Monomer Concentration (monomer + concentration)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Monomer Concentration

  • low monomer concentration


  • Selected Abstracts


    One- and Two-Dimensionally Structured Polymer Networks in Liquid Crystals for Switchable Diffractive Optical Applications,

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 12 2004
    P. Kossyrev
    Abstract We have created one- and two-dimensionally structured polymer networks dispersed in a liquid-crystal solvent using a holographic exposure technique. These structures have potential for electrically switchable, reverse-mode, polarization selective and non-selective diffractive optical elements. Using a simple phenomenological model to describe our diffraction measurements in conjunction with microscopic studies, we are able to estimate the structured polymer wall thickness as a function of monomer concentration. [source]


    Targeted delivery of salicylic acid from acne treatment products into and through skin: role of solution and ingredient properties and relationships to irritation

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COSMETIC SCIENCE, Issue 4 2004
    L. Rhein
    Salicylic acid (SA) is a beta-hydroxy acid and has multifunctional uses in the treatment of various diseases in skin such as acne, psoriasis, and photoaging. One problem often cited as associated with salicylic acid is that it can be quite irritating at pH 3,4, where it exhibits the highest activity in the treatment of skin diseases. We have identified strategies to control the irritation potential of salicylic acid formulations and have focused on hydroalcoholic solutions used in acne wipes. One strategy is to control the penetration of SA into the skin. Penetration of the drug into various layers of skin, i.e. epidermis, dermis, and receptor fluid, was measured using a modified Franz in vitro diffusion method after various exposure times up to 24 h. A polyurethane polymer (polyolprepolymer-15) was found to be an effective agent in controlling delivery of SA. In a dose-dependent fashion it targeted delivery of more SA to the epidermis as compared to penetration through the skin into the receptor fluid. It also reduced the rapid rate of permeation of a large dose of SA through the skin in the first few hours of exposure. A second strategy that proved successful was incorporation of known mild nonionic surfactants like isoceteth-20. These surfactants cleanse the skin, yet due to their inherent mildness (because of their reduced critical micelle concentration and monomer concentration), keep the barrier intact. Also, they reduce the rate of salicylic acid penetration, presumably through micellar entrapment (either in solution or on the skin surface after the alcohol evaporates). Cumulative irritation studies showed that targeting delivery of SA to the epidermis and reducing the rapid early rate of penetration of large amounts of drug through the skin resulted in a reduced irritation potential. In vivo irritation studies also showed that the surfactant system is the most important factor controlling irritancy. SA delivery is secondary, as formulations with less SA content reduced the rate of delivery to the receptor and yet were some of the most irritating formulations tested, presumably due to the action of the specific anionic surfactant on the barrier. Alcohol content also did not appreciably affect irritation and SA delivery; formulations with considerably low alcohol content but containing anionic versus nonionic surfactant systems exhibited considerably higher irritancy. Thus the surfactant type was again the predominant factor in those studies, although arguably alcohol plays some role (solubilization of SA). Results showed that both polymers and mild surfactants work in concert to provide the optimal formulation benefits of targeted delivery and reduced irritation. Synergistic relationships among hydroalcoholic formulation components will be discussed along with the mechanisms likely involved in controlling delivery of SA to skin. [source]


    Adsorption of Hg2+ on a novel chelating fiber prepared by preirradiation grafting and amination

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 6 2009
    Ying Yang
    Abstract A novel chelating fiber was prepared by the irradiation-induced grafting copolymerization of glycidyl methacrylate on polypropylene fiber and consequent amination with diethylenetriamine. The effects of the reaction conditions, such as reaction time, temperature, and monomer concentration, on the degree of grafting were investigated. The optimal conditions for grafting were found to be 3 h, 100C, and a 50% (v/v) glycidyl methacrylate concentration in tetrahydrofuran solution. This fiber showed good adsorption performance at different concentrations of Hg2+, in particular for trace Hg2+. Under the adsorption conditions of pH = 4, initial concentration = 1000 mg/L, and time = 20 h, the adsorption capacity of the chelating fiber for Hg2+ reached 785.28 mg/g. It completely adsorbed the Hg2+ ions in solution within a short contact time, showing a very high adsorption rate for Hg2+. Furthermore, the chelating fiber also had a high selectivity for mercury, whereas Cu2+ coexisted in different concentrations. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2009 [source]


    Photografting of acrylic acid and methacrylic acid onto polyolefines initiated by formaldehyde in aqueous solutions

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 4 2009
    Jianmei Han
    Abstract Formaldehyde aqueous solution can act as an effective photoinitiating system for water-borne photografting. The photografting of acrylic acid (AA) and methacrylic acid (MAA) onto high-density polyethylene (HDPE), low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and polypropylene (PP) initiated by formaldehyde aqueous solutions has been reported. The effects of formaldehyde content and monomer concentration on grafting varied with the polymeric substrates and monomers used. For the grafting of AA onto HDPE, the extent of grafting increased with increasing formaldehyde content in the solution, monomer concentration had a little effect on grafting. Whereas for the grafting of MAA onto HDPE, the grafting performed in 8% formaldehyde aqueous solution lead to the highest extent of grafting, the extent of grafting increased with monomer concentration till 2.5 mol/L. MAA was easier to be grafted onto the polyolefins than AA. The easiness of grafting occurring on the polyolefins was in a decreasing order of LDPE > HDPE > PP. Qualitative and semi-quantitative Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) characterizations of the grafted samples were performed. For both grafted LDPE and PP samples, at the same irradiation time, the carbonyl index of the samples grafted with MAA was higher than that grafted with AA. The FTIR results are in accord with the results obtained by gravimetric method. The water absorbency of the grafted samples increased almost linearly with the extent of grafting. The PE films grafted with AA adsorbed more water than those grafted with MAA. This study had broadened the water-borne initiating system for photografting. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2009 [source]


    Induction of chemical and moisture resistance in Saccharum spontaneum L fiber through graft copolymerization with methyl methacrylate and study of morphological changes

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 3 2009
    Balbir Singh Kaith
    Abstract In this article, morphological modification of Saccharum spontaneum L, a natural fiber through graft copolymerization with methylmethacrylate using ferrous ammonium sulfate,potassium per sulfate redox initiator has been reported. Different reaction parameters such as reaction temperature, time, initiator molar ratio, monomer concentration, pH and solvent were optimized to get maximum graft yield (144%). The graft copolymers thus formed were characterized by Fourier transform infrared, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric, differential thermal analysis, and differential thermogravimetric techniques. Graft copolymer has been found to be more moisture resistant and also showed higher chemical and thermal resistance. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2009 [source]


    Kinetic study of the free-radical polymerization of vinyl acetate in the presence of deuterated chloroform by 1H-NMR spectroscopy

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 3 2008
    Mohammad Ali Semsarzadeh
    Abstract The free-radical polymerization of vinyl acetate was performed in the presence of deuterated chloroform (CDCl3) as a chain-transfer agent (telogen) and 2,2,-azobisisobutyronitrile as an initiator. The effects of the initiator and solvent concentrations (or equivalent monomer concentration) and the reaction temperature on the reaction kinetics were studied by real-time 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Data obtained from analysis of the 1H-NMR spectra were used to calculate some kinetic parameters, such as the initiator decomposition rate constant (kd), kp(f/kt)1/2 ratio (where kp is the average rate constant for propagation, f is the initiator efficiency, and kt is the average rate constant for termination), and transfer constant to CDCl3 (C). The results show that kd and kp(f/kt)1/2 changed significantly with the solvent concentration and reaction temperature, whereas they remained almost constant with the initiator concentration. C changed only with the reaction temperature. Attempts were made to explain the dependence of kp(f/kt)1/2 on the solvent concentration. We concluded from the solvent-independent C values that the solvent did not have any significant effect on the kp values. As a result, changes in the kp(f/kt)1/2 values with solvent concentration were attributed to the solvent effect on the f and/or kt values. Individual values of f and kt were estimated, and we observed that both the f and kt values were dependent on the solvent (or equivalent monomer) concentration. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]


    Optimized conditions for the grafting reaction of poly(methyl methacrylate) onto oil-palm empty fruit bunch fibers

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 2 2008
    Aznizam Abu Bakar
    Abstract This article describes the graft copolymerization of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) onto oil-palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFBs) with a fiber length of less than 75 ,m. The graft copolymerization was carried out under a nitrogen atmosphere by a free-radical initiation technique in an aqueous medium. Hydrogen peroxide and ferrous ions were used as a redox initiator/cocatalyst system. The PMMA homopolymer that formed during the reaction was removed from the grafted copolymers by Soxhlet extraction. Determining the effects of the reaction period, reaction temperature, and monomer concentration on the grafting percentage was the main objective, and they were investigated systematically. The optimum reaction period, reaction temperature, monomer concentration, and initiator concentration were 60 min, 50C, 47.15 10,3 mol, and 3.92 10,3 mol, respectively. The maximum percentage of grafting achieved under these optimum conditions was 173%. The presence of PMMA functional groups on OPEFB and the enormous reduction of the hydroxyl-group absorption band in PMMA- g -OPEFB spectra provided evidence of the successful grafting reaction. The improvement of the thermal stability of PMMA- g -OPEFB also showed the optimal achievement of the grafting reaction of PMMA onto OPEFB. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]


    Grafting emulsion polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate onto leather by chemical initiation systems

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 6 2008
    K. A. Shaffei
    Abstract The kinetics of the grafting polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) onto leather were studied with chemical initiation systems. The results showed that the rate of grafting of GMA onto leather was dependent on different rates in the chemical initiation systems; for ammonium persulfate (AmPS)/acetone sodium bisulfite (ASBS), potassium persulfate (PPS)/ASBS, and sodium persulfate (SPS)/ASBS, the powers were 1.06, 0.48, and 0.43 and 0.63, 0.46, and 0.43, respectively, with respect to the concentration of the emulsifier sodium dodecyl sulfate, whereas the powers were 1.41, 0.70, and 0.81, respectively, with respect to the monomer concentration. The apparent activation energy was calculated for each initiation system and was found to be 180.8, 361.63, and 542.45 kcal for the AmPS/ASBS, PPS/ASBS, and SPS/ASBS systems, respectively. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]


    Properties of styrene-methyl methacrylate grafted DPNR latex at different monomer concentrations

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 1 2008
    Siti Hajjar Che Man
    Abstract The graft copolymerization of styrene and methyl methacrylate (MMA) on to deproteinized natural rubber (DPNR) latex was carried out. The effect of monomer concentrations on grafting efficiency, thermal and mechanical properties was studied. The synthesized graft copolymers were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) and the highest grafting efficiency was found at 20 wt % monomer concentration. At low monomer concentration (10 wt %) the grafting was not significant and at 30 wt %, the grafting efficiency was slightly decreased. The thermal properties of graft copolymers were analyzed using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The degradation temperature (Tdeg) of the graft copolymer was increased with the increase in monomer concentration which indicates the improvement in thermal stability. The DSC result showed improvement in miscibility between the components as the monomer concentration increased. The mechanical properties of gum and filled modified NR were also investigated in terms of tensile strength, tensile modulus and elongation at break. The tensile strength and elongation at break decreased with an increase in monomer concentration while tensile modulus increased as the monomer concentration increased. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]


    Novel jute yarns grafted with methyl methacrylate

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 4 2008
    M. Montazer
    Abstract This research work involves graft copolymerization of jute fibers with methyl methacrylate (MMA), initiated by cerric ions, and optimization of the grafting parameters as a function of different polymerization conditions. It was considered to produce a hydrophobic jute fiber with enhanced properties. To achieve this, the effects of monomer concentration and grafting percentage on FTIR spectra, mechanical properties, moisture regain, oil-adsorption capacity, and surface morphology were investigated, and optimum percentage of MMA with reasonable properties was suggested. The results indicated that cerric ions initiated graft copolymerization of MMA onto jute with 30% of weight of monomers at optimum conditions of acid concentration and temperature. The FTIR studies proposed grafting of MMA onto jute at hydroxyl groups. The results showed that mechanical properties and moisture regain (%) of samples decrease with increasing of graft percentage. The most remarkable features of this investigation include reducing oil-adsorption capacity with increasing of lipophilic monomer percentages after one limitation. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]


    Dimethylsilylbis(1-indenyl) zirconium dichloride/methylaluminoxane catalyst supported on nanosized silica for propylene polymerization

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 3 2008
    Kuo-Tseng Li
    Abstract A dimethylsilylene-bridged metallocene complex, (CH3)2Si(Ind)2ZrCl2, was supported on a nanosized silica particle, whose surface area was mostly external. The resulting catalyst was used to catalyze the polymerization of propylene to polypropylene. Under identical reaction conditions, a nanosized catalyst exhibited much better polymerization activity than a microsized catalyst. At the optimum polymerization temperature of 55C, the former had 80% higher activity than the latter. In addition, the nanosized catalyst produced a polymer with a greater molecular weight, a narrower molecular weight distribution, and a higher melting point in comparison with the microsized catalyst. The nanosized catalyst's superiority was ascribed to the higher monomer concentration at its external active sites (which were free from internal diffusion resistance) and was also attributed to its much larger surface area. Electron microscopy results showed that the nanosized catalyst produced polymer particles of similar sizes and shapes, indicating that each nanosized catalyst particle had uniform polymerization activity. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]


    Modification of guar gum through grafting of 4-vinyl pyridine using potassium peroxymonosulphate/ascorbic acid redox pair

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 2 2007
    Abhishek Srivastava
    Abstract In the present article, the graft copolymerization of 4-vinyl pyridine onto guar gum initiated by potassium peroxymonosulphate/ascorbic acid redox pair in an aqueous medium was studied gravimetrically under a nitrogen atmosphere. Grafting ratio, grafting efficiency, and add on increased on increasing the concentration of potassium peroxymonosulphate from 5.0 10,4 to 10 10,4 mol/L and ascorbic acid concentration from 0.4 10,3 to 2.0 10,3 mol/L. On increasing the hydrogen ion concentration from 2.5 10,3 to 10.0 10,3 mol/L, grafting ratio, efficiency, add on and conversion were increased. Maximum grafting was obtained when guar gum and monomer concentration were 1.0 g/L and 20.0 10,2 mol/L, respectively. An increase in temperature from 30 to 35C increased the grafting ratio, but conversion and homopolymer decreased. The graft copolymers were characterized by IR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 2007 [source]


    Synthesis and characterization superabsorbent-ethanol polyacrylic acid gels

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 6 2007
    Zhao Qingchun
    Abstract In this article, superabsorbent-ethanol polyacrylic acid gels were synthesized by free-radical aqueous polymerization method by using , rays as initiator and varying the concentration of the Zn2+ from 0.1 to 0.3%, which acts as crosslinker. Effect of irradiation dose, monomer concentration, kind, and concentration of the crosslinker on swelling behaviors of polyacrylic acid gels were investigated. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 2007 [source]


    Distribution of acrylic acid grafted chains introduced into polyethylene film by simultaneous radiation grafting with water and ethanol as solvents

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 3 2007
    Zhengchi Hou
    Abstract The graft copolymerization of acrylic acid onto low-density polyethylene films by simultaneous ,-ray irradiation was carried out. The effect of water and ethanol as grafting solvents on the distribution of grafted poly (acrylic acid) in the low-density polyethylene films was studied with optical microscopy observations of dyed and sliced samples and attenuated total reflection/Fourier infrared spectroscopy analysis. When no vigorous homopolymerization occurred, both polyethylene and poly(acrylic acid) existed in the grafted layer, and the thickness of the grafted layer and the poly(acrylic acid) concentration in the grafted layer increased with an increasing degree of grafting, regardless of the grafting conditions, the former increasing faster than the latter. In comparison with water as the solvent, in the absence of the inhibitor, homopolymerization could be suppressed to a certain degree in the ethanol solvent system, whereas in the presence of the inhibitor, obvious homopolymerization occurred at a lower monomer concentration, and both the degree of grafting and the thickness of the grafted layer were lower. Such differences could be explained by the chain transfer and the relatively low solubility of poly(acrylic acid) in ethanol. In addition, an experimental scheme using optical microscopy to observe the dyed and sliced polymers was optimized. 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 103: 1570,1577, 2007 [source]


    Atom transfer radical polymerization and copolymerization of vinyl acetate catalyzed by copper halide/terpyridine

    AICHE JOURNAL, Issue 3 2009
    Huadong Tang
    Abstract Copper-mediated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) is versatile for living polymerizations of a wide range of monomers, but ATRP of vinyl acetate (VAc) remains challenging due to the low homolytic cleavage activity of the carbon-halide bond of the dormant poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) chains and the high reactivity of growing PVAc radicals. Therefore, all the reported highly active copper-based catalysts are inactive in ATRP of VAc. Herein, we report the first copper-catalyst mediated ATRP of VAc using CuBr/2,2,:6,,2,-terpyridine (tPy) or CuCl/tPy as catalysts. The polymerization was a first order reaction with respect to the monomer concentration. The molecular weights of the resulting PVAc linearly increased with the VAc conversion. The living character was further proven by self-chain extension of PVAc. Using polystyrene (PS) as a macroinitiator, a well-defined diblock copolymer PS-b-PVAc was prepared. Hydrolysis of the PS-b-PVAc produced a PS-b-poly(vinyl alcohol) amphiphilic diblock copolymer. 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 2009 [source]


    Polyamides nanocapsules: Modeling and wall thickness estimation

    AICHE JOURNAL, Issue 6 2006
    K. Bouchemal
    Abstract This work provides a better understanding for effective control of the nanocapsules wall thickness. Polyamides based nanocapsules are prepared by interfacial polymerization combined with spontaneous emulsification. A clear guideline of how factors such as monomer concentration, diffusion, interfacial reaction, or water swelling influence the capsule formation is very important to the control of capsule wall structure and release performance. In this goal, the macroscopic planar models of the interfacial polycondensation between diethylenetriamine and sebacoyle chloride are studied experimentally and theoretically. This planar model is developed to examine the kinetics of the reaction and to perform the estimation of parameters thanks to the experiment measurements. The effect of the operating conditions on the wall thickness is also studied. The model is shown to be consistent with the experimental data. Next, the spherical model is deduced from the first one. The results obtained with this model are in accordance with some observations of wall thickness. From this model, the increase of the wall thickness is predicted for several operating conditions. 2006 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 2006 [source]


    Effects of dimerization of the cell-penetrating peptide Tat analog on antimicrobial activity and mechanism of bactericidal action

    JOURNAL OF PEPTIDE SCIENCE, Issue 5 2009
    Wan Long Zhu
    Abstract The cell-penetrating peptide Tat (48,60) (GRKKRRQRRRPPQ) derived from HIV-1 Tat protein showed potent antibacterial activity (MIC: 2,8 M). To investigate the effect of dimerization of Tat (48,60) analog, [Tat(W): GRKKRRQRRRPWQ-NH2], on antimicrobial activity and mechanism of bactericidal action, its dimeric peptides, di-Tat(W)-C and di-Tat(W)-K, were synthesized by a disulfide bond linkage and lysine linkage of monomeric Tat(W), respectively. From the viewpoint of a weight basis and the monomer concentration, these dimeric peptides displayed almost similar antimicrobial activity against six bacterial strains tested but acted more rapidly against Staphylococcus aureus on kinetics of bactericidal activity, compared with monomeric Tat(W). Unlike monomeric Tat(W), these dimeric peptides significantly depolarized the cytoplasmic membrane of intact S. aureus cells at MIC and induced dye leakage from bacterial-membrane-mimicking egg yolk L -,-phosphatidylethanolamine/egg yolk L -,-phosphatidyl- DL -glycerol (7:3, w/w) vesicles. Furthermore, these dimeric peptides were less effective to translocate across lipid bilayers than monomeric Tat(W). These results indicated that the dimerization of Tat analog induces a partial change in the mode of its bactericidal action from intracellular target mechanism to membrane-targeting mechanism. Collectively, our designed dimeric Tat peptides with high antimicrobial activity and rapid bactericidal activity appear to be excellent candidates for future development as novel antimicrobial agents. Copyright 2009 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Synthesis of comb polymers via grafting-onto macromolecules bearing pendant diene groups via the hetero-Diels-Alder-RAFT click concept

    JOURNAL OF POLYMER SCIENCE (IN TWO SECTIONS), Issue 8 2010
    Antoine Bousquet
    Abstract Comb polymers were synthesized by the "grafting-onto" method via a combination of Reversible Addition-Fragmentation Chain Transfer (RAFT) polymerization and the hetero-Diels-Alder (HDA) cycloaddition. The HDA reactive monomer trans, trans-hexa-2,4-dienylacrylate (ttHA) was copolymerized with styrene via the RAFT process. Crosslinking was minimized by decreasing the monomer concentration,whilst keeping monomer to polymer conversions low,resulting in reactive backbones with on average one reactive pendant diene groups for 10 styrene units. The HDA cycloaddition was performed between the diene functions of the copolymer and a poly(n -butyl acrylate) (PnBA) prepared via RAFT polymerization with pyridin-2-yldithioformate, which can act as a dienophile. The coupling reactions were performed within 24 h at 50 C and the grafting yield varies from 75% to 100%, depending on the number average molecular weight of the PnBA (3500 g mol,1 < Mn < 13,000 g mol,1) grafted chain and the reaction stoichiometry. The molecular weights of the grafted block copolymers range from 19,000 g mol,1 to 58,000 g mol,1 with polydispersities close to 1.25. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 48: 1773,1781, 2010 [source]


    Synthesis of oily core-hybrid shell nanocapsules through interfacial free radical copolymerization in miniemulsion: Droplet formation and nucleation

    JOURNAL OF POLYMER SCIENCE (IN TWO SECTIONS), Issue 3 2010
    Z. H. Cao
    Abstract Nanocapsules with an oily core and an organic/inorganic hybrid shell were elaborated by miniemulsion (co)polymerization of styrene, divinylbenzene, ,-methacryloyloxy propyl trimethoxysilane, and N -isopropyl acrylamide. The hybrid copolymer shell membrane was formed by polymerization-induced phase separation at the interface of the oily nanodroplets with water. It was shown that the size, size distribution, and colloidal stability of the miniemulsion droplets were extremely dependent on the nature of the oil phase, the monomer content and the surfactant concentration. The less water-soluble the hydrocarbon template and the higher the monomer content, the better the droplet stability. The successful formation of nanocapsules with the targeted core-shell morphology (i.e., a liquid core surrounded by a solid shell) was evidenced by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy. Both nanocapsules and nanoparticles were produced by polymerization of the miniemulsion droplets. The proportion of nanoparticles increased with increasing monomer concentration in the oil phase. These undesirable nanoparticles were presumably formed by homogeneous nucleation as we showed that micellar nucleation could be neglected under our experimental conditions even for high surfactant concentrations. The introduction of ,-methacryloyloxy propyl trimethoxysilane was considered to be the main reason for homogeneous nucleation. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 48: 593,603, 2010 [source]


    Synthesis and characterization of high molecular weight hexafluoroisopropylidene-containing polybenzimidazole for high-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    JOURNAL OF POLYMER SCIENCE (IN TWO SECTIONS), Issue 16 2009
    Guoqing Qian
    Abstract A high molecular weight, thermally and chemical stable hexafluoroisopropylidene containing polybenzimidazole (6F-PBI) was synthesized from 3,3,-diaminobenzidine (TAB) and 2,2-bis(4-carboxyphenyl) hexafluoropropane (6F-diacid) using polyphosphoric acid (PPA) as both the polycondensation agent and the polymerization solvent. Investigation of polymerization conditions to achieve high molecular weight polymers was explored via stepwise temperature control, monomer concentration in PPA, and final polymerization temperature. The polymer characterization included inherent viscosity (I.V.) measurement and GPC as a determination of polymer molecular weight, thermal and chemical stability assessment via thermo gravimetric analysis and Fenton test, respectively. The resulting high molecular weight polymer showed excellent thermal and chemical stability. Phosphoric acid doped 6F-PBI membranes were prepared using the PPA process. The physiochemical properties of phosphoric acid doped membranes were characterized by measuring the phosphoric acid doping level, mechanical properties, and proton conductivity. These membranes showed higher phosphoric acid doping levels and higher proton conductivities than the membranes prepared by the conventional membrane fabrication processes. These membranes had sufficient mechanical properties to be easily fabricated into membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) and the prepared MEAs were tested in single cell fuel cells under various conditions, with a focus on the high temperature performance and fuel impurity tolerance. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 47: 4064,4073, 2009 [source]


    Kinetics of self-condensing vinyl hyperbranched polymerization in three-dimensional space

    JOURNAL OF POLYMER SCIENCE (IN TWO SECTIONS), Issue 13 2008
    Xuehao He
    Abstract Self-condensing vinyl hyperbranched polymerization (SCVP) with A-B* type monomer is simulated applying Monte Carlo method using 3d bond fluctuation lattice model in three-dimensional space. The kinetics of SCVP with zero active energy of reaction is studied in detail. It is found that the maximal number,average and weight,average polymerization degrees and the maximal molecular weight distribution, at varying the initial monomer concentration and double bond conversion, are about 52, 190, and 3.93, respectively, which are much lower than theoretical values. The maximal average fraction of branching points is about 0.27, obtained at full conversion at the initial monomer concentration of 0.75. The simulation demonstrated the importance of steric effects and intramolecular cyclization in self-condensing vinyl hyperbranched polymerization. The results are also compared with experiments qualitatively and a good agreement is achieved. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 46: 4486,4494, 2008 [source]


    Synthesis of poly(4-vinylpyridine) by reverse atom transfer radical polymerization

    JOURNAL OF POLYMER SCIENCE (IN TWO SECTIONS), Issue 24 2007
    Gregory T. Lewis
    Abstract Controlled radical polymerization of 4-vinylpyridine (4VP) was achieved in a 50 vol % 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone/water solvent mixture using a 2,2,-azobis(2,4-dimethylpentanitrile) initiator and a CuCl2/2,2,-bipyridine catalyst,ligand complex, for an initial monomer concentration of [M]0 = 2.32,3.24 M and a temperature range of 70,80 C. Radical polymerization control was achieved at catalyst to initiator molar ratios in the range of 1.3:1 to 1.6:1. First-order kinetics of the rate of polymerization (with respect to the monomer), linear increase of the number,average degree of polymerization with monomer conversion, and a polydispersity index in the range of 1.29,1.35 were indicative of controlled radical polymerization. The highest number,average degree of polymerization of 247 (number,average molecular weight = 26,000 g/mol) was achieved at a temperature of 70 C, [M]0 = 3.24 M and a catalyst to initiator molar ratio of 1.6:1. Over the temperature range studied (70,80 C), the initiator efficiency increased from 50 to 64% whereas the apparent polymerization rate constant increased by about 60%. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 45: 5748,5758, 2007 [source]


    Factors affecting the sensitivity to acid inhibition in novel acrylates characterized by secondary functionalities

    JOURNAL OF POLYMER SCIENCE (IN TWO SECTIONS), Issue 7 2007
    Harini Kilambi
    Abstract Here we demonstrate that acrylates exhibit significant rate reductions in the presence of small concentrations of protic acids (0.1,0.5 wt %) compared with the bulk monomer concentration. Dramatically different sensitivities to acid inhibition, differing by up to 2 orders of magnitude, are exhibited for various acrylates. This study examines the various factors that cause enhanced sensitivity toward acid inhibition in novel acrylates characterized by carbamate and cyclic carbonate secondary functionalities. Acid inhibition studies conducted in the presence of a highly polar solvent, such as propylene carbonate, have been performed to determine the impact of overall medium polarity and the extent of acid dissociation on the sensitivity to acid inhibition. The studies depict only a twofold increase in the parameters associated with acid inhibition, upon the addition of 70 wt % propylene carbonate, in comparison with an increase of 2 orders of magnitude for the novel acrylates. These studies indicate that the susceptibility to acid inhibition is primarily determined by the stability of the hypothesized radical,acid complex as well as its propensity to terminate with other species in the system and not by the extent of acid dissociation in the system. Furthermore, it is implied that the stability of the radical,acid complex and its propensity to terminate with other species in the system are dominated by intramolecular interactions. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 45: 1287,1295, 2007 [source]


    Incubation period in the 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy-mediated thermal autopolymerization of styrene: Kinetics and simulations

    JOURNAL OF POLYMER SCIENCE (IN TWO SECTIONS), Issue 24 2006
    Enrique Saldvar-Guerra
    Abstract Mechanisms and simulations of the induction period and the initial polymerization stages in the nitroxide-mediated autopolymerization of styrene are discussed. At 120,125 C and moderate 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy (TEMPO) concentrations (0.02,0.08 M), the main source of radicals is the hydrogen abstraction of the Mayo dimer by TEMPO [with the kinetic constant of hydrogen abstraction (kh)]. At higher TEMPO concentrations ([N,] > 0.1 M), this reaction is still dominant, but radical generation by the direct attack against styrene by TEMPO, with kinetic constant of addition kad, also becomes relevant. From previous experimental data and simulations, initial estimates of kh , 1 and kad , 6 10,7 L mol,1 s,1 are obtained at 125 C. From the induction period to the polymerization regime, there is an abrupt change in the dominant mechanism generating radicals because of the sudden decrease in the nitroxide radicals. Under induction-period conditions, the simulations confirm the validity of the quasi-steady-state assumption (QSSA) for the Mayo dimer in this regime; however, after the induction period, the QSSA for the dimer is not valid, and this brings into question the scientific basis of the well-known expression kth[M]3 (where [M] is the monomer concentration and kth is the kinetic constant of autoinitiation) for the autoinitiation rate in styrene polymerization. 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 44: 6962-6979, 2006 [source]


    Cationic copolymerization of ,-caprolactone and L,L -lactide by an activated monomer mechanism

    JOURNAL OF POLYMER SCIENCE (IN TWO SECTIONS), Issue 24 2006
    gorzata Ba
    Abstract The cationic homopolymerization and copolymerization of L,L -lactide and ,-caprolactone in the presence of alcohol have been studied. The rate of homopolymerization of ,-caprolactone is slightly higher than that of L,L -lactide. In the copolymerization, the reverse order of reactivities has been observed, and L,L -lactide is preferentially incorporated into the copolymer. Both the homopolymerization and copolymerization proceed by an activated monomer mechanism, and the molecular weights and dispersities are controlled {number-average degree of polymerization,=,([M]0 , [M]t)/[I]0, where [M]0 is the initial monomer concentration, [M]t is the monomer concentration at time t, and [I]0 is the initial initiator concentration; weight-average molecular weight/number-average molecular weight ,1.1,1.3}. An analysis of 13C NMR spectra of the copolymers indicates that transesterification is slow in comparison with propagation, and the microstructure of the copolymers is governed by the relative reactivity of the comonomers. 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 44: 7071,7081, 2006 [source]


    Synthesis of amphiphilic copolymer brushes: Poly(ethylene oxide)-graft-polystyrene

    JOURNAL OF POLYMER SCIENCE (IN TWO SECTIONS), Issue 15 2006
    Zhongyu Li
    Abstract A well-defined amphiphilic copolymer brush with poly(ethylene oxide) as the main chain and polystyrene as the side chain was successfully prepared by a combination of anionic polymerization and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The glycidol was first protected by ethyl vinyl ether to form 2,3-epoxypropyl-1-ethoxyethyl ether and then copolymerized with ethylene oxide by the initiation of a mixture of diphenylmethylpotassium and triethylene glycol to give the well-defined polymer poly(ethylene oxide- co -2,3-epoxypropyl-1-ethoxyethyl ether); the latter was hydrolyzed under acidic conditions, and then the recovered copolymer of ethylene oxide and glycidol {poly(ethylene oxide- co -glycidol) [poly(EO- co -Gly)]} with multiple pending hydroxymethyl groups was esterified with 2-bromoisobutyryl bromide to produce the macro-ATRP initiator [poly(EO- co -Gly)(ATRP). The latter was used to initiate the polymerization of styrene to form the amphiphilic copolymer brushes. The object products and intermediates were characterized with 1H NMR, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared, and size exclusion chromatography in detail. In all cases, the molecular weight distribution of the copolymer brushes was rather narrow (weight-average molecular weight/number-average molecular weight < 1.2), and the linear dependence of ln[M0]/[M] (where [M0] is the initial monomer concentration and [M] is the monomer concentration at a certain time) on time demonstrated that the styrene polymerization was well controlled. This method has universal significance for the preparation of copolymer brushes with hydrophilic poly(ethylene oxide) as the main chain. 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 44: 4361,4371, 2006 [source]


    Acyclic diene metathesis polymerization of 2,5-dialkyl-1,4-divinylbenzene with molybdenum or ruthenium catalysts: Factors affecting the precise synthesis of defect-free, high-molecular-weight trans -poly(p -phenylene vinylene)s

    JOURNAL OF POLYMER SCIENCE (IN TWO SECTIONS), Issue 23 2005
    Kotohiro Nomura
    Abstract Factors affecting the syntheses of high-molecular-weight poly(2,5-dialkyl-1,4-phenylene vinylene) by the acyclic diene metathesis polymerization of 2,5-dialkyl-1,4-divinylbenzenes [alkyl = n -octyl (2) and 2-ethylhexyl (3)] with a molybdenum or ruthenium catalyst were explored. The polymerizations of 2 by Mo(N -2,6-Me2C6H3) (CHMe2 Ph)[OCMe(CF3)2]2 at 25 C was completed with both a high initial monomer concentration and reduced pressure, affording poly(p -phenylene vinylene)s with low polydispersity index values (number-average molecular weight = 3.3,3.65 103 by gel permeation chromatography vs polystyrene standards, weight-average molecular weight/number-average molecular weight = 1.1,1.2), but the polymerization of 3 was not completed under the same conditions. The synthesis of structurally regular (all- trans), defect-free, high-molecular-weight 2-ethylhexyl substituted poly(p -phenylene vinylene)s [poly3; degree of monomer repeating unit (DPn) = ca. 16,70 by 1H NMR] with unimodal molecular weight distributions (number-average molecular weight = 8.30,36.3 103 by gel permeation chromatography, weight-average molecular weight/number-average molecular weight = 1.6,2.1) and with defined polymer chain ends (as a vinyl group, CHCH2) was achieved when Ru(CHPh)(Cl)2(IMesH2)(PCy3) or Ru(CH-2-OiPr-C6H4)(Cl)2(IMesH2) [IMesH2 = 1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)-2-imidazolidinylidene] was employed as a catalyst at 50 C. 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 43: 6166,6177, 2005 [source]


    Stabilizer-free dispersion copolymerization of maleic anhydride and vinyl acetate.

    JOURNAL OF POLYMER SCIENCE (IN TWO SECTIONS), Issue 17 2005

    Abstract A novel dispersion copolymerization of maleic anhydride (MAn) and vinyl acetate (VAc) without adding stabilizer is developed, which gives uniform copolymer microspheres with tunable sizes. Some principal factors affecting the microspheres, such as reaction time, monomer concentration and feed ratio, reaction media, and cosolvent, were investigated. It was found that the stabilizer-free dispersion copolymerization of MAn and VAc is a rapid process, and the particle size grows in accordance with the evolution of polymerization. The chemical composition of the copolymer microspheres was characterized by FT-IR and 13C NMR spectroscopies. Over a wide range of monomer concentrations, the microspheres can always be formed and stably dispersed, with uniform sizes ranging from 180 nm to 740 nm. The yield of copolymer microspheres reaches a maximum at 1:1 feed ratio of MAn to VAc, owing to the alternating copolymerization between the binary monomers by a known charge-transfer-complex mechanism. However, the diameter of microspheres drastically increases when MAn content is enhanced. Only some specific alkyl ester solvents, such as n -butyl acetate, isobutyl acetate, n -amyl acetate, are desirably fit for this unique stabilizer-free dispersion polymerization. Furthermore, we found that when some acetone is added as a cosolvent, the copolymer microspheres can still be formed, with much larger diameters. 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 43: 3760,3770, 2005 [source]


    Kinetics of styrene emulsion polymerization above the critical micelle concentration: Effect of the initial monomer concentration on the molecular weight

    JOURNAL OF POLYMER SCIENCE (IN TWO SECTIONS), Issue 9 2005
    Jorge Herrera-Ordonez
    Abstract The emulsion polymerization of styrene above the critical micelle concentration has been experimentally studied from a low final polymer content up to a high polymer content (,50%). A maximum in the molecular weight (M) evolution has been observed in all cases. The presence or absence of such a maximum depends on the relative values of the rate of free-radical entry (,) and the rate of chain transfer to the monomer (KtrCMp, where Ktr is the chain transfer to monomer rate coefficient and CMp is the monomer concentration in particles). If , , KtrCMp, M is constant and equal to Kp/Ktr (where Kp is the propagation rate coefficient), except at very low particles sizes typical of the early stages of the reaction, in which the chain length is limited by the particle size. On the other hand, if , , KtrCMp, M is determined by both CMp and ,. It is proposed that , is determined by the sum of the entry of the oligomeric radicals formed in the aqueous phase and those contained in particles that undergo limited coagulation. This coagulative entry can become very significant; therefore, reactor hydrodynamics can play a major role in the kinetic behavior observed. Disagreement between Clay and Gilbert's model and molecular weight distribution data can be ascribed, to a lesser or greater extent, to the degree of correctness of the quasi-steady-state and instantaneous-termination approaches. 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 43: 1963,1972, 2005 [source]


    Pulsed laser polymerization study of the propagation kinetics of acrylamide in water

    JOURNAL OF POLYMER SCIENCE (IN TWO SECTIONS), Issue 7 2005
    Shane A. Seabrook
    Abstract Pulsed laser polymerization was used in conjunction with aqueous-phase size exclusion chromatography with multi-angle laser light scattering detection to determine the propagation rate coefficient (kp) for the water-soluble monomer acrylamide. The influence of the monomer concentration was investigated from 0.3 to 2.8 M, and kp decreased with increasing monomer concentration. These data and data for acrylic acid in water were consistent with this decrease being caused by the depletion of the monomer concentration by dimer formation in water. Two photoinitiators, uranyl nitrate and 2,2,-azobis(2-amidinopropane) (V-50), were used; kp was dependent on their concentrations. The concentration dependence of kp was ascribed to a combination of solvent effects arising from association (thermodynamic effects) and changes in the free energy of activation (effects of the solvent on the structure of the reactant and transition state). Arrhenius parameters for kp (M,1 s,1) = 107.2 exp(,13.4 kJ mol,1/RT) and kp (M,1 s,1) = 107.1 exp(,12.9 kJ mol,1/RT) were obtained for 0.002 M uranyl nitrate and V-50, respectively, with a monomer concentration of 0.32 M. 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 43: 1357,1368, 2005 [source]