Monomer Droplets (monomer + droplet)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Kinetics of Miniemulsion Polymerization of Styrene in the Presence of Organoclays

MACROMOLECULAR MATERIALS & ENGINEERING, Issue 6 2008
Zhaohui Tong
Abstract The impacts of nanoclays on the miniemulsion polymerization kinetics of styrene were studied. It was found that both RP and the fractional conversion decreased upon increasing the organoclay content in the miniemulsion system. In the presence of nanoclay the molecular weight of polystyrene nanoclay composite is lower and the particle size polydispersity of the final composite latex is greater than that of pure styrene miniemulsion polymerization. The effect of the nanoclays is mainly caused by the destabilization of the miniemulsion by the organoclay particles. The increase in the monomer viscosity and the decrease in the diffusion rate of the monomer and the living polymer inside the monomer droplet also accounts for the reduction in the polymerization rate. [source]


Ab initio Emulsion Polymerization by RAFT (Reversible Addition,Fragmentation Chain Transfer) through the Addition of Cyclodextrins

HELVETICA CHIMICA ACTA, Issue 8 2006
Bojana Apostolovic
Abstract A novel process to produce homo- and copolymers by RAFT polymerization in emulsion is presented. It is known that RAFT-controlled radical polymerization can be conducted in emulsion polymerization without disturbing the radical segregation characteristic of this process, thus leading to polymerization rates identical to those encountered in the corresponding nonliving systems. However, RAFT agents are often characterized by very low water solubility and, therefore, they diffuse very slowly from the monomer droplets, where they are initially solubilized, to the reaction loci, i.e., the polymer particles. Accordingly, when used in emulsion polymerization, they are practically excluded from the reaction. In this work, we show that cyclodextrins, well-known for their ability to form water-soluble complexes with hydrophobic molecules, facilitate the transport across the H2O phase of the RAFT agent to the polymer particles. Accordingly, chains grow through the entire process in a controlled way. This leads to the production of low-polydispersity polymers with well-defined structure and end functionalities as well as to the possibility of synthesizing block copolymers by a radical mechanism. [source]


Emulsion polymerization of styrene with amphiphilic random copolymer as surfactant: Predominant droplet nucleation

JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 6 2009
Li Liu
Abstract Amphiphilic random copolymer consisting of monomeric units of poly (butyl acrylate) and poly (maleic acid salt) was synthesized and characterized. The emulsion polymerization kinetics of styrene stabilized by this copolymer was investigated. The influencing factors, including polymeric surfactant concentration, initiator concentration and polymerization temperature, were systematically studied. The kinetic data show that the polymerization rate (RP) increased with the increase of the polymeric surfactant concentration ([S]) and polymerization temperature (T). At the higher [S], droplets nucleation and micelle nucleation coexisted in the polymerization system; at the lower [S], only the droplets nucleation process existed. The polymerization did not follow Smith-Ewart Case II kinetics. Dynamic light scatter and transmission electron microscope were utilized to measure the sizes and shapes of the particles, respectively. It would be speculated that a kind of large heterogeneous particles with multiple-active-sites was formed in the polymerization system. The increasing of RP with increasing initiator concentration ([KPS]) was rapid at a medium [KPS], but the slowly increasing was observed at a lower or higher [KPS]. It was attributed to the barrier effect of the polymeric surfactant around the monomer droplets. The polymerization activation energy was 60.29 kJ/mol. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2009 [source]


Synthesis of raspberry-like silica/polystyrene/silica multilayer hybrid particles via miniemulsion polymerization

JOURNAL OF POLYMER SCIENCE (IN TWO SECTIONS), Issue 6 2007
Xiaoguang Qiao
Abstract Organic,inorganic hybrid particles have many potential applications, but almost all research has been focused on hybrid particles with one kind of inorganic nanoparticle. This article presents a novel and facile preparation approach for raspberry-like silica/polystyrene/silica multilayer hybrid particles via miniemulsion polymerization. In this method, larger, surface-modified silica particles are first dispersed into monomer droplets to form a miniemulsion, and then raspberry-like silica/polystyrene/silica multilayer hybrid particles are directly obtained when miniemulsion polymerization is performed in the presence of smaller, unmodified silica particles with 4-vinylpyridine as an auxiliary monomer. Influential parameters such as the amount of 4-vinylpyridine, the surfactant concentration, and the pH value of the system have been investigated. 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 45: 1028,1037, 2007 [source]


Cagelike polymer microspheres with hollow core/porous shell structures

JOURNAL OF POLYMER SCIENCE (IN TWO SECTIONS), Issue 5 2007
Xiaodong He
Abstract Submicron-scaled cagelike polymer microspheres with hollow core/porous shell were synthesized by self-assembling of sulfonated polystyrene (PS) latex particles at monomer droplets interface. The swelling of the PS latex particles by the oil phase provided a driving force to develop the hollow core. The latex particles also served as porogen that would disengage automatically during polymerization. Influential factors that control the morphology of the microspheres, including the reserving time of emulsions, polymerization rate, and the Hildebrand solubility parameter and polarity of the oil phase, were studied. A variety of monomers were polymerized into microspheres with hollow core/porous shell structure and microspheres with different diameters and pore sizes were obtained. The polymer microspheres were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, optical microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 45: 933,941, 2007 [source]


Transition from microemulsion to emulsion polymerization: Mechanism and final properties

JOURNAL OF POLYMER SCIENCE (IN TWO SECTIONS), Issue 20 2004
Kevin D. Hermanson
Abstract Microemulsion and emulsion polymerization can have some similarities in starting conditions and polymerization mechanisms, but the resulting latices are unalike in particle size and molecular weight. Here we show that polymerizations can be formulated that display the characteristics often separately associated with microemulsion or emulsion polymerization. Kinetic modeling and particle size measurements show that emulsion polymerizations with initial concentrations close to the microemulsion,emulsion phase boundary demonstrate relatively fast consumption of monomer droplets and produce smaller particles. Because of their high surfactant concentrations, none of the emulsion polymerizations examined demonstrate the classical Smith,Ewart kinetics usually associated with emulsion polymerization. Instead these emulsion polymerizations have a long period of particle nucleation that subsides only after the disappearance of monomer droplets. 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 42: 5253,5261, 2004 [source]


Role of grafting in the emulsion polymerization of vinyl acetate with poly(vinyl alcohol) as an emulsifier.

JOURNAL OF POLYMER SCIENCE (IN TWO SECTIONS), Issue 20 2001

Abstract The role of grafting in particle nucleation during the emulsion polymerization of vinyl acetate with partially hydrolyzed poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) as an emulsifier and potassium persulfate as an initiator was investigated. The polymerizations were carried out in batch with a low solids (10%) recipe. An automated reaction calorimeter (Mettler RC1) was used for the direct monitoring of the kinetics of emulsion polymerizations with three medium molecular weight PVAs differing in their degrees of blockiness (Poval 217EE > 217E > 217). Smith,Ewart case 1 kinetics (average number of free radicals per particle < 0.5) were followed in all cases, and no constant rate in interval II was observed. Contrary to what was expected, a nonlinear relationship was observed between the rate of polymerization (Rp) and the number of particles (Np). At Rp max,Np (217E) > Np (217EE) > Np (217), and the final Np was independent of the degree of blockiness of PVA. The particle size distributions were broad (particle diameter = 20,100 nm) and bimodal. On the basis of these data, we concluded that particle nucleation was continuous and was accompanied by extensive limited aggregation during the particle growth stages. The evolution of the amounts of grafted PVA and poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) were determined in polymerizations employing the two PVAs differing the most in blockiness (Poval 217EE and 217). The grafted PVAc followed similar profiles, increasing with conversion, particularly near the end of the two reactions. The amounts of grafted PVAc were about the same in the final latexes (37,39%). In contrast, the grafting of PVA was nearly complete by the time monomer droplets had disappeared in each reaction (25% conversion). However, the extent of grafting differed significantly, with the blockier PVA having about one-third the grafting of the more random PVA (,10% vs ,30%). In these low solids recipes, grafting appeared to be primarily a solution event, occurring predominantly in the aqueous phase and not at the particle/water interface, as was previously speculated. The PVAc grafts grew until the molecules became water-insoluble and precipitated, forming polymer particles. 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 39: 3633,3654, 2001 [source]