Monolayer Culture (monolayer + culture)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Uptake of LipiodolÔ,cytotoxic conjugates by hepatoblastoma cells

E. Towu
Background: Improvements in the management of children with hepatoblastoma have followed advances made in cytotoxic agents and treatment regimens. The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of LipiodolÔ, an iodinated poppy-seed oil, on the uptake of anthracyclic cytotoxic conjugates by hepatoblastoma cells in culture. Methods: Monolayer cultures of (1) a hepatoblastoma cell line generated from freshly explanted tumour tissue, (2) an immortal hepatoblastoma cell line (C3a) and (3) a human hepatocyte cell line were exposed to doxorubicin 10 µg/ml with or without 2 per cent LipiodolÔ for 1,72 h. The fluorescence intensity in the treated cells, which correlates with intracellular doxorubicin concentration, was measured by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Cytotoxicity was assessed by trypan blue exclusion and electron microscopy. Results: Doxorubicin accumulated in the nucleus and cytoplasm of all the cell lines. With LipiodolÔ, the mean fluorescence intensity of intracellular doxorubicin was increased for up to 48 h in both hepatoblastoma lines, but not in the hepatocyte cell line. LipiodolÔ increased the uptake and intracellular concentration of doxorubicin in the hepatoblastoma cells in culture. LipiodolÔ also enhanced the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin on the cultured hepatoblastoma cells. Conclusion: LipiodolÔ significantly enhanced the uptake of doxorubicin by hepatoblastoma cells in culture. LipiodolÔ,doxorubicin targeted treatment of hepatoblastoma may improve the intracellular uptake and hence cytotoxicity of doxorubicin in vivo, enabling a reduction in the total dose administered and side-effects. © 2002 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd [source]

Rat hepatocyte spheroids formed by rocked technique maintain differentiated hepatocyte gene expression and function,

HEPATOLOGY, Issue 2 2009
Colleen M. Brophy
The culture of primary hepatocytes as spheroids creates an efficient three-dimensional tissue construct for hepatic studies in vitro. Spheroids possess structural polarity and functional bile canaliculi with normal differentiated function. Thus, hepatocyte spheroids have been proposed as the cell source in a variety of diagnostic, discovery, and therapeutic applications, such as a bioartificial liver. Using a novel rocking technique to induce spheroid formation, kinetics of spheroid formation, cell-cell adhesion, gene expression, and biochemical activities of rat hepatocyte spheroids were tested over 14 days of culture. Evidence was provided that the formation of spheroids occurred faster and with fewer nonadherent hepatocytes in rocked suspension culture compared to a traditional rotational system. Hepatocyte spheroids in rocked culture showed stable expression of more than 80% of 242 liver-related genes including those of albumin synthesis, urea cycle, phase I and II metabolic enzymes, and clotting factors. Biochemical activity of rocked spheroid hepatocytes was superior to monolayer culture of hepatocytes on tissue culture plastic and collagen. Conclusion: Spheroid formation by rocker technique was more rapid and more efficient than by rotational technique. Rocker-formed spheroids appear suitable for application in a bioartificial liver or as an in vitro liver tissue construct. (HEPATOLOGY 2009.) [source]

Isolation of epithelial stem cells from dermis by a three-dimensional culture system,

Reinhold J. Medina
Abstract Skin is a representative self-renewing tissue containing stem cells. Although many attempts have been made to define and isolate skin-derived stem cells, establishment of a simple and reliable isolation procedure remains a goal to be achieved. Here, we report the isolation of cells having stem cell properties from mouse embryonic skin using a simple selection method based on an assumption that stem cells may grow in an anchorage-independent manner. We inoculated single cell suspensions prepared from mouse embryonic dermis into a temperature-sensitive gel and propagated the resulting colonies in a monolayer culture. The cells named dermis-derived epithelial progenitor-1 (DEEP) showed epithelial morphology and grew rapidly to a more than 200 population doubling level over a period of 250 days. When the cells were kept confluent, they spontaneously formed spheroids and continuously grew even in spheroids. Immunostaining revealed that all of the clones were positive for the expression of cytokeratin-8, ,18, ,19, and E-cadherin and negative for the expression of cytokeratin-1, ,5, ,6, ,14, ,20, vimentin, nestin, a ckit. Furthermore, they expressed epithelial stem cell markers such as p63, integrin ,1, and S100A6. On exposure to TGF, in culture, some of DEEP-1 cells expressed ,-smooth muscle actin. When the cells were transplanted into various organs of adult SCID mice, a part of the inoculated cell population acquired neural, hepatic, and renal cell properties. These results indicate that the cells we isolated were of epithelial stem cell origin and that our new approach is useful for isolation of multipotent stem cells from skin tissues. J. Cell. Biochem. 98: 174,184, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Transcriptional and proteolytic regulation of the insulin-like growth factor-I system of equine articular chondrocytes by recombinant equine interleukin-1,

Ryan M. Porter
Interleukin-1 (IL-1) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), which have opposing effects on matrix metabolism within articular cartilage, are thought to play prominent roles in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis. To better understand the link between these anabolic (IGF-I) and catabolic (IL-1) stimuli, we examined exogenous IL-1 regulation of the IGF-I signaling system of articular chondrocytes (ACs). Equine ACs from non-arthritic stifle joints were expanded in monolayer culture, encapsulated for 10 days in alginate beads, and stimulated as high-density monolayers with recombinant equine IL-1, (0, 1, 10 ng/ml) for 48 h. IL-1, enhanced expression of IGF-IR levels, as determined by both [125I]-IGF-I binding studies and Western blotting, while reducing the concentration of endogenous IGF-I detected in conditioned media by radioimmunoassay. Western ligand blotting revealed that chondrocytes primarily secreted IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) with molecular weights of 28,30 and 32,34 kDa, which were identified as IGFBPs 5 and 2, respectively, and that IL-1, treatment diminished IGFBP-2, the prominent homolog in conditioned media. Northern blot analysis suggested IL-1, regulation of IGF-I and, to some extent, IGF-IR was mediated by transcription; however, the cytokine did not affect IGFBP-2 expression. To test for evidence of proteolysis by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), additional cultures were co-incubated with inhibitors for MMPs 2/9, 3, and 8. IGFBP-2 suppression was partially reversed by gelatinase (MMP-2/9) inhibition. In summary, these findings further delineate the role of IL-1 as a key regulator of the IGF-I system within articular cartilage, demonstrating that regulation occurs through both direct (transcriptional) and indirect (proteolytic) mechanisms. J. Cell. Physiol. 209: 542,550, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Immortalized cell lines from mouse xiphisternum preserve chondrocyte phenotype

Manas K. Majumdar
Chondrocytes are unique to cartilage and the study of these cells in vitro is important for advancing our understanding of the role of these cells in normal homeostasis and disease including osteoarthritis (OA). As there are limitations to the culture of primary chondrocytes, cell lines have been developed to overcome some of these obstacles. In this study, we developed a procedure to immortalize and characterize chondrocyte cell lines from mouse xiphisternum. The cells displayed a polygonal to fibroblastic morphology in monolayer culture. Gene expression studies using quantitative PCR showed that the cell lines responded to bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) by increased expression of matrix molecules, aggrecan, and type II collagen together with transcriptional factor, Sox9. Stimulation by IL-1 results in the increased expression of catabolic effectors including MMP-13, nitric oxide synthase, ADAMTS4, and ADAMTS5. Cells cultured in alginate responded to BMP-2 by increased synthesis of proteoglycan (PG), a major matrix molecule of cartilage. IL-1 treatment of cells in alginate results in increased release of PG into the conditioned media. Further analysis of the media showed the presence of Aggrecanase-cleaved aggrecan fragments, a signature of matrix degradation. These results show that the xiphisternum chondrocyte cell lines preserve their chondrocyte phenotype cultured in either monolayer or 3-dimensional alginate bead culture systems. In summary, this study describes the establishment of chondrocyte cell lines from the mouse xiphisternum that may be useful as a surrogate model system to understand chondrocyte biology and to shed light on the underlying mechanism of pathogenesis in OA. J. Cell. Physiol. 209: 551,559, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Immunophenotypic analysis of human articular chondrocytes: Changes in surface markers associated with cell expansion in monolayer culture

Jose Diaz-Romero
Cartilage tissue engineering relies on in vitro expansion of primary chondrocytes. Monolayer is the chosen culture model for chondrocyte expansion because in this system the proliferative capacity of chondrocytes is substantially higher compared to non-adherent systems. However, human articular chondrocytes (HACs) cultured as monolayers undergo changes in phenotype and gene expression known as "dedifferentiation." To gain a better understanding of the cellular mechanisms involved in the dedifferentiation process, our research focused on the characterization of the surface molecule phenotype of HACs in monolayer culture. Adult HACs were isolated by enzymatic digestion of cartilage samples obtained post-mortem. HACs cultured in monolayer for different time periods were analyzed by flow cytometry for the expression of cell surface markers with a panel of 52 antibodies. Our results show that HACs express surface molecules belonging to different categories: integrins and other adhesion molecules (CD49a, CD49b, CD49c, CD49e, CD49f, CD51/61, CD54, CD106, CD166, CD58, CD44), tetraspanins (CD9, CD63, CD81, CD82, CD151), receptors (CD105, CD119, CD130, CD140a, CD221, CD95, CD120a, CD71, CD14), ectoenzymes (CD10, CD26), and other surface molecules (CD90, CD99). Moreover, differential expression of certain markers in monolayer culture was identified. Up-regulation of markers on HACs regarded as distinctive for mesenchymal stem cells (CD10, CD90, CD105, CD166) during monolayer culture suggested that dedifferentiation leads to reversion to a primitive phenotype. This study contributes to the definition of HAC phenotype, and provides new potential markers to characterize chondrocyte differentiation stage in the context of tissue engineering applications. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Control of human articular chondrocyte differentiation by reduced oxygen tension

Christopher L. Murphy
Cell number is often a limiting factor in studies of chondrocyte physiology, particularly for human investigations. Chondrocytes can be readily proliferated in monolayer culture, however, differentiated phenotype is soon lost. We therefore endeavored to restore normal phenotype to human chondrocytes after serial passage in monolayer culture by manipulating cell morphology and oxygen tension towards the in vivo state. Third passage cells were encapsulated in alginate and exposed to either 20% or more physiologic 5% oxygen tensions. To assess cell phenotype, gene expression was measured using TaqMan real-time PCR. Encapsulated, primary chondrocytes cultured in 20% oxygen were used as a positive reference. Passaged human chondrocytes were fibroblastic in appearance and had lost normal phenotype as evidenced by a decrease in expression of collagen II, aggrecan, and sox9 genes of 66, 6, and 14 fold, respectively; with concomitant high expression of type I collagen (22 fold increase). A partial regaining of the differentiated phenotype was observed by encapsulation in 20% oxygen; however, even after 4 weeks, collagen II gene expression was not fully restored. Collagen II and aggrecan expression were increased, on average, 3 fold, in 5% oxygen tension compared to 20% cultures. Furthermore, matrix glycosaminoglycan (GAG) levels were significantly increased in reduced oxygen. In fact, after 4 weeks in 5% oxygen, encapsulated third passage cells had collagen II expression fully regained and aggrecan and sox9 levels actually exceeding primary cell levels in 20% oxygen. Our results show that the phenotype of serially passaged human articular chondrocytes is more fully restored by combining encapsulation with culture in more physiological levels of oxygen. Sox9, an essential transcription factor for chondrocyte differentiation is strongly implicated in this process since its expression was upregulated almost 27 fold. These findings have implications for the optimal conditions for the in vitro culture of chondrocytes. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Rotating three-dimensional dynamic culture of adult human bone marrow-derived cells for tissue engineering of hyaline cartilage

Shinsuke Sakai
Abstract The method of constructing cartilage tissue from bone marrow-derived cells in vitro is considered a valuable technique for hyaline cartilage regenerative medicine. Using a rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactor developed in a NASA space experiment, we attempted to efficiently construct hyaline cartilage tissue from human bone marrow-derived cells without using a scaffold. Bone marrow aspirates were obtained from the iliac crest of nine patients during orthopedic operation. After their proliferation in monolayer culture, the adherent cells were cultured in the RWV bioreactor with chondrogenic medium for 2 weeks. Cells from the same source were cultured in pellet culture as controls. Histological and immunohistological evaluations (collagen type I and II) and quantification of glycosaminoglycan were performed on formed tissues and compared. The engineered constructs obtained using the RWV bioreactor showed strong features of hyaline cartilage in terms of their morphology as determined by histological and immunohistological evaluations. The glycosaminoglycan contents per µg DNA of the tissues were 10.01,±,3.49 µg/µg DNA in the case of the RWV bioreactor and 6.27,±,3.41 µg/µg DNA in the case of the pellet culture, and their difference was significant. The RWV bioreactor could provide an excellent environment for three-dimensional cartilage tissue architecture that can promote the chondrogenic differentiation of adult human bone marrow-derived cells. © 2008 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 27: 517,521, 2009 [source]

The effect of hyaluronic acid on IL-1,-induced chondrocyte apoptosis in a rat model of osteoarthritis

Pang-Hu Zhou
Abstract The purpose of this article was to study the effect of hyaluronic acid (HA) on chondrocyte apoptosis in a rat osteoarthritis in vitro model (exposure to IL-1,) and explore its mechanism. A rat in vitro model of osteoarthritis (OA) was established using 10 ng/mL IL-1, as a modulating and chondrocyte apoptosis inducing agent. Different doses of HA (10, 20, and 40 µg/mL) were added 1 h prior to the addition of IL-1, to a monolayer culture of freshly isolated juvenile rat chondrocytes. The ratio of apoptotic cell death was surveyed by Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide double-labeling FACS analysis. The mitochondrial membrane potential of chondrocytes was evaluated by rhodamine-123 fluorescence. The mitochondrial function was evaluated through detecting the ATP production by a luciferase assay. The reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to measure mRNA expression levels of inducible oxide synthase (iNOS). HA could inhibit IL-1,-induced chondrocyte apoptosis in our cell culture model system. It was showed that addition of HA to the medium was able in a dose-dependent way to reduce the impairment of the mitochondrial membrane potential and to restore mitochondrial ATP production. This study shows that HA could suppress in a dose-dependent way chondrocyte apoptosis in our IL-1,-induced osteoarthritis model. The suppression of inflammatory cytokine activity within the joint might be one important mechanism of the clinical action of intraarticular injection of HA in the treatment of OA. © 2008 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res [source]

Quantitative analysis of gene expression in human articular chondrocytes assigned for autologous implantation

Ariana Barli
Abstract Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) relies on the implantation of in vitro expanded cells. The aim was to study the dedifferentiation of human articular chondrocytes under different cultivating conditions [days 0,10 in the primary culture (P0); passages in a monolayer from P0 to P3; monolayer vs. alginate and monolayer vs. alginate/agarose hydrogels] using real-time PCR analysis. The relative gene expressions for collagen type I and II, aggrecan and versican were quantified and the corresponding differentiation indexes (Col2/Col1, Agr/Ver) were calculated. The values of both differentiation indexes decreased exponentially with time in the P0 monolayer culture, and continued with a significant decrease over the subsequent monolayer passages. On the contrary, the chondrocytes seeded in either of the hydrogels significantly increased the indexes compared to their parallel monolayer cultures. These results indicate that alginate and alginate/agarose hydrogels offer an appropriate environment for human articular chondrocytes to redifferentiate after being expanded in vitro. Therefore the three-dimensional (3D) hydrogel chondrocyte cultures present not only surgical, but also biological advantage over the classic suspension,periosteum chondrocyte implantation. © 2008 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 26:847,853, 2008 [source]

Functional integrin subunits regulating cell,matrix interactions in the intervertebral disc

Christopher L. Gilchrist
Abstract Cellular interactions with the extracellular matrix are key factors regulating cell survival, differentiation, and response to environmental stimuli in cartilagenous tissues. Much is known about the extracellular matrix proteins in the intervertebral disc (IVD) and their variations with region, age, or degenerative state of the tissue. In contrast, little is known of the integrin cell surface receptors that directly bind to and interact with these matrix proteins in the IVD. In almost all tissues, these integrin-mediated cell,matrix interactions are important for transducing environmental cues arising from mechanical stimuli, matrix degradation fragments, and cytokines into intracellular signals. In this study, cells from the nucleus pulposus and anulus fibrosus regions of porcine IVDs were analyzed via flow cytometry to quantify integrin expression levels upon isolation and after monolayer culture. Assays of cell attachment to collagens, fibronectin, and laminin were performed after functional blocking of select integrin subunits to evaluate the role of specific integrins in cell attachment. In situ distribution and co-localization of integrins and laminin were also characterized. Results identify integrin receptors critical for IVD cell interactions with collagens (,1,1) and fibronectin (,5,1). Additionally, dramatic differences in cell,laminin interactions were observed between cells of the nucleus and anulus regions, including differences in ,6 integrin expression, cell adhesion to laminin, and in situ pericellular environments. These findings suggest laminin,cell interactions may be important and unique to the nucleus pulposus region of the IVD. The results of this study provide new information on functional cell,matrix interactions in tissues of the IVD. © 2006 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 25: 829,840, 2007 [source]

Repair of porcine articular cartilage defect with autologous chondrocyte transplantation

Hongsen Chiang
Abstract Articular cartilage is known to have poor healing capacity after injury. Autologous chondral grafting remains the mainstay to treat well-defined, full-thickness, symptomatic cartilage defects. We demonstrated the utilization of gelatin microbeads to deliver autologous chondrocytes for in vivo cartilage generation. Chondrocytes were harvested from the left forelimbs of 12 Lee-Sung pigs. The cells were expanded in monolayer culture and then seeded onto gelatin microbeads or left in monolayer. Shortly before implantation, the cell-laden beads were mixed with collagen type I gel, while the cells in monolayer culture were collected and re-suspended in culture medium. Full-thickness cartilage defects were surgically created in the weight-bearing surface of the femoral condyles of both knees, covered by periosteal patches taken from proximal tibia, and sealed with a porcine fibrin glue. In total, 48 condyles were equally allotted to experimental, control, and null groups that were filled beneath the patch with chondrocyte-laden beads in gel, chondrocytes in plain medium solution, or nothing, respectively. The repair was examined 6 months post-surgery on the basis of macroscopic appearance, histological scores based on the International Cartilage Repair Society Scale, and the proportion of characteristic chondrocytes. Tensile stress-relaxation behavior was determined from uniaxial indentation tests. The experimental group scored higher than the control group in the categories of matrix nature, cell distribution pattern, and absence of mineralization, with similar surface smoothness. Both the experimental and control groups were superior to the null group in the above-mentioned categories. Viable cell populations were equal in all groups, but the proportion of characteristic chondrocytes was highest in the experimental group. Matrix stiffness was ranked as null > native cartilage > control > experimental group. Transplanted autologous chondrocytes survive and could yield hyaline-like cartilage. The application of beads and gel for transplantation helped to retain the transferred cells in situ and maintain a better chondrocyte phenotype. © 2004 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [source]

Azathioprine hepatotoxicity and the protective effect of liquorice and glycyrrhizic acid

Yue-Ting Wu
Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the responses of human hepatocytes to azathioprine hepatotoxicity in comparison with the well-studied azathioprine hepatotoxicity in rat hepatocytes and the effects of protective agents to suppress azathioprine hepatotoxicity. Azathioprine presented its hepatotoxicity at clinically relevant concentrations (lower than 10 µm) in primary rat hepatocytes after 48 h of treatment as shown by a severe decrease in cell viability as well as intracellular GSH depletion. However, primary human hepatocytes exhibited only significant intracellular GSH depletion after treatment with azathioprine at these clinically relevant concentrations, while a reduction in cell viability by 29% was only evidenced after 48 h of treatment with azathioprine at the high concentration of 50 µm. In addition, a monolayer culture of primary rat hepatocytes was used as an in vitro model to examine the protective effects of antihepatotoxic drugs including glutathione (GSH), N-acetylcysteine (NAC, a GSH precursor), liquorice and glycyrrhizic acid (GA), a major bioactive component of liquorice, against hepatotoxicity of 1 µm azathioprine. It was found that both liquorice and GA showed substantial protection according to assays of cell viability and intracellular GSH, while neither GSH nor NAC had such a protective function. Similarly, GA protected human hepatocytes from intracellular GSH depletion on exposure to 1 µm azathioprine. These results implied that GA or liquorice could be considered as potent protection agents against azathioprine hepatotoxicity. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Electromagnetic and thermal evaluation of an applicator specialized to permit high-resolution non-perturbing optical evaluation of cells being irradiated in the W-band

William F. Pickard
Abstract To permit epi-illuminated, high-resolution optical microscopy of cells in monolayer culture during unperturbed W-band (75,110,GHz) irradiation, a new class of applicator has been developed based upon WR10 rectangular waveguide components: the cells are normally plated onto the underside of a coverslip which is then placed against the under side of a waveguide flange and receives a roughly circular exposure pattern, with the ±1,dB central spot roughly 1,mm in diameter. Constructed and tested with 94,GHz millimeter waves, water-immersion optics, and free-convection cooling, the applicator works robustly and permits SARs at the cell layer as high as 4500,W/kg before the steady-state temperature rise at the cell layer exceeds 0.5,K. Bioelectromagnetics 31:140,149, 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Hydrogel-Perfluorocarbon Composite Scaffold Promotes Oxygen Transport to Immobilized Cells

Kyuongsik Chin
Cell encapsulation provides cells a three-dimensional structure to mimic physiological conditions and improve cell signaling, proliferation, and tissue organization as compared to monolayer culture. Encapsulation devices often encounter poor mass transport, especially for oxygen, where critical dissolved levels must be met to ensure both cell survival and functionality. To enhance oxygen transport, we utilized perfluorocarbon (PFC) oxygen vectors, specifically perfluorooctyl bromide (PFOB) immobilized in an alginate matrix. Metabolic activity of HepG2 liver cells encapsulated in 1% alginate/10% PFOB composite system was 47,104% higher than alginate systems lacking PFOB. A cubic model was developed to understand the oxygen transport mechanism in the alginate/PFOB composite system. The theoretical flux enhancement in alginate systems containing 10% PFOB was 18% higher than in alginate-only systems. Oxygen uptake rates (OURs) of HepG2 cells were enhanced with 10% PFOB addition under both 20% and 5% O2 boundary conditions, by 8% and 15%, respectively. Model predictions were qualitatively and quantitatively verified with direct experimental OUR measurements using both a perfusion reactor and oxygen sensing plate, demonstrating a greater OUR enhancement under physiological O2 boundary conditions (i.e., 5% O2). Inclusion of PFCs in an encapsulation matrix is a useful strategy for overcoming oxygen limitations and ensuring cell viability and functionality both for large devices (>1 mm) and over extended time periods. Although our results specifically indicate positive enhancements in metabolic activity using the model HepG2 liver system encapsulated in alginate, PFCs could be useful for improving/stabilizing oxygen supply in a wide range of cell types and hydrogels. [source]

Sustained High-Yield Production of Recombinant Proteins in Transiently Transfected COS-7 Cells Grown on Trimethylamine-Coated (Hillex) Microcarrier Beads

Randall N. Knibbs
The present study shows that COS-7 cells transiently transfected and maintained on positively charged (trimethylamine-coated) microcarrier beads synthesize recombinant protein at higher levels and for longer periods of time than cells transfected and maintained on polystyrene flasks in monolayer culture. Sustained, high-level synthesis was observed with secreted chimeric proteins (murine E-selectin, and P-selectin-human IgM chimeras) and a secreted hematopoietic growth factor (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor). Studies with green fluorescent protein indicated that the transfected cells attached more firmly to the trimethylamine-coated microcarriers than to polystyrene flasks. After 10,14 days in culture, most of the transfected cells detached from the surface of the polystyrene flasks, whereas most transfected cells remained attached to the microcarriers. The transiently transfected microcarrier cultures produced higher levels of protein per transfected cell due to this prolonged attachment. The prolonged attachment and higher output of transfected cells on microcarriers resulted in a 5-fold increase in protein production from a single transfection over two weeks. Thus, microcarrier-based transient transfection yields quantities of recombinant proteins with a significant savings of time and reagents over monolayer culture. [source]

4-Methylumbelliferone inhibits tumour cell growth and the activation of stromal hyaluronan synthesis by melanoma cell-derived factors

M. Edward
Summary Background, There is a close correlation between tumour progression and hyaluronan production, either by tumour cells or by stromal cells that are stimulated by tumour-derived factors. Inhibition of tumour stimulation of fibroblast hyaluronan may suppress tumour growth and invasion. Objectives, To examine the effect of the hyaluronan synthesis inhibitor 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) on the growth of and hyaluronan synthesis by fibroblasts and C8161 and MV3 melanoma cell lines, invasion, and inhibition of tumour cell-derived factor activation of fibroblasts. Methods, Effects of 4-MU on growth and hyaluronan synthesis by fibroblasts and melanoma cells were examined in monolayer culture and fibroblast-contracted collagen lattices, and their effects on the growth and invasion of tumour cells into collagen lattices were also studied. Results, 4-MU caused a dose-dependent growth inhibition of fibroblast and melanoma cells with maximum inhibition at 0·5 mmol L,1 4-MU. At this dose, 4-MU inhibited 3H-glucosamine incorporation into fibroblast glycosaminoglycans by 52%, and hyaluronan synthesis by 64%. The relative inhibition was more pronounced when fibroblasts were stimulated with C8161 melanoma cell-conditioned medium. 4-MU reduced the level of hyaluronan in fibroblast-contracted collagen lattices, and inhibited both the growth on and invasion into the lattices by melanoma cells. This growth inhibition appears to be predominantly independent of inhibition of hyaluronan synthesis. The effect on growth inhibition was reversible, and 4-MU had no effect on apoptosis. Conclusions, 4-MU is a potent inhibitor of hyaluronan synthesis, induction of stromal hyaluronan accumulation by tumour cells, and fibroblast and melanoma cell proliferation, and results suggest that 4-MU may have potential as a tumour cell anti-invasive and antiproliferative agent. [source]

Combined targeting of MAPK and AKT signalling pathways is a promising strategy for melanoma treatment

F. Meier
Summary Background, In melanoma, several signalling pathways are constitutively activated. Among them, the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK (MAPK) and PI3K/AKT (AKT) signalling pathways are activated through multiple mechanisms and appear to play a major role in melanoma development and progression. Objectives, In this study, we examined whether targeting the MAPK and/or AKT signalling pathways would have therapeutic effects against melanoma. Methods, Using a panel of pharmacological inhibitors (BAY 43-9006, PD98059, U0126, wortmannin, LY294002) we inhibited the MAPK and AKT signalling pathways at different levels and evaluated the effects on growth, survival and invasion of melanoma cells in monolayer and organotypic skin culture. Results, Antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects of inhibitors alone in monolayer culture were disappointing and varied among the different cell lines. In contrast, combined targeting of the MAPK and AKT signalling pathways significantly inhibited growth and enhanced apoptosis in monolayer culture. To verify our data in a more physiological context we incorporated melanoma cells into regenerated human skin mimicking the microenvironment of human melanoma. Combinations of MAPK and AKT inhibitors completely suppressed invasive tumour growth of melanoma cells in regenerated human skin. Conclusions, Combined targeting of MAPK and AKT signalling pathways is a promising strategy for melanoma treatment and should encourage further in-depth investigations. [source]

Rifampicin exacerbates isoniazid-induced toxicity in human but not in rat hepatocytes in tissue-like cultures

C Shen
Background and purpose: Rifampicin has been extensively reported to exacerbate the hepatotoxicity of isoniazid in patients with tuberculosis. However, this was controversially claimed by previous reports using rat models. This study evaluated the effect of rifampicin on isoniazid-induced hepatocyte toxicity by using human and rat hepatocytes in tissue-like culture. Experimental approach: Hepatocytes in tissue-like gel entrapment were used to examine isoniazid toxicity, as shown by cell viability, intracellular glutathione content and albumin secretion. For demonstration of the differential effects of rifampicin on human and rat hepatocytes, induction by rifampicin of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2E1, a major enzyme associated with isoniazid hepatotoxicity, was detected by 4-nitrocatechol formation and RT-PCR analysis. Key results: Rifampicin (12 ,M) enhanced isoniazid-induced toxicity in human hepatocytes but not in rat hepatocytes. Enhanced CYP 2E1 enzymic activity and mRNA expression were similarly detected in human hepatocytes but not in rat hepatocytes. Both rat and human hepatocytes in gel entrapment were more sensitive to isoniazid treatment compared with the corresponding hepatocytes in a monolayer culture. Conclusions and implications: The difference in induction of CYP 2E1 by rifampicin between rat and human hepatocytes accounted for the difference in exacerbation of isoniazid hepatocyte toxicity by rifampicin, with more significant toxicity in gel entrapment than in monolayer cultures. Thus, human hepatocytes in tissue-like cultures (gel entrapment) could be an effective model for hepatotoxicity research in vitro, closer to the in vivo situation. British Journal of Pharmacology (2008) 153, 784,791; doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0707611; published online 10 December 2007 [source]

The skin as a biofactory for systemic secretion of erythropoietin: potential of genetically modified keratinocytes and fibroblasts

Frank Scheidemann
Abstract Background:, The skin is an interesting target tissue for gene therapy applications because of its ready accessibility. One possibility would be to utilize the genetically modified skin as a biofactory secreting a systemically needed product, such as erythropoietin (EPO). Methods:, Keratinocytes (KC) and fibroblasts (FB) were transduced with a retroviral vector encoding human EPO. Gene transfer efficiency was assessed by real-time PCR analysis and flow cytometry of transduced cells. In addition, EPO synthesis and secretion were analysed by quantifying the amount of RNA and secreted protein in both monolayer cultures and skin equivalents (SE). Results:, When cultured as a monolayer, EPO-KC synthesized significantly more EPO than EPO-FB, as shown by quantitatively measuring the amount of secreted protein and RNA. This correlated with an increased EPO-vector incorporation in KC compared with FB, demonstrated by determining both the percentage of transduced cells and the average transgene copy number per cell. In addition, in transduced cell cultures enriched to equally high percentages of EPO+ cells, KC showed a higher activity of EPO secretion than FB. Finally, when assembled in a SE, EPO-KC secreted significantly higher amounts of EPO than EPO-FB, although reduced secretory activity of EPO-KC monolayers grown in high calcium concentrations suggested that in stratified epidermis differentiated KC secrete less EPO than non-differentiated KC. Conclusion:, In summary, while both transduced KC and FB are able to synthesize and secrete human EPO, KC show higher potential in serving as possible target cells for therapeutic substitution with EPO, probably because of improved transduction rates and increased secretory activity. [source]

Characterization of human fetal osteoblasts by microarray analysis following stimulation with 58S bioactive gel-glass ionic dissolution products

Ioannis Christodoulou
Abstract Bioactive glasses dissolve upon immersion in culture medium, releasing their constitutive ions in solution. There is evidence suggesting that these ionic dissolution products influence osteoblast-specific processes. Here, we investigated the effect of 58S sol,gel-derived bioactive glass (60 mol % SiO2, 36 mol % CaO, 4 mol % P2O5) dissolution products on primary osteoblasts derived from human fetal long bone explant cultures (hFOBs). We used U133A human genome GeneChip® oligonucleotide arrays to examine 22,283 transcripts and variants, which represent over 18,000 well-substantiated human genes. Hybridization of samples (biotinylated cRNA) derived from monolayer cultures of hFOBs on the arrays revealed that 10,571 transcripts were expressed by these cells, with high confidence. These included transcripts representing osteoblast-related genes coding for growth factors and their associated molecules or receptors, protein components of the extracellular matrix (ECM), enzymes involved in degradation of the ECM, transcription factors, and other important osteoblast-associated markers. A 24-h treatment with a single dosage of ionic products of sol,gel 58S dissolution induced the differential expression of a number of genes, including IL-6 signal transducer/gp130, ISGF-3/STAT1, HIF-1 responsive RTP801, ERK1 p44 MAPK (MAPK3), MAPKAPK2, IGF-I and IGFBP-5. The over 2-fold up-regulation of gp130 and MAPK3 and down-regulation of IGF-I were confirmed by real-time RT-PCR analysis. These data suggest that 58S ionic dissolution products possibly mediate the bioactive effect of 58S through components of the IGF system and MAPK signaling pathways. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2006 [source]

Comparison of articular and auricular cartilage as a cell source for the autologous chondrocyte implantation

Elvira Mali
Abstract Articular (medial femoral condyle) and auricular cartilage (anithelix) was compared as a cell source for the autologous joint repair. Cells isolated from five human cadaveric donors were cultured parallel in the monolayer cultures and in the 3D alginate hydrogel constructs for 1 week. Cell morphology was controlled by the fluorescent microscopy and gene expressions of type I collagen (COL1), type II collagen (COL2), aggrecan (AGR), versican (VER), and elastin (ELS) were analyzed by the real-time polymerase chain reaction. COL1 and ELS, predominant in the phenotype of auricular biopsy, were statistically lower in the articular biopsies. Even though COL2 and AGR decreased in monolayers of both cell sources, the dedifferentiation process affected auricular cells intensely. Cells embedded in the alginate hydrogel directly after the isolation did not exhibit the dedifferentiated phenotype. Additionally, COL1, COL2, AGR, and VER were comparable between the two sources. ELS however, remained higher in the auricular cells regardless of the culture type. The study indicates that auricular chondrocytes cultured in a 3D environment immediately after the isolation have a neo-cartilage potential for the articular surface reconstruction. © 2008 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 27: 943,948, 2009 [source]

The presence and distribution of lubricin in the caprine intervertebral disc

Kristy M. Shine
Abstract Lubricin is a large, multifunctional glycoprotein that is known to play a role as a boundary lubricant in diarthrodial joint articulation. The hypothesis of this study was that lubricin is present in the intervertebral disc in a distribution consistent with serving to facilitate interlamellar tribology. The objectives were to: (1) determine the distribution of lubricin in the normal caprine disc; and (2) investigate the synthesis of lubricin by caprine annulus fibrosus (AF) and nucleus pulposus (NP) cells in vitro, using immunohistochemical methods. Caprine lumbar intervertebral discs from five levels and four animals were studied. Positive staining revealed the presence of the lubricin in the outer AF of nearly all samples. No staining was present in the inner AF or the NP. Within the outer AF, lubricin was prominent in the layers separating lamellae and in the extracellular matrix of the lamellae. Some of the AF cells within the lubricin-positive regions demonstrated intracellular lubricin staining, suggesting that these cells may be synthesizing the lubricin protein observed. Immunohistochemistry performed on monolayer cultures of primary AF and NP cells demonstrated intracellular lubricin staining in both cell types. Thus, lubricin is selectively present in the outer caprine intervertebral disc AF, and its distribution suggests that it may play a role in interlamellar tribology. Cells from both the annulus and nucleus were found capable of synthesizing lubricin in vitro, suggesting that these cells may be a potential source of the glycoprotein under some conditions. © 2008 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 26:1398,1406, 2008 [source]

Quantitative analysis of gene expression in human articular chondrocytes assigned for autologous implantation

Ariana Barli
Abstract Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) relies on the implantation of in vitro expanded cells. The aim was to study the dedifferentiation of human articular chondrocytes under different cultivating conditions [days 0,10 in the primary culture (P0); passages in a monolayer from P0 to P3; monolayer vs. alginate and monolayer vs. alginate/agarose hydrogels] using real-time PCR analysis. The relative gene expressions for collagen type I and II, aggrecan and versican were quantified and the corresponding differentiation indexes (Col2/Col1, Agr/Ver) were calculated. The values of both differentiation indexes decreased exponentially with time in the P0 monolayer culture, and continued with a significant decrease over the subsequent monolayer passages. On the contrary, the chondrocytes seeded in either of the hydrogels significantly increased the indexes compared to their parallel monolayer cultures. These results indicate that alginate and alginate/agarose hydrogels offer an appropriate environment for human articular chondrocytes to redifferentiate after being expanded in vitro. Therefore the three-dimensional (3D) hydrogel chondrocyte cultures present not only surgical, but also biological advantage over the classic suspension,periosteum chondrocyte implantation. © 2008 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 26:847,853, 2008 [source]

Increased accumulation of superficial zone protein (SZP) in articular cartilage in response to bone morphogenetic protein-7 and growth factors

Afshin Khalafi
Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), such as BMP-7, growth factors, and cytokines, in the accumulation of superficial zone protein (SZP) in bovine articular cartilage. Calf superficial articular cartilage discs and chondrocytes were obtained for explant and monolayer culture systems, respectively. Dose- and time-dependent actions of BMP-7 on SZP accumulation were investigated in both explant and monolayer culture systems. In addition, actions of various morphogens and growth factors [BMP-2, BMP-4, fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and transforming growth factor , (TGF-,1)], and cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1,, IL-1,, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-,)] alone, and in combination with BMP-7, on SZP accumulation were investigated in monolayer culture systems. SZP accumulation was quantified in both the cartilage and the medium using SDS-PAGE and subsequent immunoblotting. In both explant and monolayer cultures, BMP-7 increased SZP accumulation in a dose- and time-dependent fashion (p,<,0.05). Furthermore, SZP accumulation was significantly increased in monolayer cultures by FGF-2, IGF-1, PDGF, and TGF-,1 (p,<,0.05). Both IL-1, and TNF-, significantly reduced SZP accumulation (p,<,0.05). The inhibition of SZP accumulation by TNF-, was partially alleviated by concurrent treatment with BMP-7. The results of this investigation provide novel insights into the role of morphogens, especially BMP-7, growth factors, and cytokines in the accumulation of SZP in articular cartilage. This information has clinical implications because stimulation of SZP may ameliorate the pathology of joint function in arthritis. Furthermore, tissue engineering approaches to articular cartilage may depend on the optimal synthesis and assembly of SZP in the superficial zone to ensure functional tissue architecture. © 2006 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 2007 [source]

Multilineage mesenchymal differentiation potential of human trabecular bone-derived cells

Ulrich Nöth
Abstract Explant cultures of adult human trabecular bone fragments give rise to osteoblastic cells, that are known to express osteoblast-related genes and mineralize extracellular matrix. These osteoblastic cells have also been shown to undergo adipogenesis in vitro and chondrogenesis in vivo. Here we report the in vitro developmental potential of adult human osteoblastic cells (hOB) derived from explant cultures of collagenase-pretreated trabecular bone fragments. In addition to osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation, these cells are capable of chondrogenic differentiation in vitro in a manner similar to adult human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells. High-density pellet cultures of hOB maintained in chemically defined serum-free medium, supplemented with transforming growth factor-,1, were composed of morphologically distinct, chondrocyte-like cells expressing mRNA transcripts of collagen types II, IX and X, and aggrecan. The cells within the high-density pellet cultures were surrounded by a sulfated prote-oglycan-rich extracellular matrix that immunostained for collagen type II and proteoglycan link protein. Osteogenic differentiation of hOB was verified by an increased number of alkaline phosphatase-positive cells, that expressed osteoblast-related transcripts such as alkaline phosphatase, collagen type I, osteopontin and osteocalcin, and formed mineralized matrix in monolayer cultures treated with ascorbate, ,-glycerophosphate, and bone morphogenetic protein-2. Adipogenic differentiation of hOB was determined by the appearance of intracellular lipid droplets, and expression of adipocyte-specific genes, such as lipoprotein lipase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ,2, in monolayer cultures treated with dexamethasone, indomethacin, insulin and 3-isobutyl-l-methylxanthine. Taken together, these results show that cells derived from collagenase-treated adult human trabecular bone fragments have the potential to differentiate into multiple mesenchymal lineages in vitro, indicating their developmental plasticity and suggesting their mesenchymal progenitor nature. © 2002 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [source]

Basic fibroblast growth factor induces the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-3 in human periodontal ligament cells through the MEK2 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway

Atsushi Shimazu
Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, FGF-2) is one of the potent mitogens for periodontal ligament (PDL) cells. However, the role of bFGF on the matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) expression in PDL cells is unknown. In this study, the effect of bFGF on MMP-3 expression in PDL cells and the mechanism of this process were examined. Human PDL cells were exposed to bFGF at various concentrations (0.01,10 ng/ml) in monolayer cultures. bFGF increased [3H]thymidine incorporation and suppressed proteoglycan synthesis concentration-dependently. However, similar concentration ranges of bFGF increased the release of the cell-associated proteoglycans into the medium. Furthermore, bFGF increased MMP-3 mRNA levels concentration-dependently as examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Induction of MMP-3 after the stimulation with bFGF was observed as early as 12 h with maximal at 24 h. Thereafter, the MMP-3 mRNA level gradually decreased until 72 h. Cycloheximide blocked the induction of MMP-3 by bFGF, indicating the requirement of de novo protein synthesis for this stimulation. Furthermore, MMP-3 expression induced by bFGF was abrogated by U0126, a specific inhibitor of MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 in mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway, not by PD98059, a specific inhibitor of MEK1. In addition, bFGF up-regulated the phosphorylated ERK1/2 in 5 min with the maximal at 20 min as examined by Western blotting, and U0126 inhibited the ERK1/2 phosphorylation induced by bFGF. These findings suggest that bFGF induces MMP-3 expression in PDL cells through the activation of the MEK2 in MAP kinase pathway. bFGF stimulation on MMP-3 synthesis may be involved in the control of the cell-associated proteoglycans in PDL cells during periodontal regeneration and degradation. [source]

Curcumin-induced apoptosis in ovarian carcinoma cells is p53-independent and involves p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation and downregulation of Bcl-2 and survivin expression and Akt signaling,

Jane L. Watson
Abstract New cytotoxic agents are urgently needed for the treatment of advanced ovarian cancer because of the poor long-term response of this disease to conventional chemotherapy. Curcumin, obtained from the rhizome of Curcuma longa, has potent anticancer activity; however, the mechanism of curcumin-induced cytotoxicity in ovarian cancer cells remains a mystery. In this study we show that curcumin exhibited time- and dose-dependent cytotoxicity against monolayer cultures of ovarian carcinoma cell lines with differing p53 status (wild-type p53: HEY, OVCA429; mutant p53: OCC1; null p53: SKOV3). In addition, p53 knockdown or p53 inhibition did not diminish curcumin killing of HEY cells, confirming p53-independent cytotoxicity. Curcumin also killed OVCA429, and SKOV3 cells grown as multicellular spheroids. Nuclear condensation and fragmentation, as well as DNA fragmentation and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 cleavage in curcumin-treated HEY cells, indicated cell death by apoptosis. Procaspase-3, procaspase-8, and procaspase-9 cleavage, in addition to cytochrome c release and Bid cleavage into truncated Bid, revealed that curcumin activated both the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of apoptosis. Bax expression was unchanged but Bcl-2, survivin, phosphorylated Akt (on serine 473), and total Akt were downregulated in curcumin-treated HEY cells. Curcumin also activated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) without altering extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activity. We conclude that p53-independent curcumin-induced apoptosis in ovarian carcinoma cells involves p38 MAPK activation, ablation of prosurvival Akt signaling, and reduced expression of the antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and survivin. These data provide a mechanistic rationale for the potential use of curcumin in the treatment of ovarian cancer. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

In vitro liver model using microfabricated scaffolds in a modular bioreactor

Bruna Vinci
Abstract Hepatocyte function on 3-D microfabricated polymer scaffolds realised with the pressure-activated microsyringe was tested under static and dynamic conditions. The dynamic cell culture was obtained using the multicompartment modular bioreactor system. Hepatocyte cell density, glucose consumption, and albumin secretion rate were measured daily over a week. Cells seeded on scaffolds showed an increase in cell density compared with monolayer controls. Moreover, in dynamic culture, cell metabolic function increased three times in comparison with static monolayer cultures. These results suggest that cell density and cell-cell interactions are mediated by the architecture of the substrate, while the endogenous biochemical functions are regulated by a sustainable supply of nutrients and interstitial-like flow. Thus, a combination of 3-D scaffolds and dynamic flow conditions are both important for the development of a hepatic tissue model for applications in drug testing and regenerative medicine. [source]

Evaluation of Production Parameters with the Vaccinia Virus Expression System Using Microcarrier Attached HeLa Cells

Nicole A. Bleckwenn
Parameters that affect production of the recombinant reporter protein, EGFP, in the T7 promoter based VOTE vaccinia virus-HeLa cell expression system were examined. Length of infection phase, inducer concentration, and timing of its addition relative to infection were evaluated in 6-well plate monolayer cultures. One hour infection with 1.0 mM IPTG added at the time of infection provided a robust process. For larger scale experiments, anchorage-dependent HeLa cells were grown on 5 g/L Cytodex 3 microcarriers. The change to this dynamic culture environment, with cell-covered microcarriers suspended in culture medium in spinner flasks, suggested a re-examination of the multiplicity of infection (MOI) for this culture type that indicated a need for an increase in the number of virus particles per cell to 5.0, higher than that needed for complete infection in monolayer tissue flask culture. Additionally, dissolved oxygen level and temperature during the protein production phase were evaluated for their effect on EGFP expression in microcarrier spinner flask culture. Both increased dissolved oxygen, based on surface area to volume (SA/V) adjustments, and decreased temperature from 37 to 31 °C showed increases in EGFP production over the course of the production phase. The level of production achieved with this system reached approximately 17 ,g EGFP/106 infected cells. [source]