Monoculture

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Terms modified by Monoculture

  • monoculture plot

  • Selected Abstracts


    Spatial correlations of Diceroprocta apache and its host plants: evidence for a negative impact from Tamarix invasion

    ECOLOGICAL ENTOMOLOGY, Issue 1 2002
    Aaron R. Ellingson
    Abstract 1. The hypothesis that the habitat-scale spatial distribution of the Apache cicada Diceroprocta apache Davis is unaffected by the presence of the invasive exotic saltcedar Tamarix ramosissima was tested using data from 205 1-m2 quadrats placed within the flood-plain of the Bill Williams River, Arizona, U.S.A. Spatial dependencies within and between cicada density and habitat variables were estimated using Moran's I and its bivariate analogue to discern patterns and associations at spatial scales from 1 to 30 m. 2. Apache cicadas were spatially aggregated in high-density clusters averaging 3 m in diameter. A positive association between cicada density, estimated by exuvial density, and the per cent canopy cover of a native tree, Goodding's willow Salix gooddingii, was detected in a non-spatial correlation analysis. No non-spatial association between cicada density and saltcedar canopy cover was detected. 3. Tests for spatial cross-correlation using the bivariate IYZ indicated the presence of a broad-scale negative association between cicada density and saltcedar canopy cover. This result suggests that large continuous stands of saltcedar are associated with reduced cicada density. In contrast, positive associations detected at spatial scales larger than individual quadrats suggested a spill-over of high cicada density from areas featuring Goodding's willow canopy into surrounding saltcedar monoculture. 4. Taken together and considered in light of the Apache cicada's polyphagous habits, the observed spatial patterns suggest that broad-scale factors such as canopy heterogeneity affect cicada habitat use more than host plant selection. This has implications for management of lower Colorado River riparian woodlands to promote cicada presence and density through maintenance or creation of stands of native trees as well as manipulation of the characteristically dense and homogeneous saltcedar canopies. [source]


    Herbivory enhances positive effects of plant genotypic diversity

    ECOLOGY LETTERS, Issue 5 2010
    John D. Parker
    Ecology Letters (2010) 13: 553,563 Abstract Both plant diversity and vertebrate herbivores can impact plant fitness and ecosystem functioning, however their interactions have not been explicitly tested. We manipulated plant genotypic diversity of the native plant Oenothera biennis and monitored its survivorship and lifetime fitness with and without one of its major vertebrate consumers, white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus. Intense but unmanipulated herbivory by meadow voles Microtus pennsylvanicus killed over 70% of nearly 4000 experimental plants. However, plants grown in genotypically diverse patches suffered fewer vole attacks and had higher survival and reproductive output than plants in monoculture. Moreover, positive effects of genotypic diversity were enhanced by the presence of deer, indicating a non-additive interaction between diversity and trophic-level complexity. Genetic selection analyses showed that the selective value of ecologically important traits depended on plant diversity and exposure to deer, demonstrating that community complexity can promote fitness through multiple ecologically and evolutionarily important feedbacks. [source]


    Procedure for separating the selection effect from other effects in diversity,productivity relationship

    ECOLOGY LETTERS, Issue 6 2001
    pačková
    In a greenhouse pot experiment we cultivated six meadow species in a replacement series design. The plants were grown at two sowing densities in monocultures and all possible species combinations. Our aim was to separate the selection effect from other diversity effects. This distinction is based on the notion that true overyielding is not a consequence of the selection effect. We suggest a hierarchical procedure, which is based on a repeated division of samples into the pots with the most productive species present and missing. Overyielding can be then demonstrated by a positive dependence of productivity on species richness in the subsets with the most productive species present. Although we found a strong dependence of biomass on species richness in the entire data set, the hierarchical method revealed no evidence of overyielding. Above-ground biomass in a monoculture was a good predictor of species success in a species mix. [source]


    Neighbouring monocultures enhance the effect of intercropping on the turnip root fly (Delia floralis)

    ENTOMOLOGIA EXPERIMENTALIS ET APPLICATA, Issue 3 2007
    Maria Björkman
    Abstract Knowledge of insect behaviour is essential for accurately interpreting studies of diversification and to develop diversified agroecosystems that have a reliable pest-suppressive effect. In this study, we investigated the egg-laying behaviour of the turnip root fly, Delia floralis (Fall.) (Diptera: Anthomyiidae), in an intercrop-monoculture system. We examined both the main effect of intercropping and the effect on oviposition in the border zone between a cabbage monoculture [Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata (Brassicaceae)] and a cabbage-red clover intercropping system [Trifolium pratense L. (Fabaceae)]. To investigate the border-effect, oviposition was measured along a transect from the border between the treatments to the centre of experimental plots. Intercropping reduced the total egg-laying of D. floralis with 42% in 2003 and 55% in 2004. In 2004, it was also found that the spatial distribution of eggs within the experimental plots was affected by distance from the adjoining treatment. The difference in egg-laying between monoculture and intercropping was most pronounced close to the border, where egg-laying was 68% lower on intercropped plants. This difference in egg numbers decreased gradually up to a distance of 3.5 m from the border, where intercropped plants had 43% fewer eggs than the corresponding monocultured plants. The reason behind this oviposition pattern is most likely that flies in intercropped plots have a higher probability of entering the monoculture if they are close to the border than if they are in the centre of a plot. When entering the monoculture, flies can pursue their egg-laying behaviour without being disrupted by the clover. As the final decision to land is visually stimulated, flies could also be attracted to fly from the intercropped plots into the monoculture, where host plants are more visually apparent. Visual cues could also hinder flies in a monoculture from entering an intercropped plot. Other possible patterns of insect attack due to differences in insect behaviour are discussed, as well as the practical application of the results of this study. [source]


    Effect of long-term combined nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer application on 13C CPMAS NMR spectra of humin in a Typic Hapludoll of northeast China

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOIL SCIENCE, Issue 6 2009
    J. J. Zhang
    Summary Because of its insolubility, heterogeneity and structural complexity, humin is the least understood among the three fractions of soil humic substances. This research aimed to evaluate the long-term effect of combined nitrogen and phosphorus (NP) fertilizer addition on the chemical structure of humin under maize (Zea mays L.) monoculture in a Typic Hapludoll of northeast China. Soil samples were collected 12 and 25 years after the initiation of the fertilizer treatment. Soil humin was isolated using NaOH-Na4P2O7 extraction to remove humic and fulvic acids, which was followed by HF-HCl treatment to remove most of the inorganic minerals. Solid-state 13C cross-polarization magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (13C CPMAS NMR) spectroscopy was used to characterize the chemical structure of the humin isolates. Results showed that the organic carbon (C) content of humin increased after NP fertilizer addition, compared with a no-fertilizer (CK) treatment. 13C CPMAS NMR indicated that O-alkyl C and aromatic C of humin decreased, while alkyl C and the ratios of alkyl C/O-alkyl C, aliphatic C/aromatic C and hydrophobic C/hydrophilic C all increased in the NP fertilizer treatment. The long-term application of NP fertilizer changed the molecular structure of soil humin to be more alkyl and hydrophobic, and was thus beneficial to the sequestration and stability of organic C in soil. [source]


    Lignin turnover in an agricultural field: from plant residues to soil-protected fractions

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOIL SCIENCE, Issue 4 2006
    D. P. Rasse
    Summary Lignin has long been suspected to be a major source of stable carbon in soils, notably because of the recalcitrant nature of its polyphenolic structure relative to other families of plant molecules. However, lignin turnover studies have produced conflicting results, most of them suggesting that large proportions of plant-residue lignin decompose within a year of incorporation into soils. Here, we propose a two-reservoir model where lignin in undecomposed plant residue (Lp) can either reach soil fractions where it is somewhat protected from further decomposition (Ls) or is transformed to non-lignin products. Model calibration data were obtained through compound-specific 13C isotopic analyses conducted in a zero- to 9-year chronosequence of maize monoculture after wheat in a temperate loam soil of the Paris basin. Lignin was quantified by CuO oxidation as VSC-lignin, i.e. the sum of vanillil- (V), syringyl- (S) and coumaryl-type (C) phenols. Model calibrations indicate that Lp has a turnover rate faster than 1 year and that 92% is mineralized as CO2 or transformed into other non-lignin products, while only 8% reaches the Ls fraction. Estimated turnover rate of the Ls fraction was 0.05 years,1. The model also suggested that about half of Lp was not measured because it had been excluded from the samples in the process of sieving at 5 mm. In conclusion, the model indicates that chemical recalcitrance alone is not sufficient to explain VSC-lignin turnover in soils, and that, functionally, the most relevant mechanism appears to be the transfer of VSC-lignin molecules and fragments from decomposing plant tissues to soil-protected fractions. [source]


    Effective inhibition of melanosome transfer to keratinocytes by lectins and niacinamide is reversible

    EXPERIMENTAL DERMATOLOGY, Issue 7 2005
    Amanda Greatens
    Abstract:, Skin pigmentation results in part from the transfer of melanized melanosomes synthesized by melanocytes to neighboring keratinocytes. Plasma membrane lectins and their glycoconjugates expressed by these epidermal cells are critical molecules involved in this transfer process. In addition, the derivative of vitamin B3, niacinamide, can inhibit melanosome transfer and induce skin lightening. We investigated the effects of these molecules on the viability of melanocytes and keratinocytes and on the reversibility of melanosome-transfer inhibition induced by these agents using an in vitro melanocyte,keratinocyte coculture model system. While lectins and neoglycoproteins could induce apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner to melanocytes or keratinocytes in monoculture, similar dosages of the lectins, as opposed to neoglycoproteins, did not induce apoptosis to either cell type when treated in coculture. The dosages of lectins and niacinamide not affecting cell viability produced an inhibitory effect on melanosome transfer, when used either alone or together in cocultures of melanocytes,keratinocytes. Cocultures treated with lectins or niacinamide resumed normal melanosome transfer in 3 days after removal of the inhibitor, while cocultures treated with a combination of lectins and niacinamide demonstrated a lag in this recovery. Subsequently, we assessed the effect of niacinamide on facial hyperpigmented spots using a vehicle-controlled, split-faced design human clinical trial. Topical application of niacinamide resulted in a dose-dependent and reversible reduction in hyperpigmented lesions. These results suggest that lectins and niacinamide at concentrations that do not affect cell viability are reversible inhibitors of melanosome transfer. [source]


    Metabolic profiling as a tool for revealing Saccharomyces interactions during wine fermentation

    FEMS YEAST RESEARCH, Issue 1 2006
    Kate S. Howell
    Abstract The multi-yeast strain composition of wine fermentations has been well established. However, the effect of multiple strains of Saccharomyces spp. on wine flavour is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that multiple strains of Saccharomyces grown together in grape juice can affect the profile of aroma compounds that accumulate during fermentation. A metabolic footprint of each yeast in monoculture, mixed cultures or blended wines was derived by gas chromatography , mass spectrometry measurement of volatiles accumulated during fermentation. The resultant ion spectrograms were transformed and compared by principal-component analysis. The principal-component analysis showed that the profiles of compounds present in wines made by mixed-culture fermentation were different from those where yeasts were grown in monoculture fermentation, and these differences could not be produced by blending wines. Blending of monoculture wines to mimic the population composition of mixed-culture wines showed that yeast metabolic interactions could account for these differences. Additionally, the yeast strain contribution of volatiles to a mixed fermentation cannot be predicted by the population of that yeast. This study provides a novel way to measure the population status of wine fermentations by metabolic footprinting. [source]


    Host,parasite interactions and competition between tubificid species in a benthic community

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 8 2009
    L. C. STEINBACH ELWELL
    Summary 1. Parasites can be important determinants of host community structure while host community structure can influence the success of parasites, although both are often overlooked. In two laboratory experiments, we examined interactions among Myxobolus cerebralis syn Myxosoma cerebralis Höfer, the myxozoan parasite that causes salmonid whirling disease, and two coexisting tubificid species: Tubifex tubifex (Müller), which is the alternate host of the parasite, and Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri Claparčde, which is not susceptible. In the first experiment, we examined T. tubifex infection prevalence when exposed to nine doses of spores. In the second experiment, we examined tubificid and parasite success under three spore doses when tubificids were combined in a response surface experimental design used to detect interactions among species. 2. The outcomes of interactions between tubificid species were complex. The number and biomass of offspring of both tubificid species were density dependent when in monoculture or in combination with the other species. Adult growth of T. tubifex was also density dependent in monoculture, but when L. hoffmeisteri replaced one-half of the T. tubifex in the high-density treatment, adult growth of T. tubifex was higher than in monoculture. Adult growth of L. hoffmeisteri was always density independent. Whether T. tubifex was exposed to the parasite or not did not change the outcome of these interactions. However, adult growth of T. tubifex, but not L. hoffmeisteri, was highest when M. cerebralis was present. 3. Infection prevalence of T. tubifex increased with increasing spore dose. Infection prevalence was lowest in the high-density T. tubifex monoculture and highest in the low-density T. tubifex monoculture and when T. tubifex was in combination with L. hoffmeisteri. 4. Both intraspecific and interspecific competition influenced tubificid success, but T. tubifex gained some competitive advantage through increased adult growth when in combination with L. hoffmeisteri. Whether T. tubifex was exposed to the parasite or not did not change the outcome of the interactions between the tubificid species. 5. The presence of L. hoffmeisteri did not decrease the prevalence of infection in T. tubifex, suggesting that parasite success was unaltered by the presence of this non-susceptible species. [source]


    Nutrient dependent effects of consumer identity and diversity on freshwater ecosystem function

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 1 2008
    ANDREW R. DZIALOWSKI
    Summary 1. Over the past decade, ecologists have tried to determine how changes in species composition and diversity affect ecosystem structure and function. Until recently, the majority of these studies have been conducted in terrestrial ecosystems and have not taken into account environmental variability. The purpose of this research was to determine how species identity and diversity in the freshwater zooplankton affected biomass of algae and zooplankton at two levels of nutrient enrichment. 2. Several species of cladocerans were grown alone and together in microcosms at both ambient and raised phosphorus concentrations to determine if the effects of consumer identity and diversity were nutrient dependent. 3. Total zooplankton biomass was greater, while algal biomass was lower, in mixed culture than in monoculture. The effects of zooplankton diversity on algal biomass, however, were only observed at raised phosphorus concentrations, suggesting that diversity effects were nutrient dependent. Specifically, diversity effects appeared to be related with biological mechanisms such as complementarity in resource use and/or facilitation. 4. More diverse communities of zooplankton appear to be better able to control algae than single species of zooplankton at high nutrient concentrations; therefore, zooplankton diversity may provide a buffer against eutrophication in freshwater ecosystems. [source]


    Intraspecific seed trait variations and competition: passive or adaptive response?

    FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY, Issue 3 2009
    Cyrille Violle
    Summary 1The phenotype of offspring depends on the abiotic and biotic environment in which the parents developed. However, the direct effects of competition experienced by parent plants on single-seed traits are poorly documented despite their impact on plant fitness. 2We hypothesize that single-seed traits can differentially respond to the resource deficiencies of parent plants due to competition: seed quality may decrease as seed number does, magnifying the negative effects of competition for offspring (,passive response' hypothesis), or increase and then enhance offspring fitness to offset the reduction in offspring number (,adaptive response' hypothesis). Here we tested these hypotheses for four single-seed traits. We assessed the sensibility of their responses to changes in competition intensity due to species with different competitive effects and to contrasting soil nitrogen conditions. 3In a common-garden experiment, four single-seed traits related to fitness , seed mass, seed nitrogen concentration (SNC), germinability and the timing of germination , were measured on a phytometer species transplanted in 14 different neighbours grown in monoculture with and without soil nitrogen limitation. 4Under nitrogen-limiting conditions, the responses of SNC and of the timing of germination were passive and mainly related to the effects of neighbours on soil nitrogen availability, as shown by the increase in SNC with N-fixing neighbours. Within-individual seed mass variability decreased with increasing competition intensity, as an adaptive response to counterbalance the reduction in seed production. With nitrogen supplementation, competitors had no detectable effect on single-seed traits despite an overall increase in SNC and germination rate, confirming their nitrogen-dependent passive responses to competition. Germinability did not change among treatments. 5The impact of competition on single-seed traits depends on both phytometer trait identity and resource modulation by neighbours. The passive response of seed chemical composition to competitors may magnify the competitive effects on offspring. By contrast, the adaptive response of seed size variability may offset these competitive effects. As a consequence, experiments looking at the fitness consequences of competition should not only consider the effects on fitness parameters of a target plant but also on the offspring. [source]


    How relevant are instantaneous measurements for assessing resource depletion under plant cover?

    FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY, Issue 2 2007
    A test on light, soil water availability in 18 herbaceous communities
    Summary 1Quantifying the amount of resources remaining under plant cover is essential for assessing plant,plant interactions or biological invasions. Although resource levels fluctuate in time, their quantification is performed mainly by instantaneous measurements. We investigated how instantaneous measurements are related to the amount of resources cumulated throughout one growing season, measuring parameters of both light and soil water depletion. 2During a growing season, we measured regularly light and soil water levels under the cover of 18 plant species grown as monocultures in a common garden. The temporal dynamics of light and soil water depletion were assessed within each monoculture using mechanistic modelling approaches. 3The total amounts of resources remaining over the year under the range of communities were best predicted by instantaneous measurements performed at critical periods, differing among resources. The significance of prediction decreased dramatically for other dates, including the period of peak production, but without changing the ranking of communities according to ability to deplete resources. We therefore recommend that such measurements should be limited to qualitative studies, and that mechanistic modelling for quantitative assessments should be developed. [source]


    Plant species traits and capacity for resource reduction predict yield and abundance under competition in nitrogen-limited grassland

    FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY, Issue 3 2006
    J. FARGIONE
    Summary 1The objective of this study is to test whether plant traits that are predicted by resource-competition theory to lead to competitive dominance are correlated with competitive response and abundance in a nitrogen-limited grassland. We collected species trait and soil nutrient data on non-leguminous perennial prairie plant species in replicated monoculture plots established for this purpose. 2The soil nitrate concentration of 13 species grown in long-term (5-year) monocultures (a measure of R*) was correlated with their relative yield (a measure of competitive response) and with their abundance in competition. The trait best correlated with a species' relative yield was root length density (RLD), and the trait best correlated with abundance in competition was biomass : N ratio. 3The traits that best predicted nitrate R* were the biomass : N ratio and allocation to fine roots, where species with higher biomass : N and allocation to fine roots had lower R*. Easily measured species traits may therefore be useful proxy measures for R*. 4The dominance of species with lower nitrate R* levels and higher RLD and biomass : N in monoculture is qualitatively consistent with the prediction of resource-competition theory that the species most efficient at acquiring, retaining and using the major limiting resource will be the best competitors. Additional mechanisms are needed to explain how these species coexist. [source]


    Soil animals influence microbial abundance, but not plant,microbial competition for soil organic nitrogen

    FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY, Issue 5 2004
    L. COLE
    Summary 1In a microcosm experiment we examined the effects of individual species of microarthropods, and variations in microarthropod diversity of up to eight species, on soil microbial properties and the short-term partitioning of a dual-labelled organic nitrogen source (glycine-2- 13C- 15N) between a grassland plant, Agrostis capillaris, and the soil microbial biomass, to determine how soil fauna and their diversity influence plant,microbial competition for organic N. 2We hypothesized that variations in the diversity of animals would influence the partitioning of 15N inputs between plants and the microbial biomass, due to the effect of animal grazing on the microbial biomass, and hence its ability to sequester N. 3Certain individual species of Collembola influenced the microbial community of the soil. Folsomia quadrioculata reduced microbial biomass, whereas Mesaphorura macrochaeta enhanced arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization of A. capillaris roots. Effects of increasing species richness of microarthropods on microbial biomass and AM colonization were detected, but these effects could be interpreted in relation to the presence or absence of individual species. 4Microbial uptake of added 15N was not affected by the presence of any of the individual species of animal in the monoculture treatments. Similarly, increasing diversity of microarthropods had no detectable effect on microbial 15N. 5Root and shoot uptake of 15N was also largely unaffected by both single species and variations in diversity of microarthropods. However, one collembolan species, Ceratophysella denticulata, reduced root 15N capture when present in monoculture. We did not detect 13C in plant tissue under any experimental treatments, indicating that all N was taken up by plants after mineralization. 6Our data suggest that, while single species and variations in diversity of microarthropods influence microbial abundance in soil, there is no effect on microbial or plant uptake of N. Overall, these data provide little support for the notion that microbial-feeding soil animals are regulators of microbial,plant competition for N. [source]


    Where temperate meets tropical: multi-factorial effects of elevated CO2, nitrogen enrichment, and competition on a mangrove-salt marsh community

    GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY, Issue 5 2008
    KAREN L. McKEE
    Abstract Our understanding of how elevated CO2 and interactions with other factors will affect coastal plant communities is limited. Such information is particularly needed for transitional communities where major vegetation types converge. Tropical mangroves (Avicennia germinans) intergrade with temperate salt marshes (Spartina alterniflora) in the northern Gulf of Mexico, and this transitional community represents an important experimental system to test hypotheses about global change impacts on critical ecosystems. We examined the responses of A. germinans (C3) and S. alterniflora (C4), grown in monoculture and mixture in mesocosms for 18 months, to interactive effects of atmospheric CO2 and pore water nitrogen (N) concentrations typical of these marshes. A. germinans, grown without competition from S. alterniflora, increased final biomass (35%) under elevated CO2 treatment and higher N availability. Growth of A. germinans was severely curtailed, however, when grown in mixture with S. alterniflora, and enrichment with CO2 and N could not reverse this growth suppression. A field experiment using mangrove seedlings produced by CO2 - and N-enriched trees confirmed that competition from S. alterniflora suppressed growth under natural conditions and further showed that herbivory greatly reduced survival of all seedlings. Thus, mangroves will not supplant marsh vegetation due to elevated CO2 alone, but instead will require changes in climate, environmental stress, or disturbance to alter the competitive balance between these species. However, where competition and herbivory are low, elevated CO2 may accelerate mangrove transition from the seedling to sapling stage and also increase above- and belowground production of existing mangrove stands, particularly in combination with higher soil N. [source]


    Above- and below-ground responses of C3,C4 species mixtures to elevated CO2 and soil water availability

    GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY, Issue 3 2003
    JUSTIN D. DERNER
    Abstract We evaluated the influences of CO2[Control, , 370 µmol mol,1; 200 µmol mol,1 above ambient applied by free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE)] and soil water (Wet, Dry) on above- and below-ground responses of C3 (cotton, Gossypium hirsutum) and C4 (sorghum, Sorghum bicolor) plants in monocultures and two density mixtures. In monocultures, CO2 enrichment increased height, leaf area, above-ground biomass and reproductive output of cotton, but not sorghum, and was independent of soil water treatment. In mixtures, cotton, but not sorghum, above-ground biomass and height were generally reduced compared to monocultures, across both CO2 and soil water treatments. Density did not affect individual plant responses of either cotton or sorghum across the other treatments. Total (cotton + sorghum) leaf area and above-ground biomass in low-density mixtures were similar between CO2 treatments, but increased by 17,21% with FACE in high-density mixtures, due to a 121% enhancement of cotton leaf area and a 276% increase in biomass under the FACE treatment. Total root biomass in the upper 1.2 m of the soil was not influenced by CO2 or by soil water in monoculture or mixtures; however, under dry conditions we observed significantly more roots at lower soil depths (> 45 cm). Sorghum roots comprised 81,85% of the total roots in the low-density mixture and 58,73% in the high-density mixture. CO2 -enrichment partly offset negative effects of interspecific competition on cotton in both low- and high-density mixtures by increasing above-ground biomass, with a greater relative increase in the high-density mixture. As a consequence, CO2 -enrichment increased total above-ground yield of the mixture at high density. Individual plant responses to CO2 enrichment in global change models that evaluate mixed plant communities should be adjusted to incorporate feedbacks for interspecific competition. Future field studies in natural ecosystems should address the role that a CO2 -mediated increase in C3 growth may have on subsequent vegetation change. [source]


    Relationships between the yield of perennial ryegrass and of small-leaved white clover under cutting or continuous grazing by sheep

    GRASS & FORAGE SCIENCE, Issue 3 2001
    T. A. Williams
    Seven varieties or advanced breeding lines of white clover (Trifolium repens L.), all of small leaf size, were grown separately in mixtures with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) in an experiment encompassing three harvest years. Harvestable dry-matter (DM) yield measurements were taken of these mixtures and of perennial ryegrass monocultures under two management regimes: cutting and continuous sheep grazing. Considerable differences were observed in the harvestable DM yields of white clover, perennial ryegrass and total yields of the mixtures between plots containing different white clover varieties. White clover yields were generally higher under cutting, and perennial ryegrass yields were higher under grazing. The difference between perennial ryegrass yield in monoculture and in mixture was variable. In the second harvest year, a significant interaction effect was seen between management and white clover variety for white clover yield but not for perennial ryegrass yield. The relationship between clover yield and grass yield differed between the two management regimes. Under cutting, a negative correlation was observed, indicative of competitive effects. However, under grazing, no such correlation was seen. Possible mechanisms underlying these outcomes are discussed. [source]


    Effect of Drought Stress on Yield and Quality of Maize/Sunflower and Maize/Sorghum Intercrops for Biogas Production

    JOURNAL OF AGRONOMY AND CROP SCIENCE, Issue 4 2010
    S. SchittenhelmArticle first published online: 16 FEB 2010
    Abstract Intercropping represents an alternative to maize (Zea mays L.) monoculture to provide substrate for agricultural biogas production. Maize was intercropped with either sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) or forage sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] to determine the effect of seasonal water supply on yield and quality of the above-ground biomass as a fermentation substrate. The two intercrop partners were grown in alternating double rows at plant available soil water levels of 60,80 %, 40,50 % and 15,30 % under a foil tunnel during the years 2006 and 2007 at Braunschweig, Germany. Although the intercrop dry matter yields in each year increased with increasing soil moisture, the partner crops responded quite differently. While maize produced significantly greater biomass under high rather than low water supply in each year, forage sorghum exhibited a significant yield response only in 2006, and sunflower in none of the 2 years. Despite greatly different soil moisture contents, the contribution of sorghum to the intercrop dry matter yield was similar, averaging 43 % in 2006 and 40 % in 2007. Under conditions of moderate and no drought stress, sunflower had a dry matter yield proportion of roughly one-third in both years. In the severe drought treatment, however, sunflower contributed 37 % in 2006 and 54 % in 2007 to the total intercrop dry matter yield. The comparatively good performance of sunflower under conditions of low water supply is attributable to a fast early growth, which allows this crop to exploit the residual winter soil moisture. While the calculated methane-producing potential of the maize/sorghum intercrop was not affected by the level of water supply, the maize/sunflower intercrop in 2006 had a higher theoretically attainable specific methane yield under low and medium than under high water supply. Nevertheless, the effect of water regime on substrate composition within the intercrops was small in comparison with the large differences between the intercrops. [source]


    Response of pea (Pisum sativum L.) to mepiquat chloride under varying application doses and stages

    JOURNAL OF AGRONOMY AND CROP SCIENCE, Issue 2 2006
    E. Elkoca
    Abstract Grown as a monoculture, peas (Pisum sativum L.) exhibit severe lodging after flowering and lodging causes yield reductions considerable. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dose (untreated, 25, 50, 75 and 100 g a.i. ha,1) and stage (late vegetative, early blooming and early pod filling) of mepiquat chloride (MC) application on the growth, lodging control, seed yield and yield parameters of pea (Pisum sativum L.) under field conditions in Erzurum, Turkey in 2002 and 2003. Application doses of 25, 50, 75 and 100 g a.i. ha,1 significantly reduced stem height by 5.3 %, 7.2 %, 7.5 % and 6.4 % and increased stem width by 7.5 %, 12.7 %, 12.3 % and 15.7 % respectively, when compared with the untreated control, and thereby reduced the tendency of the crop to lodging. Increases of the seed yield under different application doses of MC ranged between 13.7 % and 20.1 % over the untreated control. However, in all parameters investigated, except for stem width, higher application doses of MC gave no clear advantages compared with the application dose of 25 g a.i. ha,1. Seed yield was also significantly influenced by application stage of MC and application at early blooming stage of crop, MC significantly increased seed yield by 11.4 % and 10.2 % when compared with the late vegetative and the early pod filling stages respectively. Furthermore, the interaction of application dose and stage was significant, and spraying of pea plants with 25 g a.i. ha,1 MC at early blooming stage has the most beneficial effects on the characters evaluated. [source]


    Effect of genetic variance in plant quality on the population dynamics of a herbivorous insect

    JOURNAL OF ANIMAL ECOLOGY, Issue 4 2009
    Nora Underwood
    Summary 1Species diversity can affect many ecological processes; much less is known about the importance of population genetic diversity, particularly for the population dynamics of associated species. Genetic diversity within a host species can create habitat diversity; when associated species move among hosts, this variation could affect populations additively (an effect of average habitat) or non-additively (an effect of habitat variance). Mathematical theory suggests that non-additive effects of variance among patches should influence population size, but this theory has not been tested. 2This prediction was tested in the field by asking whether aphid population dynamics parameters on strawberry plant genotype mixtures were additive or non-additive functions of parameters on individual plant genotypes in monoculture using model fitting. 3Results show that variance in quality among plant genotypes can have non-additive effects on aphid populations, and that the form of this effect depends on the particular plant genotypes involved. 4Genetic variation among plants also influenced the spatial distribution of aphids within plant populations, but the number of plant genotypes per population did not affect aphid populations. 5These results suggest that predicting the behaviour of populations in heterogeneous environments can require knowledge of both average habitat quality and variance in quality. [source]


    Competitive dynamics in two- and three-component intercrops

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECOLOGY, Issue 3 2007
    METTE KLINDT ANDERSEN
    Summary 1Intercropping is receiving increasing attention because it offers potential advantages for resource utilization, decreased inputs and increased sustainability in crop production, but our understanding of the interactions among intercropped species is still very limited. 2We grew pea Pisum sativum, barley Hordeum vulgare and rape Brassica napus as sole crops and intercrops under field conditions using a replacement design. We collected total dry matter data from sequential harvests and fitted the data to a logistic growth model. At each harvest we estimated the relative Competitive Strength (CS) of the three crops by fitting the data to a simple interspecific competition model. 3The pea monocrop produced the largest amount of biomass from the middle to the end of the growth period, but pea was not dominant in intercrops. 4Fitting data to a logistic growth model emphasizes the importance of initial size differences for interactions among intercrops. Barley was the dominant component of the intercrops largely because of its initial size advantage. The competitive effect of barley on its companion crops, measured as CS, increased throughout most of the growing season. 5The performance of each crop species was very different when it grew with a second species rather than in monoculture, but addition of a third crop species had only minor effects on behaviour of the individual crops. 6Synthesis and applications. Including sequential harvests in experiments on intercropping can provide important information about how competitive hierarchies are established and change over time. Our results suggest that increased understanding of the role of asymmetric competition among species and the resulting advantages of early germination and seedling emergence would be valuable in designing intercrops. More focus on understanding the mechanisms that govern interactions between intercropped species is needed for designing optimized intercropping systems. [source]


    Assessment of bismuth thiols and conventional disinfectants on drinking water biofilms

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY, Issue 2 2003
    F. Codony
    Abstract Aims: Biofilms in water distribution systems represent a far more significant reservoir of micro-organisms than the water phase. Biofilms are (i) resistant to disinfectants, (ii) nuclei for microbial regrowth, (iii) a refuge for pathogens, (iv) accompanied by taste and odour problems, and (v) corrode surfaces. The effects of the current strategies for disinfection of drinking water systems in large buildings (chlorination, copper and silver ionization, and hyper-heating) were compared with a new generation of bismuth thiol (BT) biocides. Methods and Results: Multispecies biofilms were treated with 0·8 mg l,1 of free chlorine, 400 and 40 ,g l,1 of copper and silver ions, respectively, at 55 and 70°C, and bismuth-2,3-dimercaptopropanol (BisBAL). Furthermore, the effect of combined heat and BisBAL on planktonic cell viability was examined in monoculture using Escherichia coli suspensions. Inactivation rates for BisBAL were similar to copper,silver ions, where the effects were slower than for free chlorine or temperature. The BisBAL effect on E. coli monocultures was augmented greatly by increasing temperatures. Conclusions: Like copper,silver ions, BTs show more persistent residual effects than chlorine and hyper-heating in water systems. BT efficiency increased with temperature. Like copper,silver ions, BT action is relatively slow. Significance and Impact of the Study: BT presents a new approach to containing water biofilms. BT action is not as rapid, but is more thorough than chlorine, and less caustic. BTs may also be more efficacious in hot water systems. At sub-minimum inhibition concentration levels, BTs uniquely inhibit bacterial exopolysaccharide, thereby retarding biofilm formation. Thus, the combination of bactericidal and residual effects may prevent slime build-up in hot water systems. [source]


    Linkages of plant traits to soil properties and the functioning of temperate grassland

    JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY, Issue 5 2010
    Kate H. Orwin
    Summary 1.,Global change is likely to alter plant community structure, with consequences for the structure and functioning of the below-ground community and potential feedbacks to climate change. Understanding the mechanisms behind these plant,soil interactions and feedbacks to the Earth-system is therefore crucial. One approach to understanding such mechanisms is to use plant traits as predictors of functioning. 2.,We used a field-based monoculture experiment involving nine grassland species that had been growing on the same base soil for 7 years to test whether leaf, litter and root traits associated with different plant growth strategies can be linked to an extensive range of soil properties relevant to carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus cycling. Soil properties included the biomass and structure of the soil microbial community, soil nutrients, soil microclimate and soil process rates. 3.,Plant species with a high relative growth rate (RGR) were associated with high leaf and litter quality (e.g. low toughness, high nitrogen concentrations), an elevated biomass of bacteria relative to fungi in soil, high rates of soil nitrogen mineralization and concentrations of extractable inorganic nitrogen, and to some extent higher available phosphorus pools. 4.,In contrast to current theory, species with a high RGR and litter quality were associated with soils with a lower rate of soil respiration and slow decomposition rates. This indicates that predicting processes that influence carbon cycling from plant traits may be more complex than predicting processes that influence nitrogen and phosphorus cycling. 5.,Root traits did not show strong relationships to RGR, leaf or litter traits, but were strongly correlated with several soil properties, particularly the biomass of bacteria relative to fungi in soil and measures relating to soil carbon cycling. 6.,Synthesis. Our results indicate that plant species from a single habitat can result in significant divergence in soil properties and functioning when grown in monoculture, and that many of these changes are strongly and predictably linked to variation in plant traits associated with different growth strategies. Traits therefore have the potential to be a powerful tool for understanding the mechanisms behind plant,soil interactions and ecosystem functioning, and for predicting how changes in plant species composition associated with global change will feedback to the Earth-system. [source]


    Effects of density and ontogeny on size and growth ranks of three competing tree species

    JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY, Issue 2 2009
    Suzanne B. Boyden
    Summary 1Rank reversals in species performance are theoretically important for structuring communities, maintaining diversity and determining the course of forest succession. Species growth ranks can change with ontogeny or in different microenvironments, but interactions between ontogeny and the environment are not well-understood because of the lack of long-term forest competition studies. While early differences in growth among species may reflect intrinsic differences in shade-tolerance and physiology, ontogenetic trends in growth and variation in neighbourhood density and composition may change or even reverse early patterns of growth rankings. 2We experimentally studied spatial and temporal patterns of species interactions and growth for three northern tree species: Larix laricina, Picea mariana and Pinus strobus. We compared species size and growth rankings over an 11-year period, for different species mixtures planted at four density levels in north-eastern Minnesota, USA. 3The benefits of different growth strategies changed with ontogeny and density leading to reversals in the size rank of competing species over time and space. High-density stands promoted dominance and resource pre-emption by L. laricina, whereas lower-density stands favoured gradual accumulation of biomass and eventual dominance by P. strobus. In the absence of strong neighbour competition, ontogenetic trends in growth had greater influence on growth patterns. 4Species interactions affected the productivity of mixed stands vs. monocultures. Species generally grew more in monoculture than when planted with P. strobus at low density, or with L. laricina at high density. Only L. laricina and P. mariana showed potential for greater overall productivity, or over-yielding, when planted together than alone, probably because of improved resource uptake by the highly stratified canopy. 5Synthesis. Density predictably determined whether size-asymmetric growth or ontogenetic growth trends would drive early establishment and growth patterns. Variation in vertical and horizontal structure that results from early competitive dynamics can influence the successional trajectory or character of the mature forest. This study extends previous efforts to identify the causes of rank reversals in communities and understand the importance of temporal changes beyond the early years of seedling establishment. [source]


    Partitioning the effects of biodiversity and environmental heterogeneity for productivity and mortality in a tropical tree plantation

    JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY, Issue 5 2008
    Chrystal Healy
    Summary 1Over 5000 trees were grown in plots of differing diversity levels (1, 3 and 6 species) in a plantation established in Panama. Four and five years after establishment, we analysed parameters related to the productivity of this tropical plantation (tree survival, height and biomass as well as plot basal area) to test for the presence of biodiversity effects. The relative importance of environmental heterogeneity (such as soil, topography, and drainage) and biodiversity on tree growth and mortality was determined using partial redundancy analysis. 2Hierarchical clustering revealed nine different soil clusters based on soil quality and drainage. By chance, the six-species plots were apparently established on more variable soils then on the other diversity levels. We found little evidence for spatial autocorrelation between subplots, with the exception of four subplots located on a ridge that extends on the North,South axis of the plantation and corresponds to a zone of higher productivity. 3The redundancy analysis indicated that environmental heterogeneity and biodiversity together explained around 50% of the variation in subplot productivity and tree mortality. Environment explained 35,57% of the variation in productivity and mortality, respectively, whereas diversity explained an additional 23,30%. 4Our simulation model revealed a significant positive effect of biodiversity on growth but no effect of biodiversity on mortality. The standardized effect sizes that we used to detect over- or under-yielding or no effect in comparison with monoculture were highly variable and the variability was largely explained by traits related to site topography. 5Synthesis. In our tropical tree plantation, we detected biodiversity effects at a scale relevant to conservation and quantified the relative importance of environmental heterogeneity and diversity on tree growth and mortality. Our results support the idea that environmental factors could act as hidden sources of variability in biodiversity experiments. Environmental and spatial heterogeneity induced variable responses to biodiversity and amplified the differences between three- and six-species plots. Species identity explained more variation in productivity than did the species diversity. One species, Cedrela odorata, was associated with increased productivity. [source]


    Genetic identity of interspecific neighbours mediates plant responses to competition and environmental variation in a species-rich grassland

    JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY, Issue 5 2007
    JASON D. FRIDLEY
    Summary 1Although outbreeding populations of many grassland plants exhibit substantial genetic and phenotypic variation at fine spatial scales (< 100 m2), the implications of local genetic diversity for community structure are poorly understood. Genetic diversity could contribute to local species diversity by mediating the effects of competition between species and by enhancing species persistence in the face of environmental variation. 2We assayed the performance of three genotypes each of a dominant tussock grass (Koeleria macrantha [Ledeb.] J.A. Schultes) and dominant sedge (Carex caryophyllea Lat.) derived from a single 10 × 10 m quadrat within a limestone grassland in Derbyshire, UK. Genotypes were grown in monoculture and grass,sedge mixtures of different genetic composition in two environments of contrasting fertility. Species mixtures also included one genotype of the subordinate forb Campanula rotundifolia L. 3When grown without neighbours, intraspecific genotypes responded similarly to environmental treatments. One genotype of the sedge performed worse in both environments than the other two sedge genotypes. 4When grown in species mixtures, genotype performance was significantly influenced by the genetic identity of the neighbouring species for both the sedge and the grass. At high fertility, differential genotype performance was not sufficient to alter the expectation of competitive exclusion of the sedge by the grass. However, at low fertility, the competitive dominant depended on the genetic identity of both the grass and the sedge. In addition, each genotype of the grass performed best next to a different genotype of the sedge, and the identity of the best genotype pairings switched with environment. 5Performance of a single genotype of the subordinate Campanula was not predictable by fertility alone, but by how fertility interacted with different neighbouring genotypes of both the grass and the sedge. 6Results support the hypothesis that the genetic identity of interspecific neighbours influences plant performance in multispecies assemblages and mediates species' responses to environmental variation. Such interactions could be a key factor in the contribution of local intraspecific genetic diversity to species diversity. [source]


    Evaluating the enemies hypothesis in a clover-cabbage intercrop: effects of generalist and specialist natural enemies on the turnip root fly (Delia floralis)

    AGRICULTURAL AND FOREST ENTOMOLOGY, Issue 2 2010
    Maria Björkman
    1The relative importance of the resource concentration hypothesis and the enemies hypothesis was investigated for the turnip root fly Delia floralis in a cabbage,red clover intercropping system compared with a cabbage monoculture. 2Delia floralis egg densities were measured as well as the activity-densities of generalist predators in a field experiment during two growing seasons. In the second year, a study of egg predation with artificially placed eggs was conducted, in addition to a predator exclusion experiment, to estimate total predation during the season. Parasitization rates were estimated from samples of pupae. 3Delia floralis oviposition was greater in the monoculture during both years. The predator activity-densities differed between treatments and study years. The known natural enemies of Delia spp., Bembidion spp. and Aleochara bipustulata showed a strong response to a cultivation system with higher activity-densities in the monoculture. The response, however, appeared to be caused primarily by habitat preferences and not by D. floralis egg densities. 4The reduction in the number of D. floralis pupae in the intercropping may be explained by a disruption in oviposition behaviour caused by the presence of clover because neither predation, nor parasitization rates differed between cultivation systems. [source]


    Intensity and Importance of Competition for a Grass (Festuca rubra) and a Legume (Trifolium pratense) Vary with Environmental Changes

    JOURNAL OF INTEGRATIVE PLANT BIOLOGY, Issue 12 2008
    Junyan Zhang
    Abstract How plant competition varies across environmental gradients has been a long debate among ecologists. We conducted a growth chamber experiment to determine the intensity and importance of competition for plants grown in changed environmental conditions. Festuca rubra and Trifolium pratense were grown in monoculture and in two- and/or three-species mixtures under three environmental treatments. The measured competitive variations in terms of growth (height and biomass) were species-dependent. Competition intensity for Festuca increased with decreased productivity, whilst competition importance displayed a humpback response. However, significant response was detected in neither competition intensity nor importance for Trifolium. Intensity and importance of competition followed different response patterns, suggesting that they may not be correlated along an environmental gradient. The biological and physiological variables of plants play an important role to determine the interspecific competition associated with competition intensity and importance. However, the competitive feature can be modified by multiple environmental changes which may increase or hinder how competitive a plant is. [source]


    Knowledge facts, knowledge fiction: the role of ICTs in knowledge management for development

    JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT, Issue 1 2002
    Maja Van Der Velden
    What happens when corporate knowledge management monoculture meets the diverse international development sector? This paper finds that development agencies have too readily adopted approaches from the Northern corporate sector that are inappropriate to development needs. These approaches treat knowledge as a rootless commodity, and information and communications technology as a key knowledge tool. Alternative approaches are required, that focus on the knower and on the context for creating and sharing knowledge. ICT tools need to support this approach, helping people develop appropriate or alternative scenarios and improving the accessibility of information and knowledge for people with different cultural, social, or educational backgrounds. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    On fumonisin incidence in monoculture maize under no-till, conventional tillage and two nitrogen fertilisation levels

    JOURNAL OF THE SCIENCE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE, Issue 7 2008
    Adriano Marocco
    Abstract BACKGROUND:Fusarium ear rot and fumonisin contamination are serious problems for maize growers. The lack of maize genotypes highly resistant to fumonisin contamination emphasises the need for management strategies to prevent contamination by this mycotoxin. There are conflicting reports regarding no-till and nitrogen (N) fertilisation practices in relation to the incidence of fumonisins. In this study the effect of no-till compared with conventional tillage and of N fertilisation rates on fumonisin occurrence was investigated over three years in Northern Italy. RESULTS: The average contamination of grain by fumonisins B1 and B2 over the three years was significantly different, with a lower value in 2000 (516 µg kg,1) than in the other years (5846 and 3269 µg kg,1 in 2001 and 2002 respectively). Conventional tillage and no-till treatments had no significant effect on the incidence of fumonisins. This finding suggests that above-ground residues infected by Fusarium would not lead to an increase in fumonisin incidence. However, N fertilisation significantly increased fumonisin levels, by 99 and 70% in 2000 and 2001 respectively. CONCLUSION: Maize monoculture does not show a cumulative effect on the occurrence of fumonisins, while high rates of N fertiliser consistently result in elevated fumonisin levels. Both these effects can be influenced by annual meteorological fluctuations. Copyright © 2008 Society of Chemical Industry [source]