Monoclonal Antibody Therapy (monoclonal + antibody_therapy)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Prolymphocytic leukaemia of B- and T-cell subtype: a state-of-the-art paper

M. Dungarwalla
Abstract Prolymphocytic leukaemias of B and T cell subtype are rare diseases. Despite recent advances in immunophenotyping and molecular cytogenetics, leading to a better understanding of the underlying cell biology of the prolymphocytic leukaemias, prognosis for these patients remains poor. Purine analogues and monoclonal antibodies have shown efficacy in B-cell prolymphocytic leukaemia although further studies are warranted. Monoclonal antibody therapy with alemtuzumab has significantly improved outcome in T-cell prolymphocytic leukaemia (T-PLL) but responses are still transient and further disease progression is inevitable. While allogeneic stem cell transplant is an attractive option, due to the older age group of T-PLL patients the morbidity and mortality associated with the procedure is significant. [source]

Opportunistic infections and other risks with newer multiple sclerosis therapies,

Joseph R. Berger MD
The introduction of newer therapies for the treatment of multiple sclerosis has generated considerable optimism. That optimism has been tempered by the potential risks of these therapies, such as the risk for progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. A review of the possible causes of reactivation of JC virus in this population has illustrated the need to better understand the untoward effects of monoclonal antibody therapies and other immunomodulatory therapies currently being contemplated for use in multiple sclerosis. These drugs alter the immune response at different sites, and most, if not all, affect more than one aspect of host immunity. Drawing from existing experience with the use of these immunomodulatory therapies in other conditions and that available from the limited experience with multiple sclerosis, we review their potential untoward effects. The latter include a predisposition to opportunistic and community-acquired infections, an altered response to vaccination, the development of cancers, and the appearance of autoimmune diseases. The identification of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy as a risk of therapy is relatively straightforward in light of its rarity and high morbidity and mortality, but a relatively slight increased risk for more common and less disabling disorders may be overlooked. Determining the actual risk frequency for many of these complications will likely require careful postmarketing surveillance. Ann Neurol 2009;65:367,377 [source]

Genetic variations associated with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis found by genome-wide association

Kristina Callis Duffin
ABSTRACT Psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis are immune disorders with a complex polygenic basis. HLA-Cw6, which lies in the major histocompatibility region on chromosome 6, is considered the major genetic determinant of psoriasis. Recent genome-wide association studies have identified new variants outside of the MHC with relevance to the immunology of psoriasis. Variants in or near genes that encode subunits of cytokines (IL12B, IL23A) or cytokine receptors (IL23R) are interesting given that the gene product of IL12B, p40, is the target of a recently approved monoclonal antibody therapy for psoriasis (ustekinumab). Association with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis has been found in TNFAIP3 and TNFIP1, ubiquitin ligases in the NF-,B pathway, and IL13, a Th2 cytokine. Copy number variation of human beta-defensin and late cornified envelope genes also associate with psoriasis. Many of these genetic variations also associate with immune disorders considered psoriatic co-morbidities, including Crohn's disease and diabetes. [source]

Dual monoclonal antibody therapy for the treatment of PTLD?

Vikas Dharnidharka MD
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

CD52 expression in hairy cell leukemia

Michael M. Quigley
Abstract Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is a rare chronic B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by splenomegaly, pancytopenia, and circulating atypical lymphocytes with circumferential cytoplasmic projections. Although uncommon, HCL cases refractory to standard therapy occur, and effective alternatives are limited. There is evolving literature supporting monoclonal antibody therapy in the treatment of B-cell lymphoid malignancies, including anti-CD52 (Campath-1H, alemtuzumab). We have examined nine cases of HCL and one case of HCL variant by flow cytometry for CD52 expression. All cases expressed CD52 antigen in 92,100% of the malignant cells. The demonstration of CD52 antigen expression on HCL cells provides the rationale for the use of alemtuzumab in refractory HCL. Am. J. Hematol. 74:227,230, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Risk of tuberculosis is higher with anti,tumor necrosis factor monoclonal antibody therapy than with soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor therapy: The three-year prospective french research axed on tolerance of biotherapies registry,

F. Tubach
Objective Tuberculosis (TB) is associated with anti,tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy, but whether this association is drug-specific remains a concern. Our objective was to describe cases of TB associated with anti-TNF mAb therapy, identify risk factors, and estimate the incidence. Methods We conducted an incidence study and a case,control analysis to investigate the risk of newly diagnosed TB associated with the use of anti-TNF agents. As part of the French Research Axed on Tolerance of Biotherapies (RATIO) registry, for 3 years we collected cases of TB among French patients receiving anti-TNF mAb therapy for any indication; for each case, 2 patients treated with anti-TNF agents served as control subjects. Results We collected 69 cases of TB in patients treated for rheumatoid arthritis (n = 40), spondylarthritides (n = 18), inflammatory colitis (n = 9), psoriasis (n = 1) and Behçet's disease (n = 1) with infliximab (n = 36), adalimumab (n = 28), and etanercept (n = 5). None of the patients had received correct chemoprophylactic treatment. The sex- and age-adjusted incidence rate of TB was 116.7 per 100,000 patient-years. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was 12.2 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 9.7,15.5) and was higher for therapy with infliximab and adalimumab than for therapy with etanercept (SIR 18.6 [95% CI 13.4,25.8] and SIR 29.3 [95% CI 20.3,42.4] versus SIR 1.8 [95% CI 0.7,4.3], respectively). In the case,control analysis, exposure to infliximab or adalimumab versus etanercept was an independent risk factor for TB (odds ratio [OR] 13.3 [95% CI 2.6,69.0] and OR 17.1 [95% CI 3.6,80.6], respectively). Other risk factors were age, the first year of anti-TNF mAb treatment, and being born in an endemic area. Conclusion The risk of TB is higher for patients receiving anti-TNF mAb therapy than for those receiving soluble TNF receptor therapy. The increased risk with early anti-TNF treatment and the absence of correct chemoprophylactic treatment favor the reactivation of latent TB. [source]

Monoclonal antibodies to target epidermal growth factor receptor,positive tumors

CANCER, Issue 5 2002
A new paradigm for cancer therapy
Abstract BACKGROUND Traditional cytotoxic approaches to tumor management are associated with efficacy and toxicity limitations. Blockade of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its ligands is a novel approach to the treatment of human tumors that offers a noncytotoxic alternative to cancer treatment. METHODS An English-language literature search was conducted to identify studies assessing the in vitro and in vivo effects of EGFR blockade with an emphasis on approaches that use monoclonal antibody therapy. RESULTS The EGF pathway regulates normal cellular processes and appears to be correlated with the development of malignancy. Approximately 30% of human tumors express EGFR, which has been reported to be correlated with poor prognosis and diminished disease-free and overall survival in selected tumor types. A number of anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies have been developed, which currently are undergoing clinical trials in humans. Effective anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies compete with endogenous ligands, primarily EGF and transforming growth factor,,, for receptor ligand-binding sites. Binding to EGFR blocks critical signaling pathways and interferes with the growth of tumors expressing EGFR. Anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies that currently are under study include IMC-C225, EMD 55900, ICR 62, and ABX-EGF. CONCLUSIONS These antibodies have demonstrated promising results and appear to have been well tolerated. EGFR-targeted therapy addresses important, unmet needs in the treatment of human tumors, particularly EGFR-positive epithelial tumors including common malignancies of the head and neck, lung, and colon. Cancer 2002;94:1593,611. © 2002 American Cancer Society. DOI 10.1002/cncr.10372 [source]

Staging and management of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma

J. J. Scarisbrick
Summary Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) accounts for two-thirds of cases of primary cutaneous lymphoma. Most variants of CTCL are indolent lymphoma, the most common being mycosis fungoides. In addition, Sézary syndrome, the leukaemic variant, has an aggressive clinical course. Accurate diagnosis and staging is critical in determining the prognosis of those with CTCL. The tumour, node, metastasis and blood stage needs to be documented and used to determine an overall stage from IA to IVB. Management of patients should be carried out by a multidisciplinary team. A full clinical examination should be made at all visits. Thorough investigations are needed at diagnosis and should be repeated during disease progression to allow initial staging and restaging. Treatment of patients with early-stage disease (IA,IIB) should be limited to skin-directed therapy. More advanced or resistant disease may be treated with systemic therapies such as extracorporeal photopheresis, immunotherapy, monoclonal antibody therapy, novel retinoids or chemotherapy, and where possible, patients should be entered into clinical trials. [source]