensland?

    The Hewlett regression analyses revisited
    Abstract Following the statistical analyses of long-term rainfall-runoff records from research basins in humid temperate latitudes, Hewlett and co-workers extended the global challenge to disprove their findings that rainfall intensity was non-significant. This paper responds to Hewlett's challenge as no preceding analyses have involved forested basins in a tropical cyclone-prone area. Based on a 7 year rainfall-runoff record, quickflow (QF), peak flow (QP) and quickflow response ratios (QRR) were regressed as dependent variables against rainfall parameters (intensity, Pi, amount, P), storm duration, D and antecedent flow, I. These data sets were categorised into total streamflow (Q) classes and stratified into three seasons, (monsoon, post-monsoon and dry) for forested and cleared catchments. Where rainfall variable collinearity met acceptable levels, the addition of Pi to regression models including P, D, I contributed up to 9% and 66% of the respective variations in quickflow and peak flow. For the highest Q storm classes (monsoon), Pi alone accounted for up to 67% and 91% of the variation in QF and QP respectively and was the dominant influence on QP for all seasons. The very high rainfall intensities experienced in the monsoon season is a causal factor why these results differ from those of other research drainage basins. Surprisingly, Pi continued to have a significant influence on QF for dry season classes when less-intense rainfall occurs. Further the results were similar for both catchments across all seasons. P was the dominant independent variable affecting QF above a threshold Q of 50 mm (monsoon), as rainfall contributes directly to saturation overland flow and return flow under saturated conditions. Further although QRR increased with increasing Q for each season, the regression results for that parameter were poor possibly due to the non-linearity of the rainfall-runoff relationship. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Spatial and temporal characteristics of droughts in the western part of Bangladesh

    Shamsuddin Shahid
    Abstract Spatial and temporal characteristics of droughts in the western part of Bangladesh have been analysed. Standardized precipitation index method is used to compute the severity of droughts from the rainfall data recorded in 12 rainfall gauge stations for the period of 1961,1999. An artificial neural network is used to estimate missing rainfall data. Geographic Information System (GIS) is used to map the spatial extent of droughts of different severities in multiple time scales. Critical analysis of rainfall is also carried to find the minimum monsoon and dry months rainfall require in different parts of the study area to avoid rainfall deficit. The study shows that the north and north-western parts of Bangladesh are most vulnerable to droughts. A significant negative relationship between multiple ENSO index and rainfall is observed in some stations. Analysis of seasonal rainfall distribution, rainfall reliability and long-term rainfall trend is also conducted to aid prediction of future droughts in the area. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Large-scale summer monsoon rainfall over India and its relation to 850 hPa wind shear

    V. S. Prasad
    Abstract The daily variations of the horizontal wind shear at the 850 hPa level between a southern region (5,15°N, 40,80°E; Zone 1) and a northern region (20,30°N, 70,90°E; Zone 2) during the period 1979,2002 were investigated. Investigations revealed that the changes of this wind shear on a daily basis are directly related to the large-scale rainfall over the Indian region during the monsoon season. The wind shear of zonal wind together with Zone 2 is useful for determining active, weak and break periods of the Indian summer monsoon (ISM). Thus, the Horizontal Wind Shear can be used as a dynamical circulation Index (HWSI) for studying ISM variability. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Estimation of mean residence times of subsurface waters using seasonal variation in deuterium excess in a small headwater catchment in Japan

    Naoki Kabeya
    Abstract We measured deuterium excess (d = ,D , 8,18O) in throughfall, groundwater, soil water, spring water, and stream water for 3 years in a small headwater catchment (Matsuzawa, 0·68 ha) in the Kiryu Experimental Watershed in Japan. The d value represents a kinetic effect produced when water evaporates. The d value of the throughfall showed a sinusoidal change (amplitude: 6·9, relative to Vienna standard mean ocean water (V-SMOW)) derived from seasonal changes in the source of water vapour. The amplitude of this sinusoidal change was attenuated to 1·3,6·9, V-SMOW in soil water, groundwater, spring water, and stream water. It is thought that these attenuations derive from hydrodynamic transport processes in the subsurface and mixing processes at an outflow point (stream or spring) or a well. The mean residence time (MRT) of water was estimated from d value variations using an exponential-piston flow model and a dispersion model. MRTs for soil water were 0,5 months and were not necessarily proportional to the depth. This may imply the existence of bypass flow in the soil. Groundwater in the hillslope zone had short residence times, similar to those of the soil water. For groundwater in the saturated zone near the spring outflow point, the MRTs differed between shallow and deeper groundwater; shallow groundwater had a shorter residence time (5,8 months) than deeper groundwater (more than 9 months). The MRT of stream water (8,9 months) was between that of shallow groundwater near the spring and deeper groundwater near the spring. The seasonal variation in the d value of precipitation arises from changes in isotopic water vapour composition associated with seasonal activity of the Asian monsoon mechanism. The d value is probably an effective tracer for estimating the MRT of subsurface water not only in Japan, but also in other East Asian countries influenced by the Asian monsoon. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Hydrology and water resources in monsoon Asia: a consideration of the necessity of establishing a standing research community of hydrology and water resources in the Asia Pacific region

    Katumi Musiake
    Abstract Hydrological and water resources issues appear very differently in different regions, and are strongly affected by geographical conditions. Hydrological knowledge and methodologies obtained in a specific region cannot necessarily be adapted to other regions. The purpose of this paper is to clarify one way to address adequately the regional characteristics of hydrology and water resources in monsoon Asia, especially the ,too much water' problems in the region. For this purpose, geomorphological factors, climatic factors and human intervention in the natural environment are taken into consideration as the three major factors governing the regional characteristics of the hydrology,water resources system. To identify geomorphological features macroscopically between the Asia Pacific region and other continental regions, the concepts ,tectonic zone' and ,stable region', which are two major subdivisions of continental masses in the world, are introduced. Also, a new climatic subdivision termed ,warm-humid' is proposed to express the abundant precipitation due to the Asian monsoon. Then, hydrological characteristics common or similar in ,warm-humid tectonic zones' in the Asia Pacific region, contrasted with those in stable regions, are enumerated together with the human intervention corresponding to these characteristics, and research targets peculiar to warm-humid tectonic zones are discussed. Finally, the establishment of a standing research community called ,Asia Pacific Association of Hydrology and Water Resources' is proposed to promote the exchange of operational knowledge and experience in water resources management, cooperative research activities, and professional education in the Asia Pacific region. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Stable isotopes in the source waters of the Yamuna and its tributaries: seasonal and altitudinal variations and relation to major cations

    Tarun K. Dalai
    Abstract Water samples from the Yamuna and its tributaries, one of the major river systems draining the Himalaya, have been analysed for their stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes during three seasons (summer, monsoon and post-monsoon). The data show clear seasonal and altitudinal variations; waters from higher altitudes and those collected during monsoon season are characterized by relatively depleted isotopic composition. Regression analysis of ,D,,18O data of samples collected during summer and monsoon seasons shows that the slope of the best-fit lines are nearly identical to those of precipitation at New Delhi for the same period. The similarity in their slopes suggests that the isotopic composition of precipitation contributing water to these rivers are reasonably well preserved in both monsoon and non-monsoon seasons, however, during the non-monsoon period both rainfall and river waters carry signatures of evaporation. The ,deuterium excess' in river waters during the three seasons though overlap with each other, the values during October are higher. This can be understood in terms of recycled moisture contributions to precipitation. The ,altitude effect' for ,18O in these waters is determined to be 0·11, per 100 m, a factor of about two less than that reported for the Ganga source waters from similar altitudinal range. The variability in altitude effects in rivers draining the Himalaya seems to be controlled by the ,amount effect' associated with the monsoon. The significant spatial variability in altitude effect in these river basins, which are a few hundred kilometers apart, suggests that reconstruction of palaeoelevation in the Himalaya, based on ,18O-altitude gradients, would depend critically on its proper assessment in the region. This study has established a relationship between total cation abundance and ,18O in waters of the Yamuna mainstream; total cations (corrected for cyclic components) double for a 1·4 km decrease in altitude as the Yamuna flows downstream. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    A multi-time scale Australian monsoon index

    Yoshiyuki Kajikawa
    Abstract A broad-scale Australian monsoon index (AUSMI) describing multi-time scale variations is defined by using 850 hPa zonal wind averaged over the area (5°S,15°S, 110°E,130°E). This circulation index reflects monsoonal rainfall variability over Northern Australia and maritime continent. The index can be used to depict the seasonal cycle (for instance the onset) and measure the intraseasonal, interannual, and interdecadal variations of the Australian monsoon. The interannual variation of the Australian monsoon onset determined by the AUSMI agrees well with that derived from the rainfall and winds at Darwin in the previous studies. We found a significant anti-correlation between the monsoon onset date and the seasonal (DJF) mean AUSMI anomalies; namely an early onset is accompanied by a strong Australian summer monsoon and vice versa. These interannual variations are also strongly associated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). In contrast, the retreat dates are not significantly different between the strong and weak Australian summer monsoon years. The AUSMI is useful in monitoring the weather and climate variations of the Australian monsoon and validating the performance of climate models. Copyright © 2009 Royal Meteorological Society [source]

    Effect of late 1970's climate shift on tropospheric biennial oscillation,role of local Indian Ocean processes on Asian summer monsoon

    Prasanth A Pillai
    Abstract The tropical climate has undergone noticeable changes on interdecadal time scales. The climate shift that occurred in the late 1970s attained enormous attention owing to its global-scale variations in ocean temperature, heat content and El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) properties. Earlier studies presented the effect of this shift on ENSO and the Asian summer monsoon,ENSO relationship. The present study is an attempt to investigate the effect of late 1970's climate shift on tropospheric biennial oscillation (TBO), which is an important tropical phenomenon that includes both air,sea processes in the tropical Indian and Pacific Ocean regions. TBO is the tendency for the Asian,Australian monsoon system to alternate between relatively strong and weak years. The study comprises a detailed analysis of the TBO cycle in the time periods before (1951,1975) and after (1978,2002) the climate shift in 1976 with the help of National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) data sets of 200-hPa velocity potential; the Indian Ocean sea surface temperature (SST) and circulation are more obvious after the shift, although they were significant in the Pacific Ocean before 1976. The effect of ENSO in the biennial cycle is reduced with climate shift. The persistence of Asian-to-Australian summer monsoon has weakened in recent decades, as it is controlled by ENSO. Local oceanic processes in the Indian Ocean and local monsoon Hadley circulation have an increased role in the biennial oscillation of the Asian summer monsoon after 1976. Copyright © 2009 Royal Meteorological Society [source]

    Influences of the Indian Ocean dipole on the Asian summer monsoon in the following year

    Yuan Yuan
    Abstract By exploring the spatiotemporal features of the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) both on the sea surface and in the subsurface ocean, the present article reveals that the subsurface dipole mode, with larger amplitude than the surface one, is likely to prolong the dipole signal for a long time. Using the wind and geopotential height data from NCEP/NCAR, this article further investigates IOD impacts on the Asian summer monsoon activities in the following year. A normal (late) South China Sea summer monsoon onset is associated with the previous positive (negative) IOD. In the summer after an IOD year, a positive (negative) IOD tends to induce a stronger (weaker) 100-hPa South Asian High, with a more (less) eastward-extending high ridge, and also an enhanced (a weakened) 500-hPa western Pacific subtropical high, with a westward-advancing (an eastward-retreating) high ridge. Influenced by the anomalous 850-hPa Asian monsoon circulations and the longitudinal position of the 500-hPa subtropical high ridge, summer rainfall in China also exhibits different patterns corresponding to different phases of the IOD in the previous year. Copyright © 2008 Royal Meteorological Society [source]

    Sensitivity of the regional climate of East/Southeast Asia to convective parameterizations in the RegCM3 modelling system.

    Part 1: Focus on the Korean peninsula
    Abstract This study investigates the capability of the regional climate model, RegCM3, to simulate fine-scale regional climate over a narrow peninsula or archipelago. The model is run in one-way double-nested mode with one mother domain and two nested domains. The mother domain encompasses the eastern and southern regions of Asia and adjacent oceans with a grid spacing of 60 km. The first nested domain focuses on the Korean peninsula and the second one covers the Philippine archipelago with a grid spacing of 20 km. The simulation spans a period of 5 years and 1 month, from November 2000 to December 2004. The sensitivity of the two convection schemes, namely, the Grell scheme (Grell) and the MIT-Emanuel scheme (EMU), is studied. Model results obtained with both the Grell and EMU show reasonable performance in capturing the seasonal variation and the spatial characteristics of the East Asian monsoon. However, the Grell simulation appears to have persistent cold and dry biases in the summer season. There is a definite improvement in these model deficiencies by the implementation of EMU. Although the temperature fields in the Grell and EMU simulations are essentially the same in terms of the spatial distribution, the EMU simulation is quantitatively in better agreement with the observed estimates, indicating a substantial reduction in the cold bias. Further, in comparison with the Grell simulation, the EMU simulation shows an improvement in the timing and amplitude of the rain band propagating northward. The spatial distributions of precipitation also have good quality, capturing the localized maxima over Korea. The frequency distributions of daily temperature and precipitation simulated by EMU are closer to observations than those of the Grell simulation. It is found that the convective precipitation derived from different convection parameterizations is a major contributor to the performance of the model in summer. Copyright © 2008 Royal Meteorological Society [source]

    Global summer monsoon rainy seasons

    Suping Zhang
    Abstract A concise and objective definition of monsoon rainy season characteristics is proposed for worldwide monsoon regions. The result highlights six major summer monsoon rainy season domains and the mean dates of the local onset, peak and withdrawal phases of the summer monsoon rainy season. The onset phases occur progressively later poleward in the continental domains but primarily eastward in the oceanic monsoon regions. The rainy season retreats equatorward over the continental and oceanic monsoon regions. The length of the rainy season decreases poleward and shorter rainy season can also be found over the outskirts of warm water. Some exceptions exist in terms of the characteristics of rainy season, e.g. the westward advance of rainy season over North Africa and an apparently prolonged rainy season in the Korean peninsula. The results here are basically compatible with those obtained in previous studies on regional monsoons. A definition of the seasonal wind overturning is proposed. Combining rainfall and winds, we stratify the global monsoon into strong and weak categories. The strong monsoons are typically in the regions with both concentration of summer rainfall and annual reversal of low-level winds, while the weak monsoon features only a contrasting wet,dry season. Seemingly, some mid-latitude regions with wind reversals are not monsoonal because of the reversals being opposite to the monsoon overturning and the rainfall patterns being more or less Mediterranean. The comparison between the monsoon domains derived from Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP) and the 40-year European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Re-Analysis (ERA-40), the Japanese 25-year Reanalysis (JRA-25) and National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) datasets show good capabilities of the reanalyses in demarcation of the major monsoon rainy season domains in the tropics and subtropics. But the reanalyses are less realistic in the mid-latitudes of Eurasia and North America. The result here provides the simple yet objective definitions of monsoon domain, onset, peak and withdrawal which are useful for validation of GCMs. Copyright © 2008 Royal Meteorological Society [source]

    Impacts of the basin-wide Indian Ocean SSTA on the South China Sea summer monsoon onset

    Yuan Yuan
    Abstract This article explores the impacts of the Indian Ocean basin-scale sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) on the South China Sea (SCS) summer monsoon onset. Basin-wide warming in the tropical Indian Ocean (TIO) is found to occur in the spring following an El Niño event, and the opposite occurs for a La Niña event. Such changes of the Indian Ocean SSTA apparently prolong the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) effects on the subsequent Asian summer monsoon, mainly through modifying the strength of the Philippine Sea anti-cyclone. Warming in the TIO induces an anomalous reversed Walker circulation over the tropical Indo,Pacific Ocean, which leads to descending motion, and hence suppressed convection in the western Pacific. The intensified Philippine Sea anti-cyclone in May and June advances more westward and prevents the extension of the Indian Ocean westerly flow into the SCS region, thereby causing a late SCS monsoon onset. The case is opposite for the TIO cooling such that the Philippine Sea anti-cyclone weakens and retreats eastward, thus favouring an early onset of the SCS monsoon. Copyright © 2008 Royal Meteorological Society [source]

    The impact of vertical resolution on regional model simulation of the west African summer monsoon

    Leonard M. Druyan
    Abstract The RM3 regional climate model is used to simulate the west African summer monsoon for six June,September seasons using NCEP reanalysis data for lateral boundary forcing. The study compares the performance of the previously published 16-level version with a newly tested 28-level version, both running on a horizontal grid with 0.5° spacing, in order to determine what improvements in simulations are achieved by increased vertical resolution. Comparisons between the performances include diagnostics of seasonal mean precipitation rates and circulation, vertical profiles of cumulus heating rates, frequencies of shallow and deep convection and diagnostics related to transient African easterly waves (AEWs). The characteristics of a composite AEW simulated at both vertical resolutions are presented. Results show that the most significant impact of increasing the vertical resolution is stronger circulation, stronger vertical wind shear and higher amplitude AEWs. The simulations with higher vertical resolution also achieve higher peaks of cumulus latent heating rates. Spatial,temporal correlations between simulated daily 700 mb meridional winds versus corresponding NCEP reanalysis data and simulated daily precipitation versus estimates from the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) archive were equally high at both vertical resolutions. Copyright © 2007 Royal Meteorological Society [source]

    Inter-decadal variation of the summer precipitation in East China and its association with decreasing Asian summer monsoon.

    Part I: Observed evidences
    Abstract In recent two decades, North and Northeast China have suffered from severe and persistent droughts while the Yangtze River basin and South China have undergone much more significant heavy rainfall/floods events. This long-term change in the summer precipitation and associated large-scale monsoon circulation features have been examined by using the new dataset of 740 surface stations for recent 54 years (1951,2004) and about 123-yr (1880,2002) records of precipitation in East China. The following new findings have been highlighted: (1) One dominating mode of the inter-decadal variability of the summer precipitation in China is the near-80-yr oscillation. Other modes of 12-yr and 30,40-yr oscillations also play an important role in affecting regional inter-decadal variability. (2) In recent 54 years, the spatial pattern of the inter-decadal variability of summer precipitation in China is mainly structured with two meridional modes: the dipole pattern and the positive-negative-positive ("+ , + " pattern). In this period, a regime transition of meridional precipitation mode from "+ , + " pattern to dipole pattern has been completed. In the process of southward movement of much precipitation zone, two abrupt climate changing points that occurred in 1978 and 1992, respectively, were identified. (3) Accompanying the afore-described precipitation changes, the East Asian summer monsoon have experienced significant weakening, with northward moisture transport and convergence by the East Asian summer monsoon greatly weakened, thus leading to much deficient moisture supply for precipitation in North China. (4) The significant weakening of the component of the tropical upper-level easterly jet (TEJ) has made a dominating contribution to the weakening of the Asian summer monsoon system. The cooling in the high troposphere at mid- and high latitudes and the possible warming at low latitude in the Asian region is likely to be responsible for the inter-decadal weakening of the TEJ. Copyright © 2007 Royal Meteorological Society [source]

    Simulation of Indian summer monsoon: sensitivity to cumulus parameterization in a GCM

    S. K. Deb
    Abstract Hindcasts for the Indian summer monsoons (ISMs) of 2002 and 2003 have been produced from a series of numerical simulations performed with a general circulation model using different cumulus parameterization schemes. Ten sets of ensemble simulations have been produced without using any vegetation scheme but by prescribing the monthly observed SST from the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts) analyses. For each ensemble, ten simulations have been realised with different initial conditions that are also prepared from the ECMWF data: five each from the April and May analyses of both the years. Stream function, velocity potential with divergent winds at 200 hPa, winds at 850 hPa and rainfall patterns with their anomalies have been analysed and interpreted. The large-scale upper and lower level circulation features are simulated satisfactorily. The spatial structure of predicted July monsoon rainfall over India shows a fair agreement with the GPCP (observed) pentad rainfall distribution. The variability associated with all-India June,July simulated rainfall time series matches reasonably well with the observations in 2003, but the model fails to simulate the observed variability in July 2002. Further evaluation of the model-produced precipitation in seasonal simulations is done with the help of empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) of the GPCP rainfall over India. Since the first four EOFs explain a significant part of the total variance of the observed rainfall, the simulated precipitation is projected on to these modes. Thus, the differences in simulated and observed rainfall fields manifest in the time series of their expansion coefficients, which are utilised for inter-comparison/evaluation of model simulations. Copyright © 2006 Royal Meteorological Society [source]

    Simulated changes in active/break spells during the Indian summer monsoon due to enhanced CO2 concentrations: assessment from selected coupled atmosphere,ocean global climate models

    Sujata K. Mandke
    Abstract The simulations by ten coupled GCMs under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Assessment Report-4 are used to study the implication of possible global climate change on active/break spells of the Indian summer monsoon (ISM). The validation of the mean daily cycle of the summer monsoon precipitation over the Indian core region and the spatial pattern of the ISM precipitation climatology with observation suggest that six models simulate fairly well, whereas four models differ from observation. Thus, the identification of active/break spells is confined to six models. The sensitivity to climate change has been assessed from two experiments, namely, 1% per year CO2 increase to doubling and 1% per year CO2 increase to quadrupling. The changes in the daily mean cycle and the standard deviation of precipitation, frequency, and duration of active/break spells in future climate change are uncertain among the models and at times among two experiments. The break composite precipitation anomalies strengthen and spread moderately (significantly) in the doubled (quadrupled) CO2 experiment. Copyright © 2006 Royal Meteorological Society [source]

    Seasonal march and its spatial difference of rainfall in the Philippines

    I. Akasaka
    Abstract On the basis of the pentad rainfall data averaged from 1961 to 2000, the seasonal march of rainfall in the Philippines is analyzed in this study. The relation to the atmospheric circulation at the 850 hPa level is also discussed. To investigate the temporal and spatial features of rainfall, the Empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis was applied to rainfall data. The result showed two dominant modes in the seasonal march of rainfall. The first mode reveals the increase of rainfall amount in the entire Philippines during summer monsoon while the second mode represents the contrast between the west and east coasts in the seasonal march of rainfall. The rainy season starts simultaneously over the entire west coast in the middle of May and withdraws gradually from northern stations around November. And on the east coast, the rainfall amount increases in autumn and winter rather than in summer. These regional differences between west and east coasts are considered to correspond to the seasonal change of Asian summer monsoon and orographic effect. The seasonal march of rainfall in the Philippines is characterized by the sudden change of atmospheric circulation around the Philippines. Particularly, the onset and peak of rainy season on the west coast are influenced by the eastward shift of the subtropical high and the evolution of the monsoon trough with southwesterly, respectively. The increase of rainfall on the east coast is related with the weakened monsoon trough around early September. Copyright © 2006 Royal Meteorological Society [source]

    ENSO and the South China Sea summer monsoon onset

    Wen Zhou
    Abstract This paper investigates the relationship between the onset date of the South China Sea summer monsoon (SCSSM) and the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The monsoon onset date (MOD) is defined on the basis of the switch of the 850-hPa zonal winds over the South China Sea (SCS) from easterly to westerly for two consecutive pentads. The ENSO signal is represented by the ocean heat content (OHC), which is proportional to the depth of the 20 °C isotherm. It is found that, in years associated with a warm (cold) ENSO event or the year after, the monsoon tends to have a late (an early) onset and the intensity of the SCSSM also tends to be weaker (stronger). During a 2-year period prior to the onset, anomalies of OHC have an obvious eastward propagation. The 850-hPa flow east of the Philippines, specifically the strength of the subtropical high, is also found to be critical in determining the MOD. The link between these two results appears to be the propagation of cold (warm) subsurface water into the western North Pacific (WNP), which strengthens (weakens) the subtropical high, and hence a late (an early) SCSSM onset. Copyright © 2006 Royal Meteorological Society. [source]

    Ten-year climatology of summer monsoon over South China and its surroundings simulated from a regional climate model

    Yiming Liu
    Abstract In a previous study by the authors, a regional climate model (hereafter the RCM) developed to study the summer monsoon over South China (SC) and the South China Sea (SCS) has been tested and found to be able to simulate to a large extent the precipitation over this region for the months of May and June. To examine the interannual variability of the summer monsoon here, it is necessary to establish a model climatology to serve as a comparison and to reduce or even remove any systematic model biases. This paper presents the analyses of such a 10-year climatology (1991,2000). The model was initialized on 1 April and integrated up to the end of June for the ten years. The initial atmospheric conditions and lateral boundary data used in this study are from the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts ,40-year' reanalyses. The RCM can reproduce well the main features of the monsoon circulation and vertical structure of the atmosphere. The RCM can simulate the intensification and northwestward displacement of the south Asian upper anticyclones from May to June, as well as the low-level moisture transport from the Bay of Bengal to SC. In the simulation, the average SCS summer monsoon onset occurs in the fourth pentad of May, which is consistent with the results from previous observational research. In addition, the RCM can reproduce the main characteristics of the onset such as the change of the low-level zonal flow from easterly to westerly as well as the rapid increase in daily precipitation. The SC and SCS precipitation anomalies have the correct sign in almost all the years. The shortcomings of the model simulation include an under-prediction of the strength of the subtropical high over the Northwest Pacific and the moisture transport from the Bay of Bengal to the Indochina Peninsula (IC) and SCS. A cold bias in surface air temperature is also observed, with the 10-year mean biases of the simulated surface air temperature over SC, SCS and IC in May and June being about ,2.1 °C, ,2.4 °C and ,1.4 °C respectively. The 10-year mean biases of the simulated daily precipitation rate over SC, SCS and IC are about 2.0, ,3.8 and 3.5 mm d,1 respectively. Copyright © 2005 Royal Meteorological Society. [source]

    Connections of Siberian snow onset dates to the following summer's monsoon conditions over Southeast Asia

    Hengchun Ye
    Abstract This is an exploratory study of possible links between the conditions of early season Eurasian snowfall and the following year's Southeast Asian summer monsoon. Forty years (1950,1995) of historical records are used to examine the statistical connections between early season snow cover onset dates over northern Eurasia and the following year's summer monsoon over Southeast Asia. We found that the time of snow onset is significantly associated with warm season rainfall over Southeast Asia. The most persistent connection is between northeastern Siberian snow onsets and summer monsoon strength over India and northeastern China. This connection seems to be more clearly shown during the mature stage and monsoon withdrawal and is reflected in all three aspects of monsoon characteristics. In other words, the earlier snow cover onset (more snow cover during the early season) over northeastern Siberia, the more precipitation and moisture convergence, the higher prevalence of a southwesterly monsoon wind, and the later monsoon withdrawal over Southeast Asia. The revealed connection is likely through atmospheric circulation associated with early season land surface snow cover processes independent of El Ñino conditions. The authors suggest that more studies are needed to fully understand the circuitous connections between Eurasian snowfall and the Southeastern Asian monsoon. Copyright © 2005 Royal Meteorological Society. [source]