Monomeric

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Chemistry

Terms modified by Monomeric

  • monomeric complex
  • monomeric enzyme
  • monomeric form
  • monomeric protein
  • monomeric red fluorescent protein
  • monomeric species
  • monomeric unit

  • Selected Abstracts


    Monomeric and polymeric anionic gemini surfactants and mixed surfactant systems in micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 2 2005
    Part II: Characterization of chemical selectivity using two linear solvation energy relationship models
    Abstract Sodium di(undecenyl) tartarate monomer (SDUT), a vesicle-forming amphiphilic compound possessing two hydrophilic carboxylate headgroups and two hydrophobic undecenyl chains, was prepared and polymerized to form a polymeric vesicle (i.e., poly-SDUT). The anionic surfactants of SDUT and poly-SDUT (carboxylate head group) and sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS (sulfate head groups) as well as mixed surfactant systems (SDS/SDUT, SDS/poly-SDUT, and SDUT/poly-SDUT) were applied as pseudostationary phases in micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC). Two linear solvation energy relationship (LSER) models, i.e., solvatochromic and solvation parameter models, were successfully applied to investigate the effect of the type and composition of pseudostationary phases on the retention mechanism and selectivity in MEKC. The solvatochromic and solvation parameter models were used to help understand the fundamental nature of the solute-pseudostationary phase interactions and to characterize the properties of the pseudostationary phases (e.g., solute size and hydrogen bond-accepting ability for all pseudostationary phases). The solute types were found to have a significant effect on the LSER system coefficients and on the predicted retention factors. Although both LSER models provide the same information, the solvation parameter model is found to provide much better results both statistically and chemically than the solvatochromic model. [source]


    Monomeric and Dimeric Copper(II) Complexes of a Pyrrole-Containing Tridentate Schiff-Base Ligand

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF INORGANIC CHEMISTRY, Issue 19 2009
    Rongqing Li
    Abstract Three copper(II) complexes of (L1),, [CuL1Cl] (1), [CuL1Br]n (2) and [Cu2(L1)2(,1,3 -NCS)2] (3), and two copper(II) complexes of HL1, [Cu(HL1)X2] (X = Cl,, 4; X = Br,, 5), have been prepared and characterised [where HL1 is the Schiff-base ligand derived from pyrrole-2-carbaldehyde and 2-aminomethylpyridine]. The removal of a chloride ion and deprotonation of [Cu(HL1)Cl2] (4) to form [CuL1Cl] (1) worked well. However, attempts to protonate [CuL1Cl] with HCl to re-form [Cu(HL1)Cl2] were not successful. X-ray structure determinations revealed that 1 is a N3Cl-coordinated square-planar copper(II) monomer [CuL1Cl], whereas 3 is a doubly end-to-end thiocyanate-bridged square-pyramidal copper(II) dimer [Cu2(L1)2(,1,3 -NCS)2]. The structure determinations on 4 and 5 showed that in both cases the copper(II) ion is in a distorted square-planar N2X2 environment, with the pyrrole NH remaining non-deprotonated and uncoordinated. Variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility investigations carried out on the end-to-end thiocyanate doubly bridged square-pyramidal copper(II) dimer 3 showed that no magnetic coupling occurs between the two copper(II) ions; it exhibits Curie-like magnetic behaviour.( Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2009) [source]


    Synthesis of Monomeric and Dimeric Acridine Compounds as Potential Therapeutics in Alzheimer and Prion Diseases

    ARCHIV DER PHARMAZIE, Issue 12 2009
    Ren Csuk
    Abstract Starting from substituted 9-chloroacridines, a series of quinacrine and spacered dimeric acridine compounds was prepared. Their ability to interrupt the protein association of prion- and Alzheimer-specific proteins and Ab peptides was explored using a fast screening system based on FACS analysis. The bis-acridines displayed a higher activity than the corresponding monomers. Among these derivatives, best results were obtained with the 2,4-dimethoxy-6-nitro compound 7h for A,-peptides and the 2-methoxy-6-nitro compound 7f for PrP. [source]


    Actin filament binding by a monomeric IQGAP1 fragment with a single calponin homology domain

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 4 2004
    Scott C. Mateer
    Abstract IQGAP1 is a homodimeric protein that reversibly associates with F-actin, calmodulin, activated Cdc42 and Rac1, CLIP-170, ,-catenin, and E-cadherin. Its F-actin binding site includes a calponin homology domain (CHD) located near the N-terminal of each subunit. Prior studies have implied that medium- to high-affinity F-actin binding (5,50 ,M Kd) requires multiple CHDs located either on an individual polypeptide or on distinct subunits of a multimeric protein. For IQGAP1, a series of six tandem IQGAP coiled-coil repeats (IRs) located past the C-terminal of the CHD of each subunit support protein dimerization and, by extension, the IRs or an undefined subset of them were thought to be essential for F-actin binding mediated by its CHDs. Here we describe efforts to determine the minimal region of IQGAP1 capable of binding F-actin. Several truncation mutants of IQGAP1, which contain progressive deletions of the IRs and CHD, were assayed for F-actin binding in vitro. Fragments that contain both the CHD and at least one IR could bind F-actin and, as expected, removal of all six IRs and the CHD abolished binding. Unexpectedly, a fragment called IQGAP12-210, which contains the CHD, but lacks IRs, could bind actin filaments. IQGAP12-210 was found to be monomeric, to bind F-actin with a Kd of ,47 ,M, to saturate F-actin at a molar ratio of one IQGAP12-210 per actin monomer, and to co-localize with cortical actin filaments when expressed by transfection in cultured cells. These collective results identify the first known example of high-affinity actin filament binding mediated by a single CHD. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 58:231,241, 2004. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Drosophila multiplexin (Dmp) modulates motor axon pathfinding accuracy

    DEVELOPMENT GROWTH & DIFFERENTIATION, Issue 5 2009
    Frauke Meyer
    Multiplexins are multidomain collagens typically composed of an N-terminal thrombospondin-related domain, an interrupted triple helix and a C-terminal endostatin domain. They feature a clear regulatory function in the development of different tissues, which is chiefly conveyed by the endostatin domain. This domain can be found in proteolytically released monomeric and trimeric versions, and their diverse and opposed effects on the migratory behavior of epithelial and endothelial cell types have been demonstrated in cell culture experiments. The only Drosophila multiplexin displays specific features of both vertebrate multiplexins, collagens XV and XVIII. We characterized the Drosophila multiplexin (dmp) gene and found that three main isoforms are expressed from it, one of which is the monomeric endostatin version. Generation of dmp deletion alleles revealed that Dmp plays a role in motor axon pathfinding, as the mutants exhibit ventral bypass defects of the intersegmental nerve b (ISNb) similar to other motor axon guidance mutants. Transgenic overexpression of monomeric endostatin as well as of full-length Dmp, but not trimeric endostatin, were able to rescue these defects. In contrast, trimeric endostatin increased axon pathfinding accuracy in wild type background. We conclude that Dmp plays a modulating role in motor axon pathfinding and may be part of a buffering system that functions to avoid innervation errors. [source]


    Differential physiologic responses of ,7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors to ,-amyloid1,40 and ,-amyloid1,42

    DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROBIOLOGY, Issue 1 2003
    Daniel H.S. Lee
    Abstract The ,-amyloid peptides (A,), A,1,40 and A,1,42, have been implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. Although A,1,42 is generally considered to be the pathological peptide in AD, both A,1,40 and A,1,42 have been used in a variety of experimental models without discrimination. Here we show that monomeric or oligomeric forms of the two A, peptides, when interact with the neuronal cation channel, ,7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (,7nAChR), would result in distinct physiologic responses as measured by acetylcholine release and calcium influx experiments. While A,1,42 effectively attenuated these ,7nAChR-dependent physiology to an extent that was apparently irreversible, A,1,40 showed a lower inhibitory activity that could be restored upon washings with physiologic buffers or treatment with ,7nAChR antagonists. Our data suggest a clear pharmacological distinction between A,1,40 and A,1,42. 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Neurobiol 55: 25,30, 2003 [source]


    Neuroprotective signal transduction in model motor neurons exposed to thrombin: G-protein modulation effects on neurite outgrowth, Ca2+ mobilization, and apoptosis ,

    DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROBIOLOGY, Issue 2 2001
    Irina V. Smirnova
    Abstract Thrombin, the ultimate protease in the blood coagulation cascade, mediates its known cellular effects by unique proteolytic activation of G-protein-coupled protease-activated receptors (PARs), such as PAR1, PAR3, and PAR4, and a "tethered ligand" mechanism. PAR1 is variably expressed in subpopulations of neurons and largely determines thrombin's effects on morphology, calcium mobilization, and caspase-mediated apoptosis. In spinal cord motoneurons, PAR1 expression correlates with transient thrombin-mediated [Ca2+]i flux, receptor cleavage, and elevation of rest [Ca2+]i activating intracellular proteases. At nanomolar concentrations, thrombin retracts neurites via PAR1 activation of the monomeric, 21 kDa Ras G-protein RhoA, which is also involved in neuroprotection at lower thrombin concentrations. Such results suggest potential downstream targets for thrombin's injurious effects. Consequently, we employed several G-protein-specific modulators prior to thrombin exposure in an attempt to uncouple both heterotrimeric and monomeric G-proteins from motoneuronal PAR1. Cholera toxin, stimulating Gs, and lovastatin, which blocks isoprenylation of Rho, reduced thrombin-induced calcium mobilization. In contrast, pertussis toxin and mastoparan, inhibiting or stimulating Go/Gi, were found to exacerbate thrombin action. Effects on neuronal rounding and apoptosis were also detected, suggesting therapeutic utility may result from interference with downstream components of thrombin signaling pathways in human motor neuron disorders, and possibly other neurodegenerative diseases. Published 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Neurobiol 48: 87,100, 2001 [source]


    Synthesis, Structures, and Magnetic Properties of N -Trialkylsilyl-8-amidoquinoline Complexes of Chromium, Manganese, Iron, and Cobalt as well as of Wheel-Like Hexanuclear Iron(II) and Manganese(II) Bis(8-amidoquinoline)

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF INORGANIC CHEMISTRY, Issue 12 2010
    Astrid Malassa
    Abstract The transamination of 8-(tert -butyldimethylsilylamino)quinoline with (thf)2Cr[N(SiMe3)2]2 yields monomeric bis[8-(tert -butyldimethylsilylamido)quinoline]chromium(II) (1). Similar reactions of M[N(SiMe3)2]2 (M = Mn, Fe, Co) with 8-(trialkylsilylamino)quinoline lead to the formation of monomeric bis[8-(trialkylsilylamido)quinoline]metal(II) [M = Mn, SiR3 = SiMe2tBu (2a), SiiPr3 (2b); M = Fe, SiR3 = SiMe2tBu (3a),SiiPr3 (3b); M = Co, SiR3 = SiMe2tBu (4a), SiiPr3 (4b)]. The transamination of 8-aminoquinoline with M[N(SiMe3)2]2 (M = Mn, Fe, Co) allows the isolation of the heteroleptic 1:1 and homoleptic 2:1 products. The 1:1 complexes bis[8-amidoquinoline metal(II)bis(trimethylsilyl)amide] [M = Mn (5), Fe (6), Co (7)] are dimeric with bridging 8-amidoquinoline moieties. The 2:1 complexes of Mn and Fe, bis(8-amidoquinoline)manganese(II) (8) and bis(8-amidoquinoline)iron(II) (9), form hexamers with wheel-like molecular structures consisting of metal-centered nitrogen octahedra interconnected by common NN edges. The cobalt complex, bis(8-amidoquinoline)cobalt(II) (10), precipitates as a microcrystalline powder. Investigations of the magnetic properties by DFT corroborate the experimental data for the Mn derivative 8, where an antiferomagnetic coupling is observed. By contrast, calculations on the Fe6 -wheel 9 yield very close-lying ferromagnetically and antiferromagnetically coupled states. [source]


    Efficient DNA Cleavage Induced by Copper(II) Complexes of Hydrolysis Derivatives of 2,4,6-Tri(2-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine in the Presence of Reducing Agents

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF INORGANIC CHEMISTRY, Issue 6 2007
    Joaqun Borrs
    Abstract The reaction of 2,4,6-tri(pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine (ptz) and copper(II) salts in dmf/water (1:1) results in the hydrolysis of ptz and formation of the anions bis(2-pyridylcarbonyl)amide (ptO2,) and bis(2-pyridylamine)amide (ptN2,), which are found in the complexes [Cu(ptN2)(OAc)]3H2O (1), [Cu(ptO2)(OAc)(H2O)]H2O (2), [Cu(ptN2)(for)]3H2O (3) (for = formate), [Cu(ptO2)(for)(H2O)] (4), [Cu(ptO2)(benz)]H2O (5) (benz = benzoate), and [Cu(ptO2)F(H2O)]23H2O (6). This report includes the chemical and spectroscopic characterization of all these complexes along with the crystal structures of 4,6. The coordination spheres of CuII in 4 and 5 are best described as distorted tetragonal square pyramidal for the former and distorted square planar for the latter. The crystal structure of 6 shows the presence of two discrete monomeric [Cu(ptO2)F(H2O)] entities in the crystallographic asymmetric unit in which both copper(II) ions have a distorted square-pyramidal coordination geometry. The binding of the complexes to DNA has been investigated with the aid of viscosity and thermal denaturation studies, both of which indicate that the interaction is probably due to the outer-sphere mechanism. The ability of the compounds to cleave DNA has also been tested. Efficient oxidative cleavage was observed in the presence of a mild reducing agent (ascorbate) and dioxygen. Mechanistic studies with reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers confirm that hydrogen peroxide, the hydroxyl radical, singlet oxygen-like species, and the superoxide anion are necessary diffusible intermediates in the scission process. A mechanism involving either the Fenton or theHaber,Weiss reaction plus the formation of copper oxene species is proposed for the DNA cleavage mediated by these compounds.( Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2007) [source]


    Variability in the Structures of Luminescent [2-(Aminomethyl)pyridine]silver(I) Complexes: Effect of Ligand Ratio, Anion, Hydrogen Bonding, and ,-Stacking

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF INORGANIC CHEMISTRY, Issue 16 2005
    Rodney P. Feazell
    Abstract The reaction of 2-(aminomethyl)pyridine (2-amp) with silver(I) salts of triflate (OTf,), trifluoroacetate (tfa,), and tetrafluoroborate (BF4,) produce monomeric, dimeric, bridged, and polymeric structural motifs. The structural characteristics are dependent upon the ratio of ligand/metal in the structure as well as the ability of the anion to coordinate to the metal centers and form hydrogen bonds to the bound ligands. The silver coordination environment takes on several geometries including near linear (6), trigonal (4), tetrahedral (1), and both trigonal-bipyramidal and square-based pyramidal in a single structure (2). Structures 2, 3, and 5 also display short Ag,Ag contacts ranging from 2.8958(3) to 3.0305(4) . The species with metal,metal interactions, which are connectively very similar to their metal-isolated counterparts of 1, 4, and 6, are held together only by weak ,-stacking interactions or hydrogen bonds to their respective anions. Low-temperature luminescence spectra were collected for all compounds and are compared. ( Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2005) [source]


    Synthesis, Solution-State and Solid-State Structural Characterization of Monocationic Nitrido Heterocomplexes [M(N)(DTC)(PNP)]+ (M = 99Tc, Re; DTC = Dithiocarbamate; PNP = Heterodiphosphane)

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF INORGANIC CHEMISTRY, Issue 9 2004
    Cristina Bolzati
    Abstract Mono-cationic nitrido heterocomplexes of general formula [M(N)(DTC)(PNP)]+ (where M is 99Tc or Re, DTC is the mono-anionic form of a dithiocarbamate ligand, and PNP is a diphosphane ligand with a tertiary amine-containing five-membered spacer) were prepared by ligand-exchange reactions with the labile precursors [M(N)Cl2(PPh3)2] in dichloromethane/alcohol mixtures. The molecular structure of the representative rhenium complex [Re(N)(dedc)(pnp2)][PF6] (1) displays a distorted, square-pyramidal geometry with the dithiocarbamate sulfur and the diphosphane phosphorus atoms spanning the four coordination positions on the equatorial plane. If the additional interactions between the nitrido nitrogen and the weakly bonded transN -diphosphane heteroatom, the molecular geometry can be viewed as pseudo-octahedral. The structure in solution, as established by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy and ESI spectrometry, is monomeric, and identical to that shown in the solid state. Replacement of the phenyl groups on the phosphorous atoms in complexes 1, 2, 5, and 6 with alkyl groups modified neither the course of the reaction nor the composition of the resulting complexes. These results, together with the observation that no symmetrical complexes containing two identical bidentate ligands were produced in these reactions, strongly supports the conclusion that a mixed coordination sphere, composed by a combination of ,-donor and ,-acceptor atoms around the [M,N]2+ group, constitutes a highly stable system. Compounds containing dangling alkyl-substituted groups in the outer sphere (3, 4, 7, and 8) were fully characterized by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy and ESI mass spectrometry. ( Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2004) [source]


    Synthesis and Reaction of MnII Iodides Bearing the ,-Diketiminate Ligand: the First Divalent Manganese N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes [{HC(CMeNAr)2}MnI{C[N(iPr)CMe]2}] and [{HC(CMeNAr)2}MnNHAr{C[N(iPr)CMe]2}] (Ar = 2,6- iPr2C6H3)

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF INORGANIC CHEMISTRY, Issue 24 2003
    Jianfang Chai
    Abstract The manganese mono-iodide [HC(CMeNAr)2]MnI(THF) (Ar = 2,6- iPr2C6H3) (3) was prepared in good yield from the reaction of [HC(CMeNAr)2]K with MnI2 in THF. Treatment of 3 under reflux in toluene and removing all the volatiles in vacuo afforded the dimeric compound [{HC(CMeNAr)2}Mn]2(,-I)2 (4). Displacement of the coordinated THF in 3 by a strong Lewis base C[N(iPr)CMe]2 or by adding C[N(iPr)CMe]2 to the toluene solution of 4 readily gave the N-heterocyclic carbene adduct [{HC(CMeNAr)2}]MnI{C[N(iPr)CMe]2} (5). Reduction of 5 with sodium/potassium alloy at room temperature unexpectedly resulted in the formation of the monomeric compound [{HC(CMeNAr)2}]MnNHAr{C[N(iPr)CMe]2} (6). Alternatively 6 was obtained by the salt elimination reaction of 5 with LiNHAr. Compounds 5 and 6 are the first examples of divalent manganese N-heterocyclic carbene adducts and the first manganese non-carbonyl carbene complexes. The single crystal X-ray structural analyses reveal that compounds 3 and 6 are monomeric and compound 4 is dimeric in the solid state. The manganese centers in these compounds exhibit a distorted tetrahedral geometry. ( Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2003) [source]


    Photophysical and Energy-Transfer Properties of (Salen)zinc Complexes and Supramolecular Assemblies

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF INORGANIC CHEMISTRY, Issue 12 2003
    Kathryn E. Splan
    Abstract The absorption, emission, and energy-transfer properties of monomeric and supramolecular (salen)Zn complexes (square and rectangular assemblies) are reported. The monomeric complexes fluoresce in solution, displaying photophysical behavior similar to typical (porphyrin)zinc complexes. Rhenium coordination chemistry is used to assemble molecular rectangles and squares that largely retain the photophysical properties of the parent compounds. Host-guest assemblies obtained by binding a fifth (salen)Zn complex to a tetrakis(salen) square are capable of efficient salen-to-salen electronic energy transfer. Energy transfer flow through these systems can be manipulated by modification of the salen building-block structure. ( Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2003) [source]


    Synthesis and Structure of the First Non-Metallocene TiIII Fluoride Complex LTiF22Me3SnCl Supported by a ,-Diketiminato Ligand

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF INORGANIC CHEMISTRY, Issue 3 2003
    Grigori B. Nikiforov
    Abstract The TiIII dichloride complex LTiCl2 (1) and the first non-metallocene TiIII fluoride complex LTiF22Me3SnCl (2) supported by the ,-diketiminato ligand 2-{[2-(diethylamino)ethyl]amino}-4-{[2-(diethylamino)ethyl]imino}pent-2-ene have been synthesized. Elemental analysis, mass spectrometry and X-ray structural analysis show that 1 is monomeric, neutral, and free of solvent and lithium salt. The complex adopts a pseudo-octahedral geometry with the two chlorine atoms arranged in trans position to each other. Compound 1 is soluble in common organic solvents and thermally surprisingly robust. Complex 2 was prepared using Me3SnF as a fluorinating agent. X-ray structural analysis revealed that complex 2 consists of the LTiF2 unit and two molecules of Me3SnCl coordinated through a fluorine bridge to the titanium center. The fluorine atoms in 2 are located in trans positions to each other and the geometry around the titanium atom is distorted octahedral. Elemental analysis and mass spectrometry proved that 2 releases the coordinated Me3SnCl under vacuum or during sublimation. ( Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2003) [source]


    Characterization of a novel NCAM ligand with a stimulatory effect on neurite outgrowth identified by screening a combinatorial peptide library

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE, Issue 9 2002
    Lars C. B. Rnn
    Abstract The neural cell adhesion molecule, NCAM, plays a key role in neural development and plasticity mediating cell adhesion and signal transduction. By screening a combinatorial library of synthetic peptides with NCAM purified from postnatal day 10 rat brains, we identified a nonapeptide, termed NCAM binding peptide 10 (NBP10) and showed by nuclear magnetic resonance analysis that it bound the NCAM IgI module of NCAM. NBP10 modulated cell aggregation as well as neurite outgrowth induced specifically by homophilic NCAM binding. Moreover, both monomeric and multimeric forms of NBP10 stimulated neurite outgrowth from primary hippocampal neurons. The neurite outgrowth response to NBP10 was inhibited by a number of compounds previously shown to inhibit neurite outgrowth induced by homophilic NCAM binding, including voltage-dependent calcium channel antagonists, suggesting that NBP10 induced neurite outgrowth by activating a signal transduction pathway similar to that activated by NCAM itself. Moreover, an inhibitor of intracellular calcium mobilization, TMB-8, prevented NBP10-induced neurite outgrowth suggesting that NCAM-dependent neurite outgrowth also requires mobilization of calcium from intracellular calcium stores in addition to calcium influx from extracellular sources. By single-cell calcium imaging we further demonstrated that NBP10 was capable of inducing an increase in intracellular calcium in PC12E2 cells. Thus, the NBP10 peptide is a new tool for the study of molecular mechanisms underlying NCAM-dependent signal transduction and neurite outgrowth, and could prove to be a useful modulator of regenerative processes in the peripheral and central nervous system. [source]


    Macrocyclic Cyclo[n]malonates , Synthetic Aspects and Observation of Columnar Arrangements by X-ray Crystallography

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY, Issue 10 2006
    Nikos Chronakis
    Abstract A variety of achiral and chiral macrocyclic oligomalonates were synthesised in a one-step procedure through condensation of malonyl dichloride with ,,,-diols. We have investigated the applicability of this method by varying the length and type of the spacers in the diol. Product distribution analysis revealed that the preferential formation of monomeric, dimeric, or trimeric macrocyclic malonates can be controlled by choosing diols with specific spacers connecting the hydroxy groups. Of special interest are the macrocyclic bismalonates, as they show pronounced crystallisability and arrange into columnar motifs in the solid state. They feature distinctive dihedral angles: all ester moieties adopt anti conformations whereas the planes of the carboxy moieties of each malonate residue arrange in an approximately orthogonal fashion. The latter geometry is enforced by the macrocyclic structures, as revealed by a conformational search in the Cambridge Structural Database. The X-ray diffraction data show that C=OH,C, and C,OH,C hydrogen bonds stabilise the columnar arrangement of the dimeric rings with formation of tubular assemblies. ( Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2006) [source]


    Palladium-Catalyzed Suzuki,Miyaura Cross-Coupling Using Phosphinous Acids and Dialkyl(chloro)phosphane Ligands

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY, Issue 8 2006
    Christian Wolf
    Abstract The use of eleven palladium complexes having monomeric and ,-chloro-bridged dimeric structures and either bulky dialkyl- and diarylphosphinous acid ligands (POPd, POPd-Br, POPd1, POPd2, POPd6, POPd7, Ph1-Phoxide) or dialkyl(chloro)phosphane ligands (PXPd, PXPd2, PXPd6, PXPd7) for Suzuki,Miyaura coupling reactions has been evaluated. Screening and optimization of catalyst loading, solvent, temperature, and base showed that excellent results can be obtained with electron-deficient and electron-rich aryl iodides, bromides, and chlorides in the presence of 2.5 mol-% of palladium,phosphinous acid POPd, (tBu2POH)2PdCl2, in 1,4-dioxane using cesium carbonate as base. ( Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2006) [source]


    Increases in pH and soluble salts influence the effect that additions of organic residues have on concentrations of exchangeable and soil solution aluminium

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOIL SCIENCE, Issue 3 2002
    M. S. Mokolobate
    Summary It has been suggested that additions of organic residues to acid soils can ameliorate Al toxicity. For this reason the effects of additions of four organic residues to an acid soil on pH and exchangeable and soil solution Al were investigated. The residues were grass, household compost, filter cake (a waste product from sugar mills) and poultry manure, and they were added at rates equivalent to 10 and 20 t ha,1. Additions of residues increased soil pH measured in KCl (pH(KCl)) and decreased exchangeable Al3+ in the order poultry manure > filter cake > household compost > grass. The mechanism responsible for the increase in pH differed for the different residues. Poultry manure treatment resulted in lower soil pH measured in water (pH(water)) and larger concentrations of total (AlT) and monomeric (Almono) Al in soil solution than did filter cake. This was attributed to a soluble salt effect, originating from the large cation content of poultry manure, displacing exchangeable Al3+ and H+ back into soil solution. The considerably larger concentrations of soluble C in soil solution originating from the poultry manure may also have maintained greater concentrations of Al in soluble complexed form. There was a significant negative correlation (r = ,0.94) between pH(KCl) and exchangeable Al. Concentrations of AlT and Almono in soil solution were not closely related with pH or exchangeable Al. The results suggest that although additions of organic residues can increase soil pH and decrease Al solubility, increases in soluble salt and soluble C concentrations in soil solution can substantially modify these effects. [source]


    Crystal structure of the soluble form of the redox-regulated chloride ion channel protein CLIC4

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 19 2005
    Dene R. Littler
    The structure of CLIC4, a member of the CLIC family of putative intracellular chloride ion channel proteins, has been determined at 1.8 resolution by X-ray crystallography. The protein is monomeric and it is structurally similar to CLIC1, belonging to the GST fold class. Differences between the structures of CLIC1 and CLIC4 are localized to helix 2 in the glutaredoxin-like N-terminal domain, which has previously been shown to undergo a dramatic structural change in CLIC1 upon oxidation. The structural differences in this region correlate with the sequence differences, where the CLIC1 sequence appears to be atypical of the family. Purified, recombinant, wild-type CLIC4 is shown to bind to artificial lipid bilayers, induce a chloride efflux current when associated with artificial liposomes and produce an ion channel in artificial bilayers with a conductance of 30 pS. Membrane binding is enhanced by oxidation of CLIC4 while no channels were observed via tip-dip electrophysiology in the presence of a reducing agent. Thus, recombinant CLIC4 appears to be able to form a redox-regulated ion channel in the absence of any partner proteins. [source]


    Molecular modeling of the dimeric structure of human lipoprotein lipase and functional studies of the carboxyl-terminal domain

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 18 2002
    Yoko Kobayashi
    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) plays a key role in lipid metabolism. Molecular modeling of dimeric LPL was carried out using insight ii based upon the crystal structures of human, porcine, and horse pancreatic lipase. The dimeric model reveals a saddle-shaped structure and the key heparin-binding residues in the amino-terminal domain located on the top of this saddle. The models of two dimeric conformations , a closed, inactive form and an open, active form , differ with respect to how surface-loop positions affect substrate access to the catalytic site. In the closed form, the surface loop covers the catalytic site, which becomes inaccessible to solvent. Large conformational changes in the open form, especially in the loop and carboxyl-terminal domain, allow substrate access to the active site. To dissect the structure,function relationships of the LPL carboxyl-terminal domain, several residues predicted by the model structure to be essential for the functions of heparin binding and substrate recognition were mutagenized. Arg405 plays an important role in heparin binding in the active dimer. Lys413/Lys414 or Lys414 regulates heparin affinity in both monomeric and dimeric forms. To evaluate the prediction that LPL forms a homodimer in a ,head-to-tail' orientation, two inactive LPL mutants , a catalytic site mutant (S132T) and a substrate-recognition mutant (W390A/W393A/W394A) , were cotransfected into COS7 cells. Lipase activity could be recovered only when heterodimerization occurred in a head-to-tail orientation. After cotransfection, 50% of the wild-type lipase activity was recovered, indicating that lipase activity is determined by the interaction between the catalytic site on one subunit and the substrate-recognition site on the other. [source]


    Myristyl and palmityl acylation of pI 5.1 carboxylesterase from porcine intestine and liver

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 4 2002
    Tissue, subcellular distribution
    Immunoblotting analyses revealed the presence of carboxylesterase in the porcine small intestine, liver, submaxillary and parotid glands, kidney cortex, lungs and cerebral cortex. In the intestinal mucosa, the pI 5.1 enzyme was detected in several subcellular fractions including the microvillar fraction. Both fatty monoacylated and diacylated monomeric (F1), trimeric (F3) and tetrameric (F4) forms of the intestinal protein were purified here for the first time by performing hydrophobic chromatography and gel filtration. The molecular mass of these three enzymatic forms was,estimated to be 60, 180 and 240 kDa, respectively, based on size-exclusion chromatography and SDS/PAGE analysis. The existence of a covalent attachment linking palmitate and myristate to porcine intestinal carboxylesterase (PICE), which was suggested by the results of gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) experiments in which the fatty acids resulting from alkali treatment of the protein forms were isolated, was confirmed here by the fact that [3H]palmitic and [3H]myristic acids were incorporated into porcine enterocytes and hepatocytes in cell primary cultures. Besides these two main fatty acids, the presence of oleic, stearic, and arachidonic acids was also detected by GLC and further confirmed by performing radioactivity counts on the 3H-labelled PICE forms after an immunoprecipitation procedure using specific polyclonal antibodies, followed by a SDS/PAGE separation step. Unlike the F1 and F4 forms, which were both myristoylated and palmitoylated, the F3 form was only palmitoylated. The monomeric, trimeric and tetrameric forms of PICE were all able to hydrolyse short chain fatty acids containing glycerides, as well as phorbol esters. The broad specificity of fatty acylated carboxylesterase is discussed in terms of its possible involvement in the metabolism of ester-containing xenobiotics and signal transduction. [source]


    Engineering of a monomeric and low-glycosylated form of human butyrylcholinesterase

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 2 2002
    Expression, characterization, crystallization, purification
    Human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE; EC 3.1.1.8) is of particular interest because it hydrolyzes or scavenges a wide range of toxic compounds including cocaine, organophosphorus pesticides and nerve agents. The relative contribution of each N-linked glycan for the solubility, the stability and the secretion of the enzyme was investigated. A recombinant monomeric BChE lacking four out of nine N-glycosylation sites and the C-terminal oligomerization domain was stably expressed as a monomer in CHO cells. The purified recombinant BChE showed catalytic properties similar to those of the native enzyme. Tetragonal crystals suitable for X-ray crystallography studies were obtained; they were improved by recrystallization and found to diffract to 2.0 resolution using synchrotron radiation. The crystals belong to the tetragonal space group I422 with unit cell dimensions a = b = 154.7 , c = 124.9 , giving a Vm of 2.73 3 per Da (estimated 60% solvent) for a single molecule of recombinant BChE in the asymmetric unit. The crystal structure of butyrylcholinesterase will help elucidate unsolved issues concerning cholinesterase mechanisms in general. [source]


    Large-scale expression and thermodynamic characterization of a glutamate receptor agonist-binding domain

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 13 2000
    Dean R. Madden
    The ionotropic glutamate receptors (GluR) are the primary mediators of excitatory synaptic transmission in the brain. GluR agonist binding has been localized to an extracellular domain whose core is homologous to the bacterial periplasmic binding proteins (PBP). We have established routine, baculovirus-mediated expression of a complete ligand-binding domain construct at the 10-L scale, yielding 10,40 milligrams of purified protein. This construct contains peptides that lie outside the PBP-homologous core and that connect the domain core to the transmembrane domains of the channel and to the N-terminal ,X'-domain. These linker peptides have been implicated in modulating channel physiology. Such extended constructs have proven difficult to express in bacteria, but the protein described here is stable and monomeric. Isothermal titration calorimetry reveals that glutamate binding to the domain involves a substantial heat capacity change and that at physiological temperatures, the reaction is both entropically and enthalpically favorable. [source]


    Structural analysis of photosystem II in far-red-light-adapted thylakoid membranes

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 1 2000
    New crystal forms provide evidence for a dynamic reorganization of light-harvesting antennae subunits
    We studied two-dimensional crystals of the major pigment,protein complex, photosystem II, in far-red-light-adapted thylakoid membranes of the viridis-zb63 mutant of barley. Significantly larger grana membranes were produced with an increased synthesis of the entire photosystem II complex. These red-light-adapted membranes also contained two-dimensional crystals with a high frequency. Three different crystal forms of photosystem II were observed, providing the following data which further our understanding of the architecture of the native complex. (a) The oligomeric form of photosystem II in the membrane was monomeric in all crystal forms, but with a clear non-crystallographic pseudo-twofold symmetry. This was more apparent on the lumenal face of the complex. (b) The variability of unit cell contacts in different crystal forms implied that the peripheral light-harvesting antenna complex and the core of the complex were loosely connected. These peripheral subunits were predicted to rearrange so that they can either encircle the core complex or associate in parallel channels separated by lines of core complexes. (c) Grana membranes were found to retain a double-layered inside-out character, with a stromal face-to-stromal face packing. However, the presence of a crystal in one membrane did not necessarily impose crystallinity on its pair. [source]


    The Stereostructure of Porphyra-334: An Experimental and Calculational NMR Investigation.

    HELVETICA CHIMICA ACTA, Issue 3 2007
    Evidence for an Efficient, Proton Sponge'
    Abstract The mycosporine-like amino acid (MAA) porphyra-334 (1) is subjected to extensive 1H- and 13C-NMR analysis as well as to density-functional-theory (DFT) calculations. All 1H- and 13C-NMR signals of 1 are assigned, as well as the resonances of prochiral proton pairs. This is achieved by 500-MHz standard COSY, HMQC, and HMBC experiments, as well as by one-dimensional (DPFGSE-NOE) and two-dimensional (NOESY) NOE experiments. Diffusion measurements (DOSY) confirm that 1 is monomeric in D2O solution. DFT Calculations yield 13C-NMR chemical shifts which are in good agreement for species 6 which is the imino N-protonated form of 1. An exceptionally high proton affinity of 265.7,kcal/mol is calculated for 1, indicating that 1 may behave as a very powerful ,proton sponge' of comparable strength as synthetic systems studied so far. Predictions of 13C-NMR chemical shifts by the ,NMRPredict' software are in agreement with the DFT data. The absolute configuration at the ring stereogenic center of 1 is concluded to be (S) from NOE data as well as from similarities with the absolute configuration (S) found in mycosporine-glycine 16. This supports the assumption that 1 is biochemically derived from 3,3- O -didehydroquinic acid (17). The data obtained question the results recently published by a different research group claiming that the configuration at the imino moiety of 1 is (Z), rather than (E) as established by the here presented study. [source]


    Synthesis, Spectroscopic Studies, and Crystal Structures of Phenylorganotin Derivatives with [Bis(2,6-dimethylphenyl)amino]benzoic Acid: Novel Antituberculosis Agents

    HELVETICA CHIMICA ACTA, Issue 8 2004
    Vaso Dokorou
    The novel triphenyl adduct of 2-[(2,6-dimethylphenyl)amino]benzoic acid (HDMPA; 1), i.e., [SnPh3(DMPA)] (2), the dimeric tetraorganostannoxane [Ph2(DMPA)SnOSn(DMPA)Ph2]2 (3), and the monomeric adduct [SnPh2(DMPA)2] (4), where DMPA is monodeprotonated HDMPA, have been prepared and structurally characterized by means of IR, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. The structures of 1 and 2 have been determined by X-ray crystallography. Single-crystal X-ray-diffraction analysis of 1 revealed that there are two molecules in the asymmetric unit, HD1 and HD2, differing in conformation, both forming centrosymmetric dimers linked by H-bonds between the carboxylic O-atoms. X-Ray analysis of 2 revealed a pentacoordinate structure containing Ph3Sn coordinated to the carboxylato group. Significant CH/, interactions and intramolecular H-bonds stabilize the structures of 1 and 2, which self-assembled via CH/, and ,/, -stacking interactions. The Ph3Sn adduct 2 was found to be a promising antimycobacterial lead compound, displaying activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. The cytotoxiciy in the Vero cell line is also reported. [source]


    Crystal Structure of an EMAP-II-Like Cytokine Released from a Human tRNA Synthetase

    HELVETICA CHIMICA ACTA, Issue 4 2003
    Xiang-Lei Yang
    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases catalyze the first step of protein synthesis by aminoacylation of tRNAs. Remarkably, biological fragments of two human enzymes , tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (TyrRS) and tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase , are active cytokines produced by proteolysis or alternative splicing. One is a C-terminal fragment of TyrRS (C-TyrRS) that has potent activity for chemotaxis of leukocytes and monocytes and for stimulating production of other cytokines. Significantly, the cytokine activity of C-TyrRS is absent in the context of the full-length native protein. Unknown is the mechanism by which domain-release from the dimeric native protein activates the cytokine. Here, the crystal structure of C-TyrRS is presented at 2.2, resolution. This structure is similar to that of endothelial monocyte-activating protein II (EMAP-II), with critical residues of a heptapeptide element important for chemotaxis activity exposed on the first strand of a , -barrel of the monomeric unit. In contrast, the same residues of C-TyrRS are buried in an operational model for native TyrRS. Importantly, C-TyrRS is shown here to be monomeric when released from dimeric native TyrRS. Further analysis suggests that the critical residues are exposed when tRNA is bound. Thus, tRNA binding to native TyrRS may be an additional or alternative way to activate cytokine signaling. [source]


    Solution and Thin-Film Aggregation Studies of Octasubstituted Dendritic Phthalocyanines

    ISRAEL JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY, Issue 1 2009
    Casey A. Kernag
    The synthesis and solution and thin-film characterization of eight octasubstituted dendritic phthalocyanines (Pcs) and their zinc complexes are reported. The Pc chromophore was substituted in the 2,3,9,10,16,17,23,24-positions with three generations of benzylaryl ether dendrons with either a benzyl (3a-3c) or 3,5-di- t -butylbenzyl periphery (3d-3f). Visible spectra in solution (CH2Cl2 -EtOH mixtures, toluene, THF, dioxane, acetone, and EtOAc) indicated a varying degree of chromophore aggregation that depended on solvent, dendrimer generation, and whether the Pc was metallated. Variable-concentration visible spectroscopic studies were analyzed using a nonlinear least-squares fitting procedure giving Kd values. These values further quantitated the observations that the t -butyl-substituted den-drimers 3d-3f were all less prone to aggregation in solution than the unsubstituted dendrimers 3a-3c, with a monotonic decrease in Kd across the series 3a , 3b , 3c , 3d , 3e , 3f. Second-generation t -butyl-substituted dendrimer 3f showed little to no aggregation in all solvents studied. Thin-film studies indicated that the largest members of the two dendrimer groups, third-generation 3c and second-generation 3f, were largely monomeric as evidenced by split Q-bands, similar to that seen in dilute CH2Cl2 solution when deposited via spin-coating onto glass slides. The metallated zinc Pcs 4a-4f all exhibited significantly less tendency toward aggregation in both solution and thin-films than their unmetallated analogues. [source]


    Multiple strategies for O2 transport: from simplicity to complexity

    IUBMB LIFE, Issue 8-9 2007
    Paolo Ascenzi
    Abstract O2carriers (extracellular and intracellular as well as monomeric and multimeric) have evolved over the last billion of years, displaying iron and copper reactive centers; very different O2carriers may co-exist in the same organism. Circulating O2carriers, faced to the external environment, are responsible for maintaining an adequate delivery of O2to tissues and organs almost independently of the environmental O2partial pressure. Then, intracellular globins facilitate O2transfer to mitochondria sustaining cellular respiration. Here, molecular aspects of multiple strategies evolved for O2transport and delivery are examined, from the simplest myoglobin to the most complex giant O2carriers and the red blood cell, mostly focusing on the aspects which have been mainly addressed by the so called 'Rome Group'. [source]


    Determination of the molecular weight of proteins in solution from a single small-angle X-ray scattering measurement on a relative scale

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, Issue 1 2010
    H. Fischer
    This paper describes a new and simple method to determine the molecular weight of proteins in dilute solution, with an error smaller than ,10%, by using the experimental data of a single small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) curve measured on a relative scale. This procedure does not require the measurement of SAXS intensity on an absolute scale and does not involve a comparison with another SAXS curve determined from a known standard protein. The proposed procedure can be applied to monodisperse systems of proteins in dilute solution, either in monomeric or multimeric state, and it has been successfully tested on SAXS data experimentally determined for proteins with known molecular weights. It is shown here that the molecular weights determined by this procedure deviate from the known values by less than 10% in each case and the average error for the test set of 21 proteins was 5.3%. Importantly, this method allows for an unambiguous determination of the multimeric state of proteins with known molecular weights. [source]