Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Humanities and Social Sciences

Kinds of Modern

  • early modern

  • Terms modified by Modern

  • modern age
  • modern agriculture
  • modern america
  • modern analogue
  • modern approach
  • modern art
  • modern biology
  • modern biotechnology
  • modern britain
  • modern chemistry
  • modern china
  • modern city
  • modern concept
  • modern condition
  • modern data
  • modern democracy
  • modern distribution
  • modern dna
  • modern ecology
  • modern economy
  • modern england
  • modern environment
  • modern era
  • modern europe
  • modern form
  • modern governance
  • modern health care
  • modern history
  • modern human
  • modern human origins
  • modern human population
  • modern idea
  • modern imaging techniques
  • modern individual
  • modern instruments
  • modern japan
  • modern literature
  • modern management
  • modern medicine
  • modern methods
  • modern notion
  • modern nursing
  • modern organization
  • modern period
  • modern perspective
  • modern physics
  • modern pollen
  • modern population
  • modern radiotherapy
  • modern range
  • modern representative
  • modern sample
  • modern scholar
  • modern scholarship
  • modern science
  • modern society
  • modern state
  • modern studies
  • modern techniques
  • modern technology
  • modern theology
  • modern theory
  • modern therapy
  • modern time
  • modern treatment
  • modern variety
  • modern world

  • Selected Abstracts

    ,Will ye stop yer tickling, Jock?': Modern and postmodern Scottish comedy

    CRITICAL QUARTERLY, Issue 4 2000
    David Goldie

    Clinical impact of FDG-PET/CT in the planning of radiotherapy for early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma

    Martin Hutchings
    Abstract Background:,Early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) has excellent survival rates but carries a high risk of late treatment-related adverse effects. Modern, individualised therapeutic strategies require an accurate determination of the extent of the disease. This study investigated the potential impact of 2-[18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy- d -glucose positron emission tomography/computerised tomogrpahy (FDG-PET/CT) in the planning of involved field radiotherapy (IFRT). Patients and methods:,Thirty patients received staging FDG-PET/CT before therapy, and IFRT after a short course of ABVD (adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine) chemotherapy. IFRT planning was performed using only the CT data from the FDG-PET/CT scan. Later, the IFRT planning was performed anew using the FDG-PET/CT data as basis for contouring. Results:,In 20 out of 30 patients, the radiotherapy (RT) course was unaffected by the addition of FDG-PET/CT. FDG-PET/CT would have increased the irradiated volume in seven patients where the volume receiving a minimum of 90% of the target dose was increased by 8,87%. FDG-PET/CT decreased the volume in two patients where the volume was reduced by 18% and 30%. Conclusions:,When used for RT planning, FDG-PET/CT results in larger IFRT treatment volumes. If FDG-PET/CT is introduced to RT planning, the method should be accompanied by a change in RT treatment strategy, aiming at more targeted therapy in order to best avoid radiation to normal tissues. [source]

    Reading the Rural Modern: Literacy and Morality in Republican China1

    Kate Merkel-Hess
    This essay was runner-up in the 2007 History Compass Graduate Essay Prize, Asia Section. In the mid-1920s many education reformers turned their attention away from the urban illiterates who had been the focus of recent mass education efforts and toward the countryside and rural residents instead. In order to engage rural readers, reformers created a body of literature that addressed rural issues, articulating a reformed vision of a modern countryside as they did so. As the most prominent of the mass education programs, the Mass Education Movement's publications reached millions of Chinese. On the pages of their 1920s publications, the MEM constructed a vision of a ,rural modern' that emphasized a literate citizenry as the basis of a reformed countryside and modern nation. In this way, even while reformers attempted to democratize access to knowledge, they affirmed a Confucian relationship of education to morality. [source]

    Motivation and Meaning in Contemporary Art: From Tate Modern to the Primary School Classroom

    Jacqueline Dear
    ,Art Now in the Classroom', was a joint venture between Goldsmiths College Education Department, Tate Modern and six Primary Schools in and around the London area (Sandhurst, Pilgrim's Way, Hawesdown, Hawkesmoore, Lauriston and Myatt Garden.) It ran from September to November 2000, beginning initially with the placement of two Goldsmiths students at each school then continuing with school visits to Tate Modern, and four Fridays spent working in the classroom, culminating in an exhibition at Tate Modern where the children from all six primary schools got to see their own work publicly displayed. This paper is an account of the work produced by the children from Sandhurst Primary School and an assessment of both the educational opportunities it provided for the primary classes involved and for the Goldsmiths students involved. The aims of the project were to demonstrate effective ways to work collaboratively with contemporary art, to support the development of teaching strategies at KS2 and KS3 and to offer possible approaches for working with contemporary material in the classroom. [source]

    Transdermal delivery of two antioxidants from different cosmetic formulations

    S. Richert
    Synopsis The efficacy of any cosmetic product containing a functional ingredient is determined by the skin delivery of the active molecule, which is influenced by the type of the vehicle and the molecule itself. This study was designed to compare the percutaneous absorption habits of the antioxidants carcinine and lipoic acid out of various formulations by means of the porcine skin model. Initial evaluation of the in vitro porcine skin model has demonstrated its feasibility for various substances and formulations [1, 2]. Increasing legal requirements for risk assessment in the cosmetic industry have led to the development of this alternative test method. The penetration properties are determined by the OECD Guideline TG 428: Skin Absorption: in vitro Method [3, 4], which allows the use of porcine skin for penetration studies. Porcine skin is used because of its similarity to human skin in terms of its morphology and the essential permeation characteristics [5]. The mass balances for each tested formulation type of the antioxidants show individual penetration behaviours with significant differences. The presented data plainly demonstrate that the lipophilic lipoic acid has a distinct higher penetration potential than the hydrophilic carcinine. The chosen vehicle can enhance or reduce the transdermal delivery of both tested antioxidants. Modern effective cosmetic formulations will work only, if the active ingredients penetrate into the epidermis. In conclusion, the correct selection of a suitable formulation plays an important role during product development. Résumé L'efficacité d'un produit cosmétique ou de son principe actif est définie par l'absorption du principe actif par la peau. Cette action est influencée par la structure moléculaire du principe actif ainsi que par la galénique du produit. Dans cette étude, les taux d'absorption percutanée des agents anti-oxydants Carcinine et Acide Lipoïque intégrés dans différentes formulations cosmétiques ont été comparés avec le modèle de peau porcine. La phase de validation sur plusieurs années du modèle peau porcine in vitro a prouvé qu'il se prête très bien à la détermination de la pénétration percutanée de différentes substances et formulations. Des exigences légales de plus en plus sévères concernant la pratique des tests de sécurité pour les produits cosmétiques ont mené au développement de cette méthode qui remplace les essais sur animaux. La définition des qualités de pénétration se fait selon la directive OECD TG 428 : Skin Absorption : in vitro Method [3, 4] qui permet l'utilisation de la peau porcine provenant des abattoirs pour l'exécution des études de pénétration. Les bilans quantitatifs des formulations testées montrent que les agents anti-oxydants ont des comportements de pénétration différant de manière significative. Les données présentées démontrent très clairement que l'acide Lipoïque, lipophile, possède un potentiel de pénétration bien plus élevé que la Carcinine, hydrophile. La base cosmétique peut aussi réduire ou augmenter le potentiel de pénétration des agents anti-oxydant testés. En résumé, le choix correct d'un type de formulation joue un rôle très important dans le développement d'un produit cosmétique. [source]

    Conditioning polymers in today's shampoo formulations , efficacy, mechanism and test methods

    Synopsis Today's shampoo formulations are beyond the stage of pure cleansing of the hair. Additional benefits are expected, e.g. conditioning, smoothing of the hair surface, improvement of combability and lather creaminess. Cationic polymers play an important role in providing many of those features. Therefore, within the last few years their use in shampoos has increased greatly. In the only last two decades, shampoo designation has gradually changed from ,2-in-1' to ,3-in-1' and then to ,multifunctional', as at present. The consumer demands products which live up to their promises. Modern shampoos contain a wide variety of ingredients such as co-surfactants, vitamins and pro-vitamins, protein derivatives, silicones, natural-based plant extracts and other ,active ingredients', but there is still a need for conditioning polymers. The specific objective of this study is to assess the conditioning efficacy of cationic polymers and to investigate their mechanisms in a shampoo system. The investigations were carried out on formulations that contained sodium lauryl ether sulphate and different cationic polymers, e.g. Polyquaternium 7, 10, 11, cationic guar gum and Luviquat Care (Polyquaternium 44), a new branched copolymer of vinylpyrrolidone (VP) and quaternized vinylimidazolium salts (QVI). We used test methods relevant to the applications in question, such as combing force measurements, the feel of the hair and the creaminess of the lather, to assess the efficacy. Atomic force microscopy and electrokinetics (streaming potential) were used to detect polymer residues on treated hair. All the polymers under investigation improved the overall performance of the shampoo formulations. This was demonstrated by means of combing force measurements, sensorial tests and analytical methods, namely zeta potential measurement and atomic force microscopy. Polyquaternium 44 exhibited the best conditioning properties on wet hair without sacrificing removability or absence of build-up. The latter are the most striking weaknesses of cationic Guar Gum-based polymers. Polyquaternium 10 can also be removed from the hair after rinsing with anionic surfactant but it does not perform as well as Polyquaternium 44 in the fields of wet combability and sensorial criteria such as lather creaminess and feel of the hair. We postulate that the outstanding properties of Polyquaternium 44 as a conditioning agent for shampoos are due to its tailor-made ,branched' structure. There is a clear correlation between the molecular weight and the efficacy of the new copolymers of VP and QVI. Only cationic polymers with a very high molecular weight are effective as conditioners in shampoos based on anionic surfactants. Surprisingly, they do not have to have a high cationic charge. On the basis of all our results, our postulation is that the polymer residue which is responsible for conditioning does not form a flat layer on the hair. Rather, the polymer residue adsorbs with the few cationic moieties, while the uncharged part of the polymer forms loops, which are orientated away from the hair and which are responsible for the reduced friction between hairs. Résumé Les formulations actuelles de shampoing font plus qu'un simple nettoyage des cheveux. On en attend un intérêt supplémentaire, par exemple après-shampoing, lissage de la surface du cheveu, amélioration de la coiffabilité et aspect crémeux du savon. Les polymères cationiques jouent un rôle important dans l'apport de nombre de ces caractéristiques. Par conséquent, ces quelques dernières années leur utilisation a considérablement augmenté dans les shampoings. Dans les seules deux dernières décades, l'appellation du shampoing est progressivement passée de "2 en 1"à"3 en 1" puis ensuite à"multifonctionnel", comme actuellement. Le consommateur recherche des produits qui tiennent leurs promesses. Les shampoings modernes contiennent une grande diversité d'ingrédients tels que des co-tensioactifs, des vitamines et des provitamines, des dérivés de protéines, des silicones, des extraits à base de plantes naturelles et autres "ingrédients actifs", mais il existe toujours un besoin pour des polymères d'après shampoing. L'objectif spécifique de cette étude est d'évaluer l'efficacité comme après-shampoing de polymères cationiques et de rechercher leurs mécanismes dans le système de shampoing. Les recherches ont été menées sur des formulations qui contiennent du sulfate de lauryl éther sodium et différents polymères cationiques, par exemple du Polyquaternium 7, 10, 11, de la gomme de guar cationique et du Luviquat Care (Polyquaternium 44), un nouveau copolymère ramifié de vinylpyrrolidone (VP) et de sels quaternaires de vinylimidazolium (QVI). Nous avons utilisé les procédés de contrôle appropriées aux applications en question, tels que les mesures de force de coiffage, le toucher du cheveu et l'aspect crémeux du savon, pour évaluer l'efficacité. La microscopie atomique et l'électrocinétique (potentiel d'écoulement) ont été utilisées pour détecter les résidus de polymère sur le cheveu traité. Tous les polymères étudiés améliorent le comportement global des formulations de shampoing. Ceci est démontré au moyen des mesures de force de coiffage, des tests sensoriels et des méthodes analytiques, en l'occurrence la mesure du potentiel zêta et la microscopie atomique. Le Polyquaternium 44 présente les meilleures propriétés d'après-shampoing sur cheveu mouillé sans diminuer sa capacité d'élimination ou l'absence d'accumulation. Ces dernières sont les faiblesses les plus frappantes des polymères à base de gomme de guar cationique. Le Polyquaternium 10 peut aussi être éliminé du cheveu après rinçage avec un tensioactif anionique mais il ne se comporte pas aussi bien que le Polyquaternium 44 dans les domaines de la coiffabilitéà l'état mouillé et des critères sensoriels tels que l'aspect crémeux du savon et du toucher du cheveu. Nous supposons que les propriétés exceptionnelles du Polyquaternium 44 comme agent après-shampoing pour shampoings sont dues à sa structure "ramifiée" conçue sur mesure. Il existe une corrélation claire entre le poids moléculaire et l'efficacité des nouveaux copolymères de VP et QVI. Seuls les polymères cationiques avec un poids moléculaire très élevé sont efficaces comme après shampoings dans des shampoings à base de tensioactifs anioniques. Etonnamment, ils n'ont pas besoin d'avoir une charge cationique élevée. Sur la base de tous nos résultats, notre hypothèse est que le fragment de polymère qui est responsable du traitement ne forme pas une couche plate sur le cheveu. Le fragment de polymère adsorbe plutôt les quelques fragments cationiques, tandis que la partie non chargée du polymère forme des boucles, qui sont orientées à l'extérieur du cheveu et qui sont responsables de la friction réduite entre les cheveux. [source]

    Theologizing the Human Jesus: An Ancient (and Modern) Approach to Christology Reassessed

    Ivor Davidson
    Many contemporary Christologies, while paying lip-service to the primacy of the human Jesus, devote little attention to the theological status of his humanity. They may be deflected from this task by such factors as preference for experienced-based symbol; the fragmentation of biblical studies and dogmatics; the imperatives of contextual hermeneutics; and the preoccupation with methodology rather than substance. But the human Jesus is only theologically meaningful when viewed on a larger canvas than that of either idealist metaphysics or historical reconstruction. The classical doctrines of the anhypostasis and enhypostasis of Jesus' humanity offer a still useful way of highlighting the primacy of grace, and, contrary to common caricature, do not undermine the density of his human experience. Such an account needs to be supplemented, however, with a robust pneumatology in order to specify the relevance of the human Jesus for revelation, salvation, anthropology, ethics and eschatology. [source]

    Theorizing Diaspora: Perspectives on "Classical" and "Contemporary" Diaspora

    Michele Reis
    Cohen (1997) employed the term "classical" diaspora in reference to the Jews. Indeed, a vast corpus of work recognizes the Jewish people as examples of quintessential diasporic groups. However, a broader conceptualization of the term diaspora allows for the inclusion of immigrant communities that would be otherwise sidelined in the conventional literature on diaspora. This study is therefore a departure from the traditional diasporic literature, which tends to use the Jewish Diaspora as the archetype. It favours, rather, the classification of three principal broad historical waves in which the Jewish Diaspora can be interpreted as part of a classical period. The historicizing of diasporization for the purpose of this paper is achieved by an empirical discussion of the three major historical waves that influenced the diasporic process throughout the world: the Classical Period, the Modern Period, and the Contemporary or Late-modern Period. The paper discusses these three critical phases in the following manner: first, reference is made to the Classical Period, which is associated primarily with ancient diaspora and ancient Greece. The second historical phase analyses diaspora in relation to the Modern Period, which can be interpreted as a central historical fact of slavery and colonization. This section can be further subdivided into three large phases: (1) the expansion of European capital (1500,1814), (2) the Industrial Revolution (1815,1914), and (3) the Interwar Period (1914,1945). The final major period of diasporization can be considered a Contemporary or Late-modern phenomenon. It refers to the period immediately after World War II to the present day, specifying the case of the Hispanics in the United States as one key example. The paper outlines some aspects of the impact of the Latin American diaspora on the United States, from a socio-economic and politico-cultural point of view. While the Modern and Late-modern periods are undoubtedly the most critical for an understanding of diaspora in a modern, globalized context, for the purpose of this paper, more emphasis is placed on the latter period, which illustrates the progressive effect of globalization on the phenomenon of diasporization. The second period, the Modern Phase is not examined in this paper, as the focus is on a comparative analysis of the early Classical Period and the Contemporary or Late-modern Period. The incorporation of diaspora as a unit of analysis in the field of international relations has been largely neglected by both recent and critical scholarship on the subject matter. While a growing number of studies focus on the increasing phenomenon of diasporic communities, from the vantage of social sciences, the issue of diaspora appears to be inadequately addressed or ignored altogether. Certain key factors present themselves as limitations to the understanding of the concept, as well as its relevance to the field of international relations and the social sciences as a whole. This paper is meant to clarify some aspects of the definition of diaspora by critiquing the theories in the conventional literature, exposing the lacunae in terms of interpretation of diaspora and in the final analysis, establishing a historiography that may be useful in comparing certain features of "classical" diaspora and "contemporary" diaspora. The latter part of the paper is intended to provide illustrations of a contemporary diasporic community, using the example of Hispanics in the United States. [source]

    Measuring Sexism, Racism, Sexual Prejudice, Ageism, Classism, and Religious Intolerance: The Intolerant Schema Measure

    Allison C. Aosved
    Despite similarities between sexism, racism, sexual prejudice, ageism, classism, and religious intolerance, investigators do not routinely investigate these intolerant beliefs simultaneously. The purpose of this project was to create a brief, psychometrically sound measure of intolerance reflecting these 6 constructs. Data from existing measures (Attitudes Toward Women Scale, Neosexism Scale, Modern and Old-Fashioned Racism Scale, Modern Homophobia Scale, Frabroni Scale of Ageism, Economic Beliefs Scale, and M-GRISM) and from items created by the authors were obtained from several college samples to create the Intolerant Schema Measure (ISM). Results support the internal consistency, test,retest reliability, and factor structure of the questionnaire. Expected relationships between measured concepts, social dominance, social desirability, and across key demographic groups support the validity of the instrument. [source]

    Bauhaus Modern and Bauhaus Culture: From Weimar to the Cold War

    Lucy M. Maulsby

    Living Modern in Mid-Century Houston

    Conserving the Menil House
    Philip Johnson's house, designed for wealthy art patrons and social activists John and Dominique de Menil in 1948, Houston, introduced the culturally conservative city to the modern aesthetic of the international style. It stimulated a generation of mid-century Houston architects who promulgated the ideas of Johnson's mentor, Mies van der Rohe. It also initiated a productive relationship between the architect and Houston where Johnson's design interests evolved from the international style to the figural high-rise towers and the near-kitsch historicist inspiration at the University of Houston. Stern and Bucek Architects' recent conservation project reflects on the role of the house, its owners, and its architect in a city's cultural evolution. [source]

    Community-oriented primary care: a multidisciplinary community-oriented approach to primary care?

    Penny Lenihan
    Abstract Developing more of a local public health focus, and involving local communities in Great Britain in health care decision-making, are key aspects of the radically changing face of primary care. Community-oriented primary care (COPC) is an international model for innovative primary health care delivery historically applied in developing or deprived communities, but increasingly seen as having broader relevance for a wider range of primary care settings. COPC has a long history of development in deprived communities, it is still however seen as innovative. It fits the current requirements of clinical governance and the ,Modern and Dependable NHS', but does its long history also provide information about it's pitfalls? COPC is promoted as an approach that is applicable to community mental health problems, community psychologists can provide the expertise to facilitate addressing community mental health in COPC programmes. This paper describes the COPC model and highlights the relevance of the COPC philosophy and the problems of its implementation for community psychologists in primary care. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Atopic xerosis: employment of noninvasive biophysical instrumentation for the functional analyses of the mildly abnormal stratum corneum and for the efficacy assessment of skin care products

    Hachiro Tagami MD
    Summary The subtle dryness of the skin surrounding the lesions of atopic dermatitis (AD) is called atopic dry skin or atopic xerosis (AX). AX is more susceptible to the development of AD skin lesions under various environmental stimuli than the clinically normal skin of the people who have or have had or will have AD, which might be called normal atopic skin (NAS) that shows no functional differences as compared to the skin of normal individuals. Routine histopathologic studies of AX that involve the invasive procedures of biopsy are not so helpful in clarifying the underlying pathogenesis. Modern, noninvasive biophysical instrumentation provides rich and quantitative information about various functional aspects of skin. The stratum corneum (SC) of AX reveals not only decreased hydration but also mildly impaired barrier function demonstrable as an increase in transepidermal water loss, elevated pH values, and an increased turnover rate of the SC consisting of thick layers of smaller-sized corneocytes. These data suggest that AX is related to mildly increased epidermal proliferation as a result of the presence of subclinical cutaneous inflammation. Although AX skin does not display any impairment in the recovery of barrier function after physical skin irritation by tape-stripping, it produces a much more severe, long-lasting inflammatory response together with a delay in barrier repair after chemical irritation such as that induced by sodium lauryl sulphate. The SC of AX is biochemically characterized by reduction in the amounts of ceramides, especially ceramide I, sebum lipids, and water-soluble amino acids. None of these changes in SC functions are seen in NAS, which includes not only the normal-looking skin of AD patients long after regression of all active lesions but also of latent atopic skin such as neonates who later develop AD. This suggests that all of the observed functional as well as biochemical abnormalities of AX are a reflection of subclinical inflammation. The presence of the underlying inflammation in AX also differentiates it from senile xerosis. The mildly impaired SC functions of AX can be improved by daily repeated applications of effective moisturizers, i.e., corneotherapy, which is effective in preventing the exacerbating progression of AX to AD resulting from inadvertent scratching of the skin that facilitates the penetration of environmental allergens into the skin. The biophysical confirmation of such efficacy of moisturizers, including cosmetic bases on the mildly impaired barrier function and decreased water-holding capacity of the SC of AX, definitely substantiates the importance of skin care for the cosmetic skin problems that affect every individual in the cold and dry season ranging from late autumn to early spring. [source]


    S. Y. Zheng
    One problem with the inversion of transient well test data is that it can yield a non-unique solution. The uncertainty resulting from this type of approach can only be resolved by considering information from another source such as geology. Geological information will help to define the interpretation model which will ensure the correct analysis of the well test data. The results of well test analyses are of little value to reservoir characterisation and modelling unless they can be explained from a geological point of view. This last step is what we refer to here as geological interpretation. Other sources of information which can help with well test analyses come from seismic surveys and petrophysics. Modern well test interpretation therefore consists of two major steps: analysis of the well test data; and interpretation of the results. In detail, this should include the following: 1definition of an interpretation model , this requires the integration of geological, seismic and petrophysical data with transient pressure data 2analysis of the well test data based on the interpretation model defined 3geological interpretation of the results, which is necessary in order to explain or give meaning to the results. In this paper, we present a case study from a fluvial gas reservoir in the Gulf of Thailand which demonstrates these procedures. In the context of a defined geological environment, a transient pressure test has been fully analysed. Newly-developed software based on the finite element method has been used to forward model the test scenarios. This allowed the results of seismic and petrophysical analyses to be integrated into the well test model. This case study illustrates the integrated use of geological, petrophysical, well test and seismic attribute data in defining a reservoir model which respects both the reservoir geometry at some distance from the well location and also the reservoir's heterogeneity. We focus on a particular well in the Pattani Basin at which conventional well test analyses have been conducted. By considering the results of these analyses, forward modelling was carried out in which the drainage area was "cut" out of the structural map defined by seismic interpretation; also, the formation's internal heterogeneity was modelled according to well logs and petrophysical analyses. Finally, analytical and simulation results were compared with the transient pressure data. We conclude that the integration of geological, seismic, petrophysical and well test data greatly reduced uncertainties in well test interpretation. The consistency of the results and the fact that they satisfied all the relevant disciplines meant that much more confidence could be given to their interpretation. [source]

    Remaking the Modern: Space, Relocation, and the Politics of Identity in a Global Cairo

    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Critically Modern: Alternatives, Alterities, Anthropologies

    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Exploring its Role in Modern and High-Tech Birthing Practices

    Catherine Ruhl CNM, Moderator
    First page of article [source]

    Trustworthiness: Ancient and Modern

    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Mapping the Invisible Landscape: An Exercise in Spatially Choreographed Sound

    Paul Bavister
    Abstract Paul Bavister of Audialsense describes how a series of auditory research installations in the Turbine Hall of the Tate Modern presented the opportunity to play with the relationship between sound and the built, inverting the usual relationship in which architecture accommodates the acoustic. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Chinese values in Singapore: Traditional and modern

    Weining C. Chang
    A series of three studies was conducted to test the internal structure of the Chinese value hierarchy (CVH) in Singapore. Study 1 identified the empirically best,fit model with six factors: Prudence, Industry, Civic,Harmony, Moral Development, Social Power and Moderation. Relative magnitudes and interfactor correlations suggested that these factors could be further grouped into two superordinate clusters: (i) The Modern factor, with significantly higher magnitude, consisted of Prudence, Industry, Civic,Harmony and Moral Development; and (ii) the Tradition factor, with lower magnitude, consisted of Social Power and Moderation. Study 2 surveyed university students with differential preference for language usages: English or Chinese. Both language groups were equally high on the Modern factor, but the Chinese,language,preferred group showed a significantly higher endorsement for the Tradition factor, Chinese Worldview (CWV) and Chinese Health Beliefs (CHB). Further convergent validation for the Modern and the Tradition factors was provided by investigating their correlations with traditional Chinese beliefs and practices for the two language groups separately. Study 3 tested generation differences in CVH. University participants (Self) were compared with their parents (Parents) and friends (Friends). There were no differences between Self and Friends on both the Modern and Tradition factors, CWV and individual differences of modernity. Parents and Self did not differ on individual differences of modernity. Parents, however, were higher on the Modern factor, the Tradition factor and CWV. Results were discussed to support the concept of ,multiple modernity' (Tu, 1900) in Asian societies, and the ,revised convergence hypothesis' proposed by Yang (1988). [source]

    Cultural health beliefs in a rural family practice: A Malaysian perspective

    Kamil M. Ariff
    Abstract Background:, Understanding the sociocultural dimension of a patient's health beliefs is critical to a successful clinical encounter. Malaysia with its multi-ethnic population of Malay, Chinese and Indian still uses many forms of traditional health care in spite of a remarkably modern rural health service. Objective:, The objective of this paper is discuss traditional health care in the context of some of the cultural aspects of health beliefs, perceptions and practices in the different ethnic groups of the author's rural family practices. This helps to promote communication and cooperation between doctors and patients, improves clinical diagnosis and management, avoids cultural blind spots and unnecessary medical testing and leads to better adherence to treatment by patients. Discussion:, Includes traditional practices of ,hot and cold', notions of Yin-Yang and Ayurveda, cultural healing, alternative medicine, cultural perception of body structures and cultural practices in the context of women's health. Modern and traditional medical systems are potentially complementary rather than antagonistic. Ethnic and cultural considerations can be integrated further into the modern health delivery system to improve care and health outcomes. [source]

    Modern and ancient fluvial megafans in the foreland basin system of the central Andes, southern Bolivia: implications for drainage network evolution in fold-thrust belts

    BASIN RESEARCH, Issue 1 2001
    B. K. Horton
    ABSTRACT Fluvial megafans chronicle the evolution of large mountainous drainage networks, providing a record of erosional denudation in adjacent mountain belts. An actualistic investigation of the development of fluvial megafans is presented here by comparing active fluvial megafans in the proximal foreland basin of the central Andes to Tertiary foreland-basin deposits exposed in the interior of the mountain belt. Modern fluvial megafans of the Chaco Plain of southern Bolivia are large (5800,22 600 km2), fan-shaped masses of dominantly sand and mud deposited by major transverse rivers (Rio Grande, Rio Parapeti, and Rio Pilcomayo) emanating from the central Andes. The rivers exit the mountain belt and debouch onto the low-relief Chaco Plain at fixed points along the mountain front. On each fluvial megafan, the presently active channel is straight in plan view and dominated by deposition of mid-channel and bank-attached sand bars. Overbank areas are characterized by crevasse-splay and paludal deposition with minor soil development. However, overbank areas also contain numerous relicts of recently abandoned divergent channels, suggesting a long-term distributary drainage pattern and frequent channel avulsions. The position of the primary channel on each megafan is highly unstable over short time scales. Fluvial megafans of the Chaco Plain provide a modern analogue for a coarsening-upward, > 2-km-thick succession of Tertiary strata exposed along the Camargo syncline in the Eastern Cordillera of the central Andean fold-thrust belt, about 200 km west of the modern megafans. Lithofacies of the mid-Tertiary Camargo Formation include: (1) large channel and small channel deposits interpreted, respectively, as the main river stem on the proximal megafan and distributary channels on the distal megafan; and (2) crevasse-splay, paludal and palaeosol deposits attributed to sedimentation in overbank areas. A reversal in palaeocurrents in the lowermost Camargo succession and an overall upward coarsening and thickening trend are best explained by progradation of a fluvial megafan during eastward advance of the fold-thrust belt. In addition, the present-day drainage network in this area of the Eastern Cordillera is focused into a single outlet point that coincides with the location of the coarsest and thickest strata of the Camargo succession. Thus, the modern drainage network may be inherited from an ancestral mid-Tertiary drainage network. Persistence and expansion of Andean drainage networks provides the basis for a geometric model of the evolution of drainage networks in advancing fold-thrust belts and the origin and development of fluvial megafans. The model suggests that fluvial megafans may only develop once a drainage network has reached a particular size, roughly 104 km2, a value based on a review of active fluvial megafans that would be affected by the tectonic, climatic and geomorphologic processes operating in a given mountain belt. Furthermore, once a drainage network has achieved this critical size, the river may have sufficient stream power to prove relatively insensitive to possible geometric changes imparted by growing frontal structures in the fold-thrust belt. [source]

    Evaluation of a critical process parameter: Oxygen limitation during cultivation has a fully reversible effect on gene expression of Bordetella pertussis

    Mathieu Streefland
    Abstract Modern (bio)pharmaceutical process development requires thorough investigation of all process parameters that are critical to product quality. The impact of a disturbance of such a parameter during processing needs to be known so that a rational decision can be made about the release of the product. In cultivation processes the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration is generally accepted as being a critical parameter. In this article the impact of a 90 min period of oxygen limitation during the cultivation of the strictly aerobic Bordetella pertussis bacterium is investigated. The cultivation is the most important process step for the manufacturing of a vaccine against whooping cough disease. Samples were taken immediately before and after oxygen limitation and at the end of cultivation of four oxygen limited and three control cultivations. DNA microarray analysis of the full transcriptome of the B. pertussis bacterium revealed that a 90 min period of oxygen limitation has a substantial effect on overall gene expression patterns. In total 104 genes were identified as a significant hit at any of the sample points, of which 58 were directly related to oxygen limitation. The other genes were mainly affected towards the end of cultivation. Of all genes involved in oxygen limitation none were identified to show a significant difference between the oxygen limited and control cultivations at the end of the batch. This indicates a fully reversible effect of oxygen limitation on gene expression. This finding has implications for the risk assessment of dissolved oxygen concentration as a critical process parameter. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2009;102: 161,167. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    Modern and Holocene hydrographic characteristics of the shallow Kara Sea shelf (Siberia) as reflected by stable isotopes of bivalves and benthic foraminifera

    BOREAS, Issue 3 2005
    River discharge of Ob and Yenisei to the Kara Sea is highly variable on seasonal and interannual time scales. River water dominates the shallow bottom water near the river mouths, making it warmer and less saline but seasonally and interannually more changeable than bottom water on the deeper shelf. This hydrographic pattern shows up in measurements and modelling, and in stable isotope records (,18 O, ,13 C) along the growth axis of bivalve shells and in multiple analyses of single benthic foraminiferal shells. Average isotope ratios increase, but sample-internal variability decreases with water depth and distance from river mouths. However, isotope records of bivalves and foraminifera of a sediment core from a former submarine channel of Yenisei River reveal a different pattern. The retreat of the river mouth from this site due to early Holocene sea level rise led to increasing average isotope values up core, but not to the expected decrease of the in-sample isotope variability. Southward advection of cold saline water along the palaeo-river channel probably obscured the hydrographic variability during the early Holocene. Later, when sediment filled the channel, the hydrographic variability at the core location remained low, because the shallowing proceeded synchronously with the retreat of the river mouth. [source]

    Technology, Place, and the Nonmodern Thesis

    Steven A. Moore
    Proposals for regionalist architecture have appeared regularly in architectural discourse since the seventeenth century. Central to this discourse are shifting attitudes toward the core concepts of technology and place. Moderns, it seems, tend to value technology and devalue place. Postmoderns do the opposite - they value place and devalue technology. The doctrines of critical regionalism defy categorization because they value both technology and place positively. However, by deriving its program equally from the modern assumptions of Jurgen Habermas and from the postmodern assumption of Martin Heidegger, critical regionalism presents a philosophical antinomy, or unresolvable conflict. It is this conflict that suggests a nonmodern thesis for architecture. [source]

    Classics and Moderns: Sraffa's Legacy in Economics

    METROECONOMICA, Issue 3 2002
    Gary Mongiovi
    The year 1998 marked the centenary of Piero Sraffa's birth. This paper reflects upon a recently published collection of essays on Piero Sraffa's scientific legacy. The paper focuses on the constructive dimensions of Sraffa's work. [source]

    Myth and Science: Their Varying Relationships

    Robert A. Segal
    The relationship between myth and science is a subject as old as that of myth and science themselves. The position on the issue taken by modern theories of myth can be divided chronologically by the centuries. In the nineteenth century, myth and science were commonly taken to be incompatible. One could not consistently accept both. Because moderns were assumed to be scientific, the choice had already been made for them: they had to abandon myth. In the twentieth century, by contrast, myth and science were usually taken to be compatible, so that one could consistently accept both. Moderns were still assumed to be scientific, but myth was now re-characterized to accommodate science. Only recently, with the rise of postmodernism, has the deference to science assumed by both nineteenth- and twentieth-century theorists been challenged. This article concentrates on the varying positions on myth and science taken in both centuries by those for whom myth and science intersect rather than diverge. Whether, as the ,mission' of the twenty-first century, myth can be brought back to the world , the world explained by science , is finally considered with the case of Gaia. [source]

    The Unfreedom of the Moderns in Comparison to Their Ideals of Constitutional Democracy

    THE MODERN LAW REVIEW, Issue 2 2002
    James Tully
    The paper is a critical survey of the last ten years of research on the principles of legitimacy of constitutional democracy and their application in practice in Europe and North America. A constitutional democracy is legitimate if it meets the test of two principles: the principles of democracy or popular sovereignty and of constitutionalism or the rule of law. There are three contemporary trends which tend to conflict with the principle of democracy and thus diminish democratic freedom. There are three responses to the lack of legitimacy of these three trends. The first is to downplay the principle of democracy in order to endorse the three trends. The second is to uphold the principle of democracy, in the form of deliberative constitutional democracy, in order to criticise aspects of the three trends and to call for further democratisation. The third trend deepens this critical response by tying the test of democratic legitimacy more closely to case studies of attempts by citizens to exercise their democratic freedom. [source]

    FATHERS, SONS, AND THE STATE: Discipline and Punishment in a Wolof Hinterland

    ABSTRACT This essay builds on fieldwork in rural Senegal to examine three cases in which elder household heads called on gendarmes to physically discipline rebellious youths. These cases, which revolved around harsh acts of corporal punishment, invite inquiry into common assumptions about African families and states. The first assumption is the common dichotomy drawn between African youths, portrayed as modern and menacing, and African elders, portrayed as "traditional" and hence benign. The second assumption is the dichotomy drawn between the African family, conceived as solidary and nurturing, and the African state, conceived as alien and predatory. In examining these cases of discipline and punishment, this essay reveals the ever-shifting power relations that link Wolof household heads, dependent junior males, and state agents, and simultaneously introduces new questions about the morality of farmer,state relations and generational conflict. My analysis reveals the spatial geography of Senegal's youth crisis, which takes different forms in rural and urban locales. The anxiety of rural patriarchs is fed by a fear-mongering media obsessed with youthful anarchy in the cities, and a long-standing political rhetoric about the threat of rural out-migration. Elder men in the countryside, who experience diminishing household authority under neoliberalism, make proactive efforts to keep the urban youth crisis at bay. They seek to augment their domestic power by reestablishing links with a state that has long bolstered patriarchy but whose power is currently in decline. By lending patriarchs their coercive force, gendarmes attempt to accomplish through private, indirect means, what the postcolonial state is unable to do: maintain social order by reining in disruptive youths. The harsh disciplinary measures that gendarmes employ are not alien to Wolof culture, but integral to Wolof conceptions of child rearing. [source]

    Recovering True Selves in the Electro-Spiritual Field of Universal Love

    Nickola Pazderic
    ABSTRACT In Taiwan, the quasi-religious practice of Heqi reveals a complex relationship between the neoliberal demand for success; conceptions of energy and love; technologies of audio transmission; reception, and recording; and the production of modern selves. A transnational coalescence of psychoanalysis and Heqi as both theory and practice produces modern, properly cultured subjects fully in tune with the prevailing demands of global capitalism. Furthermore, these therapies and their explanatory discourses reflect, as much as they describe, globally salient audio technologies (such as radio). [source]