Monocyte Chemoattractant (monocyte + chemoattractant)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Monocyte Chemoattractant

  • chemokine monocyte chemoattractant

  • Terms modified by Monocyte Chemoattractant

  • monocyte chemoattractant protein

  • Selected Abstracts

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) produced via NF-,B signaling pathway mediates migration of amoeboid microglia in the periventricular white matter in hypoxic neonatal rats

    GLIA, Issue 6 2009
    Y. Y. Deng
    Abstract Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), a member of ,-chemokine subfamily, regulates the migration of microglia, monocytes, and lymphocytes to the inflammatory site in the central nervous system. We sought to determine if amoeboid microglial cells (AMC) produce MCP-1 that may be linked to migration of AMC in the corpus callosum periventricular white matter in hypoxic neonatal rats. A striking feature in 1-day-old rats subjected to hypoxia was a marked increase in cell numbers of AMC and immunoexpression of MCP-1 and its receptor (CCR2). By BrdU immunostaining, there was no significant change in the proliferation rate of AMC after hypoxic exposure when compared with the corresponding control rats. When injected intracerebrally into the corpus callosum of 7-day-old postnatal rats, MCP-1 induced the chemotactic migration of AMC to the injection site. In primary microglial cell culture subjected to hypoxia, there was a significant increase in MCP-1 release involving NF-,B signaling pathway. In in vitro chemotaxis assay, the medium derived from hypoxia-treated microglial cultures attracted more migratory microglial cells than that from the control microglial culture. The present results suggest that following a hypoxic insult, AMC in the neonatal rats increase MCP-1 production via NF-,B signaling pathway. This induces the migration and accumulation of AMC from the neighboring areas to the periventricular white matter (PWM). It is concluded that the preponderance and active migration of AMC, as well as them being the main cellular source of MCP-1, may offer an explanation for the PWM being susceptible to hypoxic damage in neonatal brain. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1)/CCL2 secreted by hepatic myofibroblasts promotes migration and invasion of human hepatoma cells

    Maylis Dagouassat
    Abstract The aim of our study was to investigate whether myofibroblasts and the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1)/CCL2 may play a role in hepatocellular carcinoma progression. We observed that hepatic myofibroblast LI90 cells express MCP-1/CCL2 mRNA and secrete this chemokine. Moreover, myofibroblast LI90 cell-conditioned medium (LI90-CM) induces human hepatoma Huh7 cell migration and invasion. These effects are strongly reduced when a MCP-1/CCL2-depleted LI90-CM was used. We showed that MCP-1/CCL2 induces Huh7 cell migration and invasion through its G-protein,coupled receptor CCR2 and, to a lesser extent, through CCR1 only at high MCP-1/CCL2 concentrations. MCP-1/CCL2's chemotactic activities rely on tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion components and depend on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9. Furthermore, we observed that Huh7 cell migration and invasion induced by the chemokine are strongly inhibited by heparin, by ,-D-xyloside treatment of cells and by anti-syndecan-1 and -4 antibodies. Finally, we developed a 3-dimensional coculture model of myofibroblast LI90 and Huh7 cells and demonstrated that MCP-1/CCL2 and its membrane partners, CCR1 and CCR2, may be involved in the formation of mixed hepatoma-myofibroblast spheroids. In conclusion, our data show that human liver myofibroblasts act on hepatoma cells in a paracrine manner to increase their invasiveness and suggest that myofibroblast-derived MCP-1/CCL2 could be involved in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma. [source]

    The combination of polymorphisms within MCP-1 and IL-1, associated with ulcerative colitis

    K.-S. Li
    Summary Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a chemokine involved in monocyte recruitment to sites of inflammation. Raised level of MCP-1 has been widely demonstrated in the intestinal mucosa of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), suggesting an important role of MCP-1 in the pathogenesis of UC. The ,2518A/G polymorphism in the promoter region of MCP-1 gene affecting its transcriptional activation has been reported recently. In order to assess the potential role of this polymorphism in UC, we examined its distribution in 162 unrelated UC patients and 203 healthy controls. In addition, considering the gene regulatory association between interleukin-1, (IL-1,) and MCP-1, we further examined whether the gene polymorphisms between MCP-1 and IL-1, exert synergetic effects on risk of UC. Our results show that the distribution of MCP-1 genotype or allele frequencies between UC patients and controls was not significantly different; however, the association between the polymorphism of MCP-1 ,2518 GG and the polymorphism of IL-1,,511 T in UC patients is significant (OR 2.062, 95% CI 1.034,4.113, P = 0.038). This is the first report describing the association between MCP-1 polymorphism and UC, and our data suggest that the MCP-1 ,2518 polymorphism itself does not represent an independent genetic risk factor for UC. In contrast, the combination polymorphisms between MCP-1 and IL-1, can increase UC risk significantly, which might help us understand the molecular mechanism underlying the development of UC. [source]

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and recurrent cardiovascular events in patients with stable coronary heart disease

    Dr. Moti Haim M.D.
    Abstract Background: Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) participates in the recruitment of mononuclear cells to the vessel wall. Hypothesis: The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential association between serum concentration of MCP-1 and risk of future cardiovascular events in patients with chronic coronary heart disease. Methods: A nested case control design was used. Baseline serum samples were taken from patients with coronary heart disease who were enrolled in a secondary prevention study. The MCP-1 levels were measured in those patients who had recurrent cardiovascular events during follow-up (n=23 3) and compared with levels in age- and gender-matched controls. Results: There were no differences in serum MCP-1 levels between cases and controls. The relative odds of a recurrent cardiovascular event for each 1 standard deviation difference in MCP-1 serum concentration (160 pg/ml) was 1.19 (95% confidence interval, 0.95,1.45). No increase in the relative odds for recurrent cardiovascular events was observed per increasing tertiles of MCP-1 concentrations. Conclusion: Elevated MCP-1 levels are not associated with long-term risk of cardiovascular events in patients with stable coronary disease. [source]

    TRAF6 knockdown promotes survival and inhibits inflammatory response to lipopolysaccharides in rat primary renal proximal tubule cells

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 3 2010
    S. Liu
    Abstract Aim:, TRAF6 is a unique adaptor protein of the tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated factor family that mediates both tumour necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) and interleukin-1 receptor/Toll-like receptor (IL-1R/TLR) signalling. Activation of IL-1R/TLR and TNFR pathways in renal tubular cells contributes to renal injury. This study aimed to investigate if blockade of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-triggered TLR4 signalling by small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting TRAF6 protects survival and inhibits inflammatory response in isolated rat renal proximal tubular cells (PTCs). Methods:, PTCs isolated from F344 rat kidneys were transfected with chemically synthesized siRNA targeting TRAF6 mRNA. Real-time quantitative PCR was applied to measure mRNA level of TRAF6, TNF-,, IL-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Protein levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, caspase 3 and cleaved caspase 3 were evaluated by Western blotting. Cell viability was analysed with XTT reagents. Results:, We found that the TRAF6 gene was effectively silenced in PTCs using siRNA. TRAF6 knockdown resulted in reduced TNF-, and IL-6 mRNA expression upon LPS challenge. LPS-induced phosphorylation of JNK and p38 was attenuated in TRAF6 siRNA-transfected cells while the change in the phosphorylation of ERK was not remarkable. TRAF6 knockdown was associated with increased cell viability and reduced protein level of cleaved caspase-3, both, in the absence and presence of LPS. Conclusion:, Our studies suggest that TRAF6 knockdown may inhibit inflammatory response and promote cell survival upon LPS challenge in primary rat proximal renal tubular cells. [source]

    Caucasian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have elevated levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 that are not influenced by the ,2518 A,G promoter polymorphism

    B. Zietz
    Aim:, To investigate the association of serum levels and the ,2518 A,G promoter polymorphism of the gene for chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), a major chemoattractant of monocytes and activated lymphocytes, with metabolic parameters as well as insulin, leptin and the cytokines tumour necrosis factor-, (TNF-,) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in 534 Caucasian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods:, MCP-1 concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. MCP-1 genotyping was performed by RFLP analysis in a subset of 426 patients. Results:, Two hundred and thirty-one (54.2%) patients were homozygous for the wildtype allele (AA), 156 (36.6%) were heterozygous (AG) and 39 (9.2%) were homozygous for the mutated allele (GG). Allelic frequency was similar to non-diabetic populations (wildtype allele A: 0.73; mutated allele G: 0.27). MCP-1 mean concentrations and percentiles were substantially higher in non-diabetic populations but were not influenced by the genotype (AA: 662.0 ± 323.0 pg/ml; AG: 730.6 ± 491.4 pg/ml; GG: 641.2 ± 323.8 pg/ml). MCP-1 serum levels and genotypes were only marginally related to hormones (insulin and leptin) and cytokines (TNF-, and IL-6). Conclusions:, This is the first study providing MCP-1 levels, percentiles and genotype frequency in a large and representative cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Compared to the literature, MCP-1 levels were found to be substantially higher in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In contrast, genotype frequencies were similar compared to those in non-diabetic patients and were not related to MCP-1 levels. The mechanisms behind these elevated MCP-1 serum levels in type 2 diabetes are not to be explained by simple associations with hormones, cytokines or genotypes. [source]

    Fatty acids as metabolic mediators in innate immunity

    A. Kopp
    Abstract Background, Increasing data support the hypothesis of a local and systemic crosstalk between adipocytes and monocytes mediated by fatty acids. The aim of this study was to characterize the immunomodulatory effects of a large panel of fatty acids on cytokines and chemokines in monocytic THP-1 cells and primary human monocytes. We tested whether anti-inflammatory fatty acids are able to inhibit the binding of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to its receptor, toll-like receptor/MD-2 (TLR4/MD-2). Materials and methods, Resistin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Proteins were analysed by Western blot. A designed Flag-tagged TLR4/MD-2 fusion protein (LPS trap) was used to investigate the effect of fatty acids on binding of LPS to its receptor. In 30 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), the correlation of serum triglyceride levels with LPS-induced monocyte activation was analysed. Results, Eleven fatty acids investigated exerted differential effects on the monocytic release of cytokines and chemokines. Eicosapentaenoic acid had potent anti-inflammatory effects on human primary monocytes and THP-1 cells; 100 and 200 ,M eicosapentaenoic acid dose-dependently inhibited LPS binding to the LPS trap. LPS-induced release of monocytic MCP-1 and TNF was significantly and positively correlated with serum triglyceride levels in 30 patients with T2D. Conclusions, Monocytic activation is differentially regulated by fatty acids and depends on triglyceride levels in T2D. The main finding of the present study shows that eicosapentaenoic acid inhibits the specific binding of LPS to TLR4/MD-2. Eicosapentaenoic acid represents a new anti-inflammatory LPS-antagonist. [source]

    Altered immune response to CNS viral infection in mice with a conditional knock-down of macrophage-lineage cells

    GLIA, Issue 2 2006
    Jessica Carmen
    Abstract Neuroadapted Sindbis Virus (NSV) is a neuronotropic virus that causes hindlimb paralysis in susceptible mice and rats. The authors and others have demonstrated that though death of infected motor neurons occurs, bystander death of uninfected neurons also occurs and both contribute to the paralysis that ensues following infection. The authors have previously shown that the treatment of NSV-infected mice with minocycline, an inhibitor that has many functions within the central nervous system (CNS), including inhibiting microglial activation, protects mice from paralysis and death. The authors, therefore, proposed that microglial activation may contribute to bystander death of motor neurons following NSV infection. Here, the authors tested the hypothesis using a conditional knock-out of activated macrophage-lineage cells, including endogenous CNS macrophage cells. Surprisingly, ablation of these cells resulted in more rapid death and similar weakness in the hind limbs of NSV-infected animals compared with that of control animals. Several key chemokines including IL-12 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) did not become elevated in these animals, resulting in decreased infiltration of T lymphocytes into the CNS of the knock-down animals. Either because of the decreased macrophage activation directly or because of the reduced immune cell influx, viral replication persisted longer within the nervous system in knock-down mice than in wild type mice. The authors, therefore, conclude that although macrophage-lineage cells in the CNS may contribute to neurodegeneration in certain situations, they also serve a protective role, such as control of viral replication. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    HIV-1 Tat and opiate-induced changes in astrocytes promote chemotaxis of microglia through the expression of MCP-1 and alternative chemokines

    GLIA, Issue 2 2006
    Nazira El-Hage
    Abstract Opiates exacerbate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Tat1-72 -induced release of key proinflammatory cytokines by astrocytes, which may accelerate HIV neuropathogenesis in opiate abusers. The release of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, also known as CCL2), in particular, is potentiated by opiate,HIV Tat interactions in vitro. Although MCP-1 draws monocytes/macrophages to sites of CNS infection, and activated monocytes/microglia release factors that can damage bystander neurons, the role of MCP-1 in neuro-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (neuroAIDS) progression in opiate abusers, or nonabusers, is uncertain. Using a chemotaxis assay, N9 microglial cell migration was found to be significantly greater in conditioned medium from mouse striatal astrocytes exposed to morphine and/or Tat1-72 than in vehicle-, ,-opioid receptor (MOR) antagonist-, or inactive, mutant Tat,31-61 -treated controls. Conditioned medium from astrocytes treated with morphine and Tat caused the greatest increase in motility. The response was attenuated using conditioned medium immunoneutralized with MCP-1 antibodies, or medium from MCP-1,/, astrocytes. In the presence of morphine (time-release, subcutaneous implant), intrastriatal Tat increased the proportion of neural cells that were astroglia and F4/80+ macrophages at 7 days post-injection. This was not seen after treatment with Tat alone, or with morphine plus inactive Tat,31-61 or naltrexone. Glia displayed increased MOR and MCP-1 immunoreactivity after morphine and/or Tat exposure. The findings indicate that MCP-1 underlies most of the response of microglia, suggesting that one way in which opiates exacerbate neuroAIDS is by increasing astroglial-derived proinflammatory chemokines at focal sites of CNS infection and promoting macrophage entry and local microglial activation. Importantly, increased glial expression of MOR can trigger an opiate-driven amplification/positive feedback of MCP-1 production and inflammation. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Tumor necrosis factor is required for RANTES-induced astrocyte monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 production

    GLIA, Issue 2 2003
    Yi Luo
    Abstract Astrocytes respond to stimulation with the chemokine RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed) by production of a series of cytokines and chemokines, including tumor necrosis factor-, (TNF-,) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). In the present study we demonstrate that RANTES induces TNF, which in turn stimulates subsequent production of MCP-1. TNF-R1 (p55) serves as the principal receptor responsible for MCP-1 synthesis. The results define an astrocyte proinflammatory cascade that amplifies synthesis of proinflammatory mediators. The implications of these findings to inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system are discussed. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    RANTES stimulates inflammatory cascades and receptor modulation in murine astrocytes

    GLIA, Issue 1 2002
    Yi Luo
    Abstract Cultured mouse astrocytes respond to the CC chemokine RANTES by production of chemokine and cytokine transcripts. Stimulation of astrocytes with 1 nM RANTES or 3,10 nM of the structurally related chemokines (eotaxin, macrophage inflammatory protein-1, and -, [MIP-1,, MIP-1,]) induced transcripts for KC, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), tumor necrosis factor-, (TNF-,), MIP-1,, MIP-2, and RANTES in a chemokine and cell-specific fashion. Synthesis of chemokine (KC and MCP-1) and cytokine (TNF-,) proteins was also demonstrated. RANTES-mediated chemokine synthesis was specifically inhibited by pertussis toxin, indicating that G-protein-coupled chemokine receptors participated in astrocyte signaling. Astrocytes expressed CCR1 and CCR5 (the redundant RANTES receptors). Astrocytes derived from mice with targeted mutations of either CCR1 or CCR5 respond after RANTES stimulation, suggesting multiple chemokine receptors may separately mediate RANTES responsiveness in astrocytes. Preliminary data suggest activation of the MAP kinase pathway is also critical for RANTES-mediated signaling in astrocytes. Treatment with RANTES specifically modulated astrocyte receptors upregulating intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and downregulating CX3CR1 expression. Thus, after chemokine treatment, astrocytes release proinflammatory mediators and reprogram their surface molecules. The combined effects of RANTES may serve to amplify inflammatory responses within the central nervous system. GLIA 39:19,30, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Inflammation and drug hepatotoxicity: Aggravation of injury or clean-up mission?,

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 5 2005
    Hartmut Jaeschke
    BACKGROUND & AIMS Inflammatory mediators released by nonparenchymal inflammatory cells in the liver have been implicated in the progression of acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity. Among hepatic nonparenchymal inflammatory cells, we examined the role of the abundant natural killer (NK) cells and NK cells with T-cell receptors (NKT cells) in APAP-induced liver injury. METHODS C57BL/6 mice were administered a toxic dose of APAP intraperitoneally to cause liver injury with or without depletion of NK and NKT cells by anti-NK1.1 monoclonal antibody (MAb). Serum alanine transaminase (ALT) levels, liver histology, hepatic leukocyte accumulation, and cytokine/chemokine expression were assessed. RESULTS Compared with APAP-treated control mice, depletion of both NK and NKT cells by anti-NK1.1 significantly protected mice from APAP-induced liver injury, as evidenced by decreased serum ALT level, improved survival of mice, decreased hepatic necrosis, inhibition of messenger RNA (mRNA) expression for interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), Fas ligand (FasL), and chemokines including KC (Keratinocyte-derived chemokine); MIP-1 alpha (macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha); MCP-1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1); IP-10 (interferon-inducible protein); Mig (monokine induced by IFN-gamma) and decreased neutrophil accumulation in the liver. Hepatic NK and NKT cells were identified as the major source of IFN-gamma by intracellular cytokine staining. APAP induced much less liver injury in Fas-deficient (lpr) and FasL-deficient (gld) mice compared with that in wild-type mice. CONCLUSIONS NK and NKT cells play a critical role in the progression of APAP-induced liver injury by secreting IFN-gamma, modulating chemokine production and accumulation of neutrophils, and up-regulating FasL expression in the liver, all of which may promote the inflammatory response of liver innate immune system, thus contributing to the severity and progression of liver injury downstream of the metabolism of APAP and depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) in hepatocytes. [source]

    Nonconcordance between subclinical atherosclerosis and the calculated Framingham risk score in HIV-infected patients: relationships with serum markers of oxidation and inflammation

    HIV MEDICINE, Issue 4 2010
    S Parra
    Objectives HIV-infected patients show an increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk resulting, essentially, from metabolic disturbances related to chronic infection and antiretroviral treatments. The aims of this study were: (1) to evaluate the agreement between the CVD risk estimated using the Framingham risk score (FRS) and the observed presence of subclinical atherosclerosis in HIV-infected patients; (2) to investigate the relationships between CVD and plasma biomarkers of oxidation and inflammation. Methods Atherosclerosis was evaluated in 187 HIV-infected patients by measuring the carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT). CVD risk was estimated using the FRS. We also measured the circulating levels of interleukin-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and paraoxonase-1 activity and concentration. Results There was a weak, albeit statistically significant, agreement between FRS and CIMT (,=0.229, P<0.001). A high proportion of patients with an estimated low risk had subclinical atherosclerosis (n=66; 56.4%). In a multivariate analysis, the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis in this subgroup of patients was associated with age [odds ratio (OR) 1.285; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.084,1.524; P=0.004], body mass index (OR 0.799; 95% CI 0.642,0.994; P=0.044), MCP-1 (OR 1.027; 95% CI 1.004,1.050; P=0.020) and oxidized LDL (OR 1.026; 95% CI 1.001,1.051; P=0.041). Conclusion FRS underestimated the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis in HIV-infected patients. The increased CVD risk was related, in part, to the chronic oxidative stress and inflammatory status associated with this patient population. [source]

    Role of chemokine ligand 2 in the protective response to early murine pulmonary tuberculosis

    IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 4 2003
    Andre Kipnis
    Summary Chemokines play an important role in the development of immunity to tuberculosis. Chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2, JE, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) is thought to be primarily responsible for recruiting monocytes, dendritic cells, natural killer cells and activated T cells, all of which play critical roles in the effective control of tuberculosis infection in mice. We show here that in mice in which the CCL2 gene was disrupted, low-dose aerosol infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis resulted in fewer macrophages entering the lungs, but only a minor and transient increase in bacterial load in the lungs; these mice were still able to establish a state of chronic disease. Such animals showed similar numbers of activated T cells as wild-type mice, as determined by their expression of the CD44hi CD62lo phenotype, but a transient reduction in cells secreting interferon-,. These data indicate that the primary deficiency in mice unable to produce CCL2 is a transient failure to focus antigen-specific T lymphocytes into the infected lung, whereas other elements of the acquired host response are compensated for by different ligands interacting with the chemokine receptor CCR2. [source]

    Regulation of epithelial cell cytokine responses by the ,3,1 integrin

    IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 2 2003
    Farah D. Lubin
    Summary Epithelial cells (EC) from various tissues can produce important cytokines and chemokines when stimulated by proinflammatory cytokines. These EC also receive signals from cell surface integrins, like the ,3,1 integrin, which is important in cell migration and wound healing of epithelial monolayers. However, little is known of the effect of integrin signals on cytokine responses by EC. Colonic Caco-2 cells treated with an anti-,3 integrin antibody prior to stimulation with the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1 yielded suppressed levels of mRNA and secreted IL-6, IL-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 as compared to cells treated with normal mouse immunoglobulin G. Lung A549 cells also showed a similar suppression of cytokine secretion. Likewise, treatment of the Caco-2 cells with the same antibody suppressed tumour necrosis factor-,-stimulated IL-6 secretion. Fab fragments of the anti-,3 integrin antibody did not induce the suppressive effect but did block the suppressive effect of the whole antibody suggesting that the effect of the antibody required cross-linking of the integrins. Finally, culture of the Caco-2 cells on laminin type 5 (the major ligand for this integrin) yielded depressed levels of IL-1-induced IL-6 secretion as compared to cells on laminin type 1. These data are the first indication that the ,3,1 integrin may cause a suppression of cytokine responses by EC which may be important in regulating the capacity of EC to respond during inflammation or wound healing. [source]

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1)/CCL2 secreted by hepatic myofibroblasts promotes migration and invasion of human hepatoma cells

    Maylis Dagouassat
    Abstract The aim of our study was to investigate whether myofibroblasts and the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1)/CCL2 may play a role in hepatocellular carcinoma progression. We observed that hepatic myofibroblast LI90 cells express MCP-1/CCL2 mRNA and secrete this chemokine. Moreover, myofibroblast LI90 cell-conditioned medium (LI90-CM) induces human hepatoma Huh7 cell migration and invasion. These effects are strongly reduced when a MCP-1/CCL2-depleted LI90-CM was used. We showed that MCP-1/CCL2 induces Huh7 cell migration and invasion through its G-protein,coupled receptor CCR2 and, to a lesser extent, through CCR1 only at high MCP-1/CCL2 concentrations. MCP-1/CCL2's chemotactic activities rely on tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion components and depend on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9. Furthermore, we observed that Huh7 cell migration and invasion induced by the chemokine are strongly inhibited by heparin, by ,-D-xyloside treatment of cells and by anti-syndecan-1 and -4 antibodies. Finally, we developed a 3-dimensional coculture model of myofibroblast LI90 and Huh7 cells and demonstrated that MCP-1/CCL2 and its membrane partners, CCR1 and CCR2, may be involved in the formation of mixed hepatoma-myofibroblast spheroids. In conclusion, our data show that human liver myofibroblasts act on hepatoma cells in a paracrine manner to increase their invasiveness and suggest that myofibroblast-derived MCP-1/CCL2 could be involved in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma. [source]

    Stromal MCP-1 in mammary tumors induces tumor-associated macrophage infiltration and contributes to tumor progression

    Hiroshi Fujimoto
    Abstract There is growing evidence that tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) promote tumor growth and dissemination. Many individual reports have focused on the protumor function of molecules linked to the recruitment of macrophages, but little is known about which factor has the strongest impact on recruitment of macrophages in breast cancer. To elucidate this question, we performed RT-PCR using species-specific primers and evaluated tumoral and stromal mRNA expression of macrophage chemoattractants separately in human breast tumor xenografts. The correlation between the tumoral or stromal chemoattractant mRNA expression including monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) (CCL2), MIP-1, (CCL3), RANTES (CCL5), colony-stimulating factor 1, tumor necrosis factor ,, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB and macrophage infiltration were compared. There was significant positive correlation between stromal MCP-1 expression and macrophage number (r = 0.63), and negative correlation between tumoral RANTES expression and macrophage number (r = ,0.75). However, no significant correlation was found for the other tumoral and stromal factors. The interaction between the tumor cells and macrophages was also investigated. Tumor cell,macrophage interactions augmented macrophage-derived MCP-1 mRNA expression and macrophage chemotactic activity in vitro. Treatment of immunodeficient mice bearing human breast cancer cells with a neutralizing antibody to MCP-1 resulted in significant decrease of macrophage infiltration, angiogenetic activity and tumor growth. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis of human breast cancer tissue showed stromal MCP-1 had a significant correlation with relapse free survival (p = 0.029), but tumoral MCP-1 did not (p = 0.105). These findings indicate that stromal MCP-1 produced as a result of tumor,stromal interactions may be important for the progression of human breast cancer and macrophages may play an important role in this tumor,stroma interaction. © 2009 UICC. [source]

    Astaxanthin protects mesangial cells from hyperglycemia-induced oxidative signaling,

    Emiko Manabe
    Abstract Astaxanthin (ASX) is a carotenoid that has potent protective effects on diabetic nephropathy in mice model of type 2 diabetes. In this study, we investigated the protective mechanism of ASX on the progression of diabetic nephropathy using an in vitro model of hyperglycemia, focusing on mesangial cells. Normal human mesangial cells (NHMCs) were cultured in the medium containing normal (5 mM) or high (25 mM) concentrations of D -glucose. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, the activation of nuclear transcription factors such as nuclear factor kappa B (NF,B) and activator protein-1 (AP-1), and the expression/production of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF,1) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were evaluated in the presence or absence of ASX. High glucose (HG) exposure induced significant ROS production in mitochondria of NHMCs, which resulted in the activation of transcription factors, and subsequent expression/production of cytokines that plays an important role in the mesangial expansion, an important event in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. ASX significantly suppressed HG-induced ROS production, the activation of transcription factors, and cytokine expression/production by NHMCs. In addition, ASX accumulated in the mitochondria of NHMCs and reduced the production of ROS-modified proteins in mitochondria. ASX may prevent the progression of diabetic nephropathy mainly through ROS scavenging effect in mitochondria of mesangial cells and thus is expected to be very useful for the prevention of diabetic nephropathy. J. Cell. Biochem. 103: 1925,1937, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Morphine and HIV-Tat increase microglial-free radical production and oxidative stress: possible role in cytokine regulation

    Jadwiga Turchan-Cholewo
    Abstract Opiate abuse alters the progression of human immunodeficiency virus and may increase the risk of neuroAIDS. As neuroAIDS is associated with altered microglial reactivity, the combined effects of human immunodeficiency virus-Tat and morphine were determined in cultured microglia. Specifically, experiments determined the effects of Tat and morphine on microglial-free radical production and oxidative stress, and on cytokine release. Data show that combined Tat and morphine cause early and synergistic increases in reactive oxygen species, with concomitant increases in protein oxidation. Furthermore, combined Tat and morphine, but not Tat or morphine alone, cause reversible decreases in proteasome activity. The effects of morphine on free radical production and oxidative stress are prevented by pre-treatment with naloxone, illustrating the important role of opioid receptor activation in these phenomena. While Tat is well known to induce cytokine release from cultured microglia, morphine decreases Tat-induced release of the cytokines tumor necrosis factor-, and interleukin-6, as well as the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Finally, experiments using the reversible proteasome inhibitor MG115 show that temporary, non-cytotoxic decreases in proteasome activity increase protein oxidation and decrease tumor necrosis factor-,, interleukin-6, and MCP-1 release from microglia. Taken together, these data suggest that oxidative stress and proteasome inhibition may be involved in the immunomodulatory properties of opioid receptor activation in microglia. [source]

    Dexamethasone suppresses monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 production via mitogen activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 dependent inhibition of Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in activated rat microglia

    Yan Zhou
    Abstract Microglial cells release monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) which amplifies the inflammation process by promoting recruitment of macrophages and microglia to inflammatory sites in several neurological diseases. In the present study, dexamethasone (Dex), an anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drug has been shown to suppress the mRNA and protein expression of MCP-1 in activated microglia resulting in inhibition of microglial migration. This has been further confirmed by the chemotaxis assay which showed that Dex or MCP-1 neutralization with its antibody inhibits the microglial recruitment towards the conditioned medium of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated microglial culture. This study also revealed that the down-regulation of the MCP-1 mRNA expression by Dex in activated microglial cells was mediated via mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. It has been demonstrated that Dex inhibited the phosphorylation of Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAP kinases as well as c-jun, the JNK substrate in microglia treated with LPS. The involvement of JNK and p38 MAPK pathways in induction of MCP-1 production in activated microglial cells was confirmed as there was an attenuation of MCP-1 protein release when microglial cells were treated with inhibitors of JNK and p38. In addition, Dex induced the expression of MAP kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1), the negative regulator of JNK and p38 MAP kinases in microglial cells exposed to LPS. Blockade of MKP-1 expression by triptolide enhanced the phosphorylation of JNK and p38 MAPK pathways and the mRNA expression of MCP-1 in activated microglial cells treated with Dex. In summary, Dex inhibits the MCP-1 production and subsequent microglial cells migration to the inflammatory site by regulating MKP-1 expression and the p38 and JNK MAPK pathways. This study reveals that the MKP-1 and MCP-1 as novel mediators of biological effects of Dex may help developing better therapeutic strategies for the treatment of patients with neuroinflammatory diseases. [source]

    Minocycline attenuates microglial activation but fails to mitigate striatal dopaminergic neurotoxicity: role of tumor necrosis factor-,

    Krishnan Sriram
    Abstract Activated microglia are implicated in the pathogenesis of disease-, trauma- and toxicant-induced damage to the CNS, and strategies to modulate microglial activation are gaining impetus. A novel action of the tetracycline derivative minocycline is the ability to inhibit inflammation and free radical formation, factors that influence microglial activation. Minocycline is therefore being tested as a neuroprotective agent to alleviate CNS damage, although findings so far have yielded mixed results. Here, we showed that administration of a single low dose of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) or methamphetamine (METH), a paradigm that causes selective degeneration of striatal dopaminergic nerve terminals without affecting the cell body in substantia nigra, increased the expression of mRNAs encoding microglia-associated factors F4/80, interleukin (IL)-1,, IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, CCL2) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-,. Minocycline treatment attenuated MPTP- or METH-mediated microglial activation, but failed to afford neuroprotection. Lack of neuroprotection was shown to be due to the inability of minocycline to abolish the induction of TNF-, and its receptors, thereby failing to modulate TNF signaling. Thus, TNF-, appeared to be an obligatory component of dopaminergic neurotoxicity. To address this possibility, we examined the effects of MPTP or METH in mice lacking genes encoding IL-6, CCL2 or TNF receptor (TNFR)1/2. Deficiency of either IL-6 or CCL2 did not alter MPTP neurotoxicity. However, deficiency of both TNFRs protected against the dopaminergic neurotoxicity of MPTP. Taken together, our findings suggest that attenuation of microglial activation is insufficient to modulate neurotoxicity as transient activation of microglia may suffice to initiate neurodegeneration. These findings support the hypothesis that TNF-, may play a role in the selective vulnerability of the nigrostriatal pathway associated with dopaminergic neurotoxicity and perhaps Parkinson's disease. [source]

    HIV-Tat protein induces oxidative and inflammatory pathways in brain endothelium

    Michal Toborek
    Abstract Impaired function of the brain vasculature might contribute to the development of HIV-associated dementia. For example, injury or dysfunction of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMEC) can lead to the breakdown of the blood,brain barrier (BBB) and thus allow accelerated entry of the HIV-1 virus into the CNS. Mechanisms of injury to BMEC during HIV-1 infection are not fully understood, but the viral gene product Tat may be, at least in part, responsible for this effect. Tat can be released from infected perivascular macrophages in the CNS of patients with AIDS, and thus BMEC can be directly exposed to high concentrations of this protein. To study oxidative and inflammatory mechanisms associated with Tat-induced toxicity, BMEC were exposed to increasing doses of Tat1,72, and markers of oxidative stress, as well as redox-responsive transcription factors such as nuclear factor-,B (NF-,B) and activator protein-1 (AP-1), were measured. Tat1,72 treatment markedly increased cellular oxidative stress, decreased levels of intracellular glutathione and activated DNA binding activity and transactivation of NF-,B and AP-1. To determine if Tat1,72 can stimulate inflammatory responses in brain endothelium in vivo, expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), an NF-,B and AP-1-dependent chemokine, was studied in brain tissue in mice injected with Tat1,72 into the right hippocampus. Tat1,72 markedly elevated the MCP-1 mRNA levels in brain tissue. In addition, a double immunohistochemistry study revealed that MCP-1 protein was markedly overexpressed on brain vascular endothelium. These data indicate that Tat1,72 can induce redox-related inflammatory responses both in in vitro and in vivo environments. These changes can directly lead to disruption of the BBB. Thus, Tat can play an important role in the development of detrimental vascular changes in the brains of HIV-infected patients. [source]

    Titanium particles induce the immediate early stress responsive chemokines IL-8 and MCP-1 in osteoblasts

    Elizabeth A. Fritz
    Abstract Exposure of human osteoblasts to ultrafine titanium (Ti) particles has been shown to alter osteoblast gene expression. We previously reported that Ti particles can increase IL-6 release and suppress the gene expression of procollagens ,1[I] and ,1[III] in human osteoblasts. In this study, we now demonstrate that Ti particles can rapidly induce the chemotactic cytokines interleukin-8 (IL-8) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), two immediate early stress responsive chemokines important for the activation and chemotaxis of neutrophils and macrophages, respectively. In MG-63 osteosarcoma cells and bone marrow derived primary osteoblasts Ti particles selectively increased the steady state levels of IL-8 and MCP-1 mRNA in a time and concentration dependent manner. The increased chemokine mRNA correlated with increased secretion of IL-8 and MCP-1 protein. Actinomycin D, a potent RNA polymerase II inhibitor, blocked the Ti particle induction of IL-8 and MCP-1 mRNA expression, whereas cycloheximide, which inhibits protein synthesis, failed to inhibit chemokine gene expression suggesting Ti particles directly target activation of chemokine gene transcription. Consistent with a transcriptional mechanism not involving new protein synthesis, we demonstrate that Ti particles induce the binding of the p65 and p50 subunits of the latent transcription factor NF-,B to the IL-8 gene promoter. Taken together, these data demonstrate that Ti particles can activate transcription of the stress responsive chemokine genes IL-8 and MCP-1 in human osteoblasts. © 2002 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [source]

    Genetic polymorphism of CCR2-64I increased the susceptibility of hepatocellular carcinoma,

    Chao-Bin Yeh MD
    Abstract Background and Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate genetic impact of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and its receptor chemokine receptor-2 (CCR2) gene polymorphisms on the susceptibility and clinicopathological characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods A total of 446 subjects, including 344 healthy controls and 102 patients with HCC, were recruited in this study and subjected to PCR-RFLP to estimate the impact of these two polymorphic variants on HCC. Results No relationship between MCP-1 ,2518G/A gene polymorphism and HCC risk was found among our recruited HCC patients and healthy controls. However, there was a significantly increased risk (AOR,=,1.91; 95% CI,=,1.11,3.29) of having HCC among subjects with GA heterozygotes of CCR2 V64I after adjusting for other confoundings. There was no synergistic effect between gene polymorphism and environmental risk factors, including tobacco and alcohol consumptions, as well as clinicopathological parameters of HCC for MCP-1 ,2518G/A and CCR2 V64I genes, respectively. Conclusions CCR2-64I gene polymorphism is an important factor for the susceptibility of HCC but it might not influence the clinical pathological progression of HCC, and the contribution of CCR2-64I gene polymorphism on the susceptibility of HCC could be not through the affection of liver injury-related clinical pathological characteristics. J. Surg. Oncol. 2010;102:264,270. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Pulmonary hypertension is ameliorated in mice deficient in thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor

    L. QIN
    Summary.,Background: The fibrinolytic system has been implicated in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension (PH). Thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) inhibits fibrinolysis and therefore its absence would be expected to increase fibrinolysis and ameliorate PH. Objective: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of TAFI deficiency on pulmonary hypertension in the mouse. Methods and results: PH was induced in C57/Bl6 wild-type (WT) or TAFI-deficient (KO) mice by weekly subcutaneous treatment with 600 mg kg,1 monocrotaline (MCT) for 8 weeks. PH was inferred from right heart hypertrophy measured using the ratio of right ventricle-to-left ventricle-plus-septum weight [RV/(LV+S)]. Pulmonary vascular remodeling was analyzed by morphometry. TAFI-deficient MCT-treated and wild-type MCT-treated mice suffered similar weight loss. TAFI-deficient MCT-treated mice had reduced levels of total protein and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-,), interleukin-6 (IL-6), transforming growth factor-, (TGF-,) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in bronchial alveolar lavage compared with wild-type MCT-treated mice. The ratio of RV to (LV+S) weight was significantly higher in WT/MCT than in KO/MCT mice. The pulmonary artery wall area and vascular stenosis were both greater in MCT-treated WT mice compared with MCT-treated TAFI-deficient mice. Conclusions: TAFI-deficient MCT-treated mice had less pulmonary hypertension, vascular remodeling and reduced levels of cytokines compared with MCT-treated WT animals, possibly as a result of reduced coagulation activation. [source]

    Omega-3 fatty acids inhibit an increase of proinflammatory cytokines in patients with active Crohn's disease compared with omega-6 fatty acids

    Summary Background :,Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory condition affecting the gastrointestinal tract. Polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids given orally may reduce the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and hereby downregulate the inflammatory process. Aim :,To assess the effects of enteral fatty acids, in the form of Impact Powder (Novartis, Switzerland), as adjuvant therapy to corticosteroid treatment on the proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine profiles in patients with active Crohn's disease. Methods :,The proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines were measured in plasma from 31 patients with active Crohn's disease. Patients were randomized for oral intake of omega-3 fatty acid (3-Impact Powder) or omega-6 fatty acids (6-Impact Powder). Clinical and biochemical markers of inflammation were studied at baseline and after 5 and 9 weeks. Results :,Within the 3-Impact Powder group, no significant changes in concentrations of interleukin-6, interferon- ,, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interleukin-2, interleukin-5 and interleukin-10, whereas a significant differences in concentration of interleukin-1, and interleukin-4 were observed during therapy. Within the 6-Impact Powder group a significant changes in concentrations of interleukin-1,, interleukin-6, interferon- ,, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interleukin-2, interleukin-4, interleukin-5 and interleukin-10 were observed. Conclusions :,The 3-Impact Powder showed immunomodulatory properties and might inhibit an increase of proinflammatory cytokines in contrast to the 6-Impact Powder. [source]

    Matrix metalloproteinases-7, -8, -9 and TIMP-1 in the follow-up of diisocyanate-induced asthma

    ALLERGY, Issue 1 2010
    P. Piirilä
    Abstract Background:, Diisocyanate-induced asthma (DIA) is known to be associated with poor prognosis. We wished to clarify if matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-7, -8 or -9 or tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMP-1) are associated with the functional or inflammatory outcome in DIA patients. Methods:, This is a longitudinal study where 17 patients with DIA diagnosed by a specific challenge test to diisocyanates were monitored. Exposure to diisocyanates was terminated seven (mean) months before the challenge test. The studies included spirometry, histamine challenge test and bronchoscopy. MMP-7, MMP-8, TIMP-1 [Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)- and immunofluorometric assay-methods], MMP-9 (ELISA and zymography), interferon-gamma, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, -8, -15, -17, CXCL-5/ENA-78, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and macrophage inhibitory factor (MIF) (ELISA) were assayed from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Inhaled steroid therapy was initiated after the examinations, which were repeated at 6 months and at 3 years during the treatment. The results were compared with those of 15 healthy controls. Results:, Inhaled steroid medication increased BAL levels of MMP-9 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 and decreased MMP-7 and MMP-7/TIMP-1. The increase in MMP-9 levels was associated with a decline in the TH-2 type inflammation. Conclusions:, Our data suggest that reduced TH-2 type inflammation in DIA after inhaled steroid medication is reflected as elevated MMP-9 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 levels in BAL. MIF may be the inducer of MMP-9. This might point to some protective role for MMP-9 in DIA. [source]

    Impact of Chronic Anticholesterol Therapy on Development of Microvascular Rarefaction in the Metabolic Syndrome

    MICROCIRCULATION, Issue 8 2009
    Adam G. Goodwill
    ABSTRACT Objective: The obese Zucker rat (OZR) model of the metabolic syndrome is partly characterized by moderate hypercholesterolemia, in addition to other contributing comorbidities. Previous results suggest that vascular dysfunction in OZR is associated with chronic reduction in vascular nitric-oxide (NO) bioavailability and chronic inflammation, both frequently associated with hypercholesterolemia. As such, we evaluated the impact of chronic cholesterol-reducing therapy on the development of impaired skeletal muscle arteriolar reactivity and microvessel density in OZR and its impact on chronic inflammation and NO bioavailability. Materials and Methods: Beginning at seven weeks of age, male OZR were treated with gemfibrozil, probucol, atorvastatin, or simvastatin (in chow) for 10 weeks. Subsequently, plasma and vascular samples were collected for biochemical/molecular analyses, while arteriolar reactivity and microvessel network structure were assessed by using established methodologies after 3, 6, and 10 weeks of drug therapy. Results: All interventions were equally effective at reducing total cholesterol, although only the statins also blunted the progressive reductions to vascular NO bioavailability, evidenced by greater maintenance of acetylcholine-induced dilator responses, an attenuation of adrenergic constrictor reactivity, and an improvement in agonist-induced NO production. Comparably, while minimal improvements to arteriolar wall mechanics were identified with any of the interventions, chronic statin treatment reduced the rate of microvessel rarefaction in OZR. Associated with these improvements was a striking statin-induced reduction in inflammation in OZR, such that numerous markers of inflammation were correlated with improved microvascular reactivity and density. However, using multivariate discriminant analyses, plasma RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted), interleukin-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and tumor necrosis factor alpha were determined to be the strongest contributors to differences between groups, although their relative importance varied with time. Conclusions: While the positive impact of chronic statin treatment on vascular outcomes in the metabolic syndrome are independent of changes to total cholesterol, and are more strongly associated with improvements to vascular NO bioavailability and attenuated inflammation, these results provide both a spatial and temporal framework for targeted investigation into mechanistic determinants of vasculopathy in the metabolic syndrome. [source]

    Anti-glycative and anti-inflammatory effects of caffeic acid and ellagic acid in kidney of diabetic mice

    Che-yi Chao
    Abstract Protective effects of caffeic acid (CA) and ellagic acid (EA) in kidney of diabetic mice were examined. CA or EA at 2.5 and 5% was mixed in diet and supplied to diabetic mice for 12,wk. Results showed that the intake of CA or EA increased renal content of these compounds, alleviated body weight loss, decreased urine output, increased plasma insulin and decreased blood glucose levels at weeks 6 and 12 (p<0.05). The intake of these compounds dose dependently reduced plasma blood urea nitrogen and elevated creatinine clearance (p<0.05). CA or EA at 5% significantly decreased the levels of plasma HbA1c, urinary glycated albumin, renal carboxymethyllysine, pentosidine, sorbitol and fructose (p<0.05), and significantly diminished renal activity of aldose reductase and sorbitol dehydrogenase, as well as suppressed renal aldose reductase mRNA expression (p<0.05). CA or EA dose dependently lowered renal levels of IL-6, IL-1,, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) (p<0.05). Furthermore, CA or EA dose dependently down-regulated tumor necrosis factor-, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 mRNA expression in kidney (p<0.05). Based on the observed anti-glycative and anti-inflammatory effects, the supplement of CA or EA might be helpful for the prevention or attenuation of diabetic kidney diseases. [source]

    Effects of oral commensal and pathogenic bacteria on human dendritic cells

    T. Chino
    Background/aims:, The oral cavity harbors a diverse and complex microbial community. Bacteria accumulate on both the hard and soft oral tissues in sessile biofilms and engage the host in an intricate cellular dialog, which normally constrains the bacteria to a state of commensal harmony. Dendritic cells (DCs) are likely to balance tolerance and active immunity to commensal microorganisms as part of chronic inflammatory responses. While the role played by DCs in maintaining intestinal homeostasis has been investigated extensively, relatively little is known about DC responses to oral bacteria. Methods:, In this study, we pulsed human monocyte-derived immature DCs (iDCs) with cell wall extracts from pathogenic and commensal gram-positive or gram-negative oral bacteria. Results:, Although all bacterial extracts tested induced iDCs to mature and produce cytokines/chemokines including interleukin-12p40, tumor necrosis factor-,, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), the most important factor for programming DCs by oral bacteria was whether they were gram-positive or gram-negative, not whether they were commensal or pathogenic. In general, gram-negative oral bacteria, except for periodontopathic Porphyromonas gingivalis, stimulated DC maturation and cytokine production at lower concentrations than gram-positive oral bacteria. The threshold of bacteria needed to stimulate chemokine production was 100-fold to 1000-fold lower than that needed to induce cytokines. In addition, very low doses of oral commensal bacteria triggered monocytes to migrate toward DC-derived MCP-1. Conclusion:, Oral commensal and pathogenic bacteria do not differ qualitatively in how they program DCs. DC-derived MCP-1 induced in response to oral commensal bacteria may play a role, at least in part, in the maintenance of oral tissue integrity by attracting monocytes. [source]