Model System (model + system)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Model System

  • animal model system
  • attractive model system
  • excellent model system
  • genetic model system
  • good model system
  • ideal model system
  • interesting model system
  • mouse model system
  • novel model system
  • simple model system
  • useful model system
  • vitro model system
  • vivo model system

  • Terms modified by Model System

  • model system consisting

  • Selected Abstracts


    S. MI
    Effects of water activity (aw) on the inactivation of Enterobacter cloacae inoculated in chocolate liquor and in a model system of 0.1% (w/v) peptone water and glycerol by pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment were investigated. An electric field strength of 24.5 kV/cm, a total treatment time of 320 ,s, a pulse duration time of 4 ,s, a pulse delay time of 15 ,s, and a pulse cycle time of 15 s were selected for PEF treatment. The inactivation ofE. cloacae by PEF increased significantly as aw increased (P < 0. 05). As aw of chocolate liquor increased from 0.48 to 0.89, the log reduction of E. cloacae increased from 0.1 to 1.3. The measured temperature change inside the PEF treatment chamber was 0.4C when the log reduction was 1. 3. Similarly, as aw increased from 0. 51 to 0.91 in the model system, the log reduction increased from 0.4 to 1.3. E. cloacae surviving a low aw environment had high resistance to PEF. PEF inactivated E. cloacae in the chocolate liquor with aw of 0.85 by 1 log at O h incubation. However, the log reduction was only 0.1 when PEF treatment was applied to E. cloacae which was incubated for 2 h in the chocolate liquor with aw of 0.85 before PEF treatment. E. cloacae surviving the low aw environment might have resistance not only to the low aw but also to PEF. The resistance to low aw environment may need to be considered when the inactivation of microorganisms by PEF is evaluated. [source]

    Altered Tryptophan Metabolism in the Brain of Cystatin B -Deficient Mice: A Model System for Progressive Myoclonus Epilepsy

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 10 2006
    Annika Vaarmann
    Summary:,Purpose: Progressive myoclonus epilepsy of the Unverricht,Lundborg type (EPM1) is a rare neurologic disorder, associated with mutations in the Cystatin B (Cstb) gene. Mice lacking Cstb, a cysteine protease inhibitor of the cathepsine family of proteases, provide a mammalian model for EPM1 by displaying similarly progressive ataxia, myoclonic seizures, and neurodegeneration. However, the linkage of Cstb deficit on the molecular level to pathologic features like myoclonic jerks or tonic,clonic seizures has remained unclear. We examined the tryptophan (TRP) metabolism, along the serotonin (5HT) and kynurenine (KYN) pathway in the brain of Cstb -deficient mice, in relation to their possible involvement in the seizure phenotype. Methods: TRP and its metabolites, along the 5HT and KYN pathways, were assayed in brain tissue by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical detection. The inverted wire grid and mild handling tests were used for evaluation of ataxia and myoclonic activity. Results: The Cstb -deficient mice had constitutively increased TRP, 5HT, and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5HIAA) levels in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum and increased levels of KYN in the cerebellum. These neurochemical changes were accompanied with ataxia and an apparent myoclonic phenotype among the Cstb -deficient mice. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that secondary processes (i.e., overstimulation of serotoninergic transmission) on the cellular level, initiated by Cstb deficiency in specific brain regions, may be responsible for the myoclonic/seizure phenotype in EPM1. [source]

    Inhibition of Melanosome Transfer from Melanocytes to Keratinocytes by Lectins and Neoglycoproteins in an In Vitro Model System

    Ljiljana Minwalla
    We propose that some of the critical molecules involved in the transfer of melanosomes from melanocytes to keratinocytes include plasma membrane lectins and their glycoconjugates. To investigate this mechanism, co-cultures of human melanocytes and keratinocytes derived from neonatal foreskins were established. The process of melanosome transfer was assessed by two experimental procedures. The first involved labeling melanocyte cultures with the fluorochrome CFDA. Labeled melanocytes were subsequently co-cultured with keratinocytes, and the transfer of fluorochrome assessed visually by confocal microscopy and quantitatively by flow cytometry. The second investigative approach involved co-culturing melanocytes with keratinocytes, and processing the co-cultures after 3 days for electron microscopy to quantitate the numbers of melanosomes in keratinocytes. Results from these experimental approaches indicate significant transfer of dye or melanosomes from melanocytes to keratinocytes that increased with time of co-culturing. Using these model systems, we subsequently tested a battery of lectins and neoglycoproteins for their effect in melanosome transfer. Addition of these selected molecules to co-cultures inhibited transfer of fluorochrome by approximately 15,44% as assessed by flow cytometry, and of melanosomes by 67,93% as assessed by electron microscopy. Therefore, our results suggest the roles of selected lectins and glycoproteins in melanosome transfer to keratinocytes in the skin. [source]

    Construction of Substituted N-Hydroxyindoles: Synthesis of a Nocathiacin I Model System.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 42 2005
    K. C. Nicolaou
    Abstract For Abstract see ChemInform Abstract in Full Text. [source]

    Studies of Iron-Sulfur Covalency in the Model System and Proteins

    Xiu-Juan Qin
    Abstract It was found that the highly covalent nature of the metal-ligand interactions in the Fe-S cluster clearly played an important role in determining the reactivity of the sites. A semi-empirical model, based on the Phillips theory of bonding was developed for quantitative explanation of covalency in Fe-S cluster, showing that Mossbauer spectroscopy and electronic absorption spectroscopy provided the direct experimental probe of covalency of Fe-S4 clusters. [source]

    Improved In vitro Model Systems for Gastrointestinal Infection by Choice of Cell Line, pH, Microaerobic Conditions, and Optimization of Culture Conditions

    HELICOBACTER, Issue 4 2007
    Sara K. Lindén
    Abstract Background:, Commonly used in vitro infection cultures do not mimic the human gastrointestinal tract with regard to pH and microaerobic conditions. Furthermore, despite the importance of mucin,Helicobacter interactions, the cell lines used have not been selected for appropriate mucin expression. To make in vitro studies more applicable to human disease, we have developed coculture methods taking these factors into account. Materials and methods:, Nine human gastrointestinal epithelial cell lines (MKN1, MKN7, MKN28, MKN45, KATO3, HFE145, PCAA/C11 Caco-2, and LS513) were investigated. Expression and glycosylation of mucins (MUC1, 2, 3, 4, 5AC, 5B, 6, 12, 13, and 16) were determined by immunohistochemistry. We analyzed the effect of microaerobic conditions and acidic pH on cell proliferation, viability, and apoptosis. Results:, Microaerobic culture, which is more physiological for the bacteria, did not adversely affect mammalian cell viability, proliferation, or induce apoptosis The cell lines varied in mucin expression, with MKN7 and MKN45 being most similar to gastric mucosa and Caco-2 and LS513 to intestinal mucosa, although none exactly matched normal mucosa. However, changes in culture conditions did not cause major changes in the mucin expression within cell lines. Conclusions:, Culture conditions mimicking the natural environment and allowing the bacterial cells to thrive had no effect on cell viability or apoptosis, and very little influence on mucin expression of human gastrointestinal cells. Thus, it is feasible, using the simple methods we present here, to substantially improve bacterial,mammalian cell in vitro coculture studies to make them more reflective of human infection. [source]

    Proton Transfer on the Molecular Surface of Proteins and Model Systems

    Ran Friedman
    Proton transfer (PT) reactions take place on the molecular surface of proteins, membranes, ionic polymers, and other molecules. The rates of the reactions can be followed experimentally, while the atomistic details can be elucidated by molecular modeling. This manuscript gives a brief overview of the use of computer simulations and molecular modeling, in conjuction with experiments, to study PT reactions on the surface of solvated molecules. An integrative approach is discussed, where molecular dynamics simulations are performed with a protein, and quantum-mechanics-based calculations are performed on a small molecule. The simulation results allow the identification of the necessary conditions that yield PT reactions on the molecular surface. The reactions are efficient when they involve a donor and acceptor located a few Ĺ apart and under the influence of a negative electrostatic field. In proton-pumping proteins, it is possible to identify such conditions a priori and locate proton-attracting antenna domains without the need to mutate each potential donor and acceptor. Based on density functional theory calculations, the arrangement of water molecules that interconnect the donor and acceptor moieties is suggested as the rate-limiting step for proton transfer on the molecular surface. [source]

    Effects of pH on Caramelization and Maillard Reaction Kinetics in Fructose-Lysine Model Systems

    E.H. Ajandouz
    ABSTRACT: The nonenzymatic browning reactions of fructose and fructose-lysine aqueous model systems were investigated at 100 °C between pH 4.0 and pH 12.0 by measuring the loss of reactants and monitoring the pattern of UV-absorbance and brown color development. At all the pH values tested, the loss of fructose was lower in the presence than in the absence of lysine. And, in lysine-containing fructose solution, the sugar disappeared more rapidly than the amino acid. Lysine was moderately lost below pH 8.0. Caramelization of fructose, which accounted for more than 40% of total UV-absorbance and 10 to 36% of brown color development, may therefore lead to overestimating the Maillard reaction in foods. [source]

    Effect of Branch Length on 13C NMR Relaxation Properties in Molten Poly[ethylene- co -(, -olefin)] Model Systems

    Matthew Parkinson
    Abstract The potential of branch length discrimination for branches containing six and more carbons via bulk NMR relaxation properties in the melt-state has been explored. A systematic increase in the 13C spin-lattice relaxation time (T) of the terminal branch carbons 1 and 2 was observed when the branch increased from 6 to 16 carbons in length. The measurement of T via inversion recovery at high-field showed the most reliable data. The effects of saturation and NOE were addressed by using recycle delays longer than 5,×,T and the use of the saturation recovery was found to be unsatisfactory. All nuclear relaxation times were determined in a highly time efficient manner using a previously developed melt-state MAS NMR method. [source]

    Aromatic,Carbohydrate Interactions: An NMR and Computational Study of Model Systems

    Sophie Vandenbussche Ir.
    Abstract The interactions of simple carbohydrates with aromatic moieties have been investigated experimentally by NMR spectroscopy. The analysis of the changes in the chemical shifts of the sugar proton signals induced upon addition of aromatic entities has been interpreted in terms of interaction geometries. Phenol and aromatic amino acids (phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan) have been used. The observed sugar,aromatic interactions depend on the chemical nature of the sugar, and thus on the stereochemistries of the different carbon atoms, and also on the solvent. A preliminary study of the solvation state of a model monosaccharide (methyl ,-galactopyranoside) in aqueous solution, both alone and in the presence of benzene and phenol, has also been carried out by monitoring of intermolecular homonuclear solvent,sugar and aromatic,sugar NOEs. These experimental results have been compared with those obtained by density functional theory methods and molecular mechanics calculations. [source]

    Model Systems for Fluorescence and Singlet Oxygen Quenching by Metalloporphyrins

    CHEMMEDCHEM, Issue 3 2007
    Abstract Next-generation photodynamic therapy agents will minimize extraneous phototoxicity by being active only at the target site. To this end, we have developed a model system to systematically investigate the excited-state quenching ability of a number of metalloporphyrins. Central metal ions that prefer four-coordinate, square planar orientations (AgII, CuII, NiII, PdII, and ZnII) were used. Porphyrin dimers based on 5-(4-aminophenyl)-10,15,20-triphenylporphyrin and comprising both a free base porphyrin and a metalloporphyrin covalently linked through a five-carbon alkyl chain were synthesized. The fluorescence and singlet oxygen quantum yields for the dimers were probed at 630 and 650,nm, respectively, resulting in the excitation of only the free base porphyrin and allowing a comparison of the quenching efficacy of each central metal ion. These results demonstrate that metalloporphyrins can serve as efficient quenchers, and may be useful in the design of novel light-activated therapeutic agents. [source]

    Monitoring struturants of fat blends with ultrasound based in-line rheometry (ultrasonic velocity profiling with pressure difference)

    Niall W. G. Young
    Summary Ultrasonic velocity profiling with pressure difference (UVP-PD) was demonstrated to be a successful, non-invasive, in-line measurement system for instantaneous velocity and rheological flow profiling of complex, opaque fat blends. Model systems of 25% Akomic, 75% rapeseed oil; and 25% Akomic, 74% rapeseed oil and 1% Grindsted® Crystalliser 110 were compared under real process conditions with UVP-PD. Results indicated that the sample containing the crystalliser had twice the viscosity of the control. These in-line results are in agreement with previous off-line results, and offer the chance to probe the mechanics of fat blend physics under real, dynamic conditions. [source]


    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to verify key aroma-active compounds responsible for reconstituted fresh skim milk powder (SMP) aroma using threshold analysis, odor activity values, and model systems. Twelve odor-active compounds of SMP and one odor-active compound from fluid milk were selected based on flavor dilution factors from gas chromatography-olfactometry. Thresholds for the 13 odor-active compounds were identified using five-set ascending forced choice threshold analysis in odor-free water and fluid skim milk. Model systems were prepared using rehydrated milk retentate (RMR). The aroma of each model was evaluated by descriptive sensory analysis and by difference-from-control testing using a trained panel. The aroma of reconstituted fresh SMP and liquid skim milk were used as controls. Models containing a mixture of twelve of the thirteen chemicals had the most similar odor characteristics to rehydrated SMP aroma (9.0/10) indicating that these compounds constitute the character impact odorants of rehydrated fresh SMP. [source]

    Comparison of flat film to total package water vapour transmission rates for several commercial food wraps

    Matthew D. Steven
    Abstract The barrier properties of a package are the sum of material and seal permeations. Although addressed for hermetically sealed and modified atmosphere packages, little consideration of total package permeation has been given to commercial food wraps. Standard protocols were used to compare the water vapour transmission rates (WVTRs) of materials and packages for seven commercial food wraps: aluminum foil; poly(vinylidene chloride) (PVdC) film; three poly(ethylene) (PE) films; an adhesive-modified PE film; and plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) film. Water ingress for a complete package was compared to calculated material permeation based on film WVTRs. Film-to-glass adhesion strength was also measured. Model systems (desiccant) were compared to foods at ambient and refrigeration temperatures. Aluminum foil had the lowest material WVTR (0.10 g/h/m2), closely followed by PVdC (0.13 g/h/m2). These WVTRs were approximately five-fold lower than the PEs (,0.65 g/h/m2), which were nearly 10-fold lower than PVC (4.9 g/h/m2). The adhesive-modified PE film had the lowest difference between material and package transmission rates (0.7 E-03 g/h), approximately half that of the PVdC film (1.1 E-03 g/h), which was significantly lower than the remaining films (2.3 E-03 ,3.9 E-03 g/h). The adhesive PE film had the strongest film,glass adhesion. Ambient food product test results were similar to model system (desiccant) results, but refrigerated trials showed significantly different relative package transmission rates. This was attributed to the reduced adhesion of most wraps at refrigeration temperatures. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Cross-correlated and conventional dipolar carbon-13 relaxation in methylene groups in small, symmetric molecules

    Leila Ghalebani
    Abstract A theory for dipolar cross-correlated relaxation processes in AMX or AX2 spin system, with special reference to 13C-methylene groups, is reviewed briefly. Simple experiments and protocols for measuring the transfer rates between the carbon-13 Zeeman order and the three-spin order, and for their analogues in the transverse plane, are discussed using a concentrated solution of the disaccharide trehalose as a model system. Experimental data sets consisting of conventional carbon-13 relaxation parameters (T1, T2, and NOE), along with the cross-correlated relaxation rates, are also presented for some small, rigid, polycyclic molecules. These data are interpreted using spectral density functions appropriate to spherical or symmetric tops reorienting according to small-step rotational diffusion model. The analysis results in a consistent picture of the auto- and cross-correlated spin relaxation processes. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Concepts Magn Reson Part A 30A: 100,115, 2007. [source]

    Crystal growth and structural refinement of NaMn7O12

    E. Gilioli
    Abstract We report the crystal growth and the structural refinement of NaMn7O12, a manganite having a double perovskite structure. As in many similar compounds, there is coexistence of Mn3+ and Mn4+ but in this material they orderly occupy different sites for crystallographic reasons. Therefore, this peculiar structure can be considered as a model system for studying complex mechanisms such as charge, orbital and spin ordering. High purity bulk samples and "large" single crystals are needed to study tiny modifications in the crystallographic and magnetic structures associated to the ordering phenomena. Almost single phase (more than 96% pure) and single crystals (up to about 150 µm) of NaMn7O12 were synthesized by solid state reaction under pressure in a multi-anvil apparatus. Single crystal x-ray diffraction and SEM analysis have been used to characterize the crystals. The structure refinement indicates that NaMn7O12 crystallizes in the cubic Im3 space group, with a = 7.312 Ĺ and Z = 2. Further studies are in progress to optimize the synthesis conditions, in order to grow larger crystals. (© 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    The , isotypes of tubulin in neuronal differentiation,

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 7 2010
    Jiayan Guo
    Abstract The differences among the vertebrate , isotypes of tubulin are highly conserved in evolution, suggesting that they have functional significance. To address this, we have used differentiating neuroblastoma cells as a model system. These cells express the ,I, ,II, and ,III isotypes. Although there is no difference prior to differentiation, a striking difference is seen after differentiation. Both ,I and ,III occur in cell bodies and neurites, while ,II occurs mostly in neurites. Knocking down ,I causes a large decrease in cell viability while silencing ,II and ,III does not. Knocking down ,II causes a large decrease in neurite outgrowth without affecting viability. Knocking down ,III has little effect on neurite outgrowth and only decreases viability if cells are treated with glutamate and glycine, a combination known to generate free radicals and reactive oxygen species. It appears, therefore, that ,I is required for cell viability, ,II for neurite outgrowth and ,III for protection against free radicals and reactive oxygen species. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    An in vitro model system for cytoskeletal confinement

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 10 2009
    Sarah Köster
    Abstract The motility, shape, and functionality of the cell depend sensitively on cytoskeletal mechanics which in turn is governed by the properties of filamentous proteins - mainly actin, microtubules, and intermediate filaments. These biopolymers are confined in the dense cytoplasm and therefore experience strong geometric constraints on their equilibrium thermal fluctuations. To obtain a better understanding of the influence of confinement on cytoskeletal filaments we study the thermal fluctuations of individual actin filaments in a microfluidic in vitro system by fluorescence microscopy and determine the persistence length of the filaments by analyzing the radial distribution function. A unique feature of this method is that we obtain the persistence length without detailed knowledge of the complete contour of the filament which makes the technique applicable to a broad range of biological polymers, including those with a persistence length smaller than the optical resolution. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Centrioles to basal bodies in the spermiogenesis of Mastotermes darwiniensis (Insecta, Isoptera)

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 5 2009
    Maria Giovanna Riparbelli
    Abstract In addition to their role in centrosome organization, the centrioles have another distinct function as basal bodies for the formation of cilia and flagella. Centriole duplication has been reported to require two alternate assembly pathways: template or de novo. Since spermiogenesis in the termite Mastotermes darwiniensis lead to the formation of multiflagellate sperm, this process represents a useful model system in which to follow basal body formation and flagella assembly. We present evidence of a possible de novo pathway for basal body formation in the differentiating germ cell. This cell also contains typical centrosomal proteins, such as centrosomin, pericentrin-like protein, ,-tubulin, that undergo redistribution as spermatid differentiation proceeds. The spermatid centrioles are long structures formed by nine doublet rather than triplet microtubules provided with short projections extending towards the surrounding cytoplasm and with links between doublets. The sperm basal bodies are aligned in parallel beneath the nucleus. They consist of long regions close to the nucleus showing nine doublets in a cartwheel array devoid of any projections; on the contrary, the short region close to the plasma membrane, where the sperm flagella emerge, is characterized by projections similar to those observed in the centrioles linking the basal body to the plasma membrane. It is hypothesized that this appearance is in connection with the centriole elongation and further with the flagellar axonemal organization. Microtubule doublets of sperm flagellar axonemes are provided with outer dynein arms, while inner arms are rarely visible. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Myosin16b: The COOH-tail region directs localization to the nucleus and overexpression delays S-phase progression

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 1 2007
    Richard S. Cameron
    Abstract Rat Myo16a and Myo16b comprise the founding members of class XVI myosin and are characterized by an N-terminal ankyrin repeat domain thought to mediate an association with protein phosphatase 1 catalytic subunits 1, and 1,. Myo16b is the principal isoform and reveals predominant expression in developing neural tissue. Here, we use COS-7 cells as a model system to develop an understanding of Myo16b function. We find that Myo16b displays predominant localization in the nucleus of cells transitioning through interphase, but is not associated with processes of mitosis. Using a panel of EGFP-Myo16b-expression plasmids in transient transfection studies, we identified the COOH-terminal residues 1616,1912 as necessary and solely sufficient to target Myo16b to the nucleus. We show that the Myo16b-tail region directs localization to a nuclear compartment containing profilin and polymerized actin, which appears to form a three-dimensional meshwork through the depth of the nucleus. Further, we demonstrate that this compartment localizes within euchromatic regions of the genome and contains proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and cyclin A, both markers of S-phase of the cell cycle. Cells transiently expressing Myo16b or Myo16b-tail region show limited incorporation of BrdU, delayed progression through S-phase of the cell cycle, and curtailed cellular proliferation. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The unconventional myosin-VIIa associates with lysosomes

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 1 2005
    Lily E. Soni
    Abstract Mutations in the myosin-VIIa (MYO7a) gene cause human Usher disease, characterized by hearing impairment and progressive retinal degeneration. In the retina, myosin-VIIa is highly expressed in the retinal pigment epithelium, where it plays a role in the positioning of melanosomes and other digestion organelles. Using a human cultured retinal pigmented epithelia cell line, ARPE-19, as a model system, we have found that a population of myosin-VIIa is associated with cathepsin D- and Rab7-positive lysosomes. Association of myosin-VIIa with lysosomes was Rab7 independent, as dominant negative and dominant active versions of Rab7 did not disrupt myosin-VIIa recruitment to lysosomes. Association of myosin-VIIa with lysosomes was also independent of the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton. Myosin-VIIa copurified with lysosomes on density gradients, and fractionation and extraction experiments suggested that it was tightly associated with the lysosome surface. These studies suggest that myosin-VIIa is a lysosome motor. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 62:13,26, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Calyculin-A, an inhibitor for protein phosphatases, induces cortical contraction in unfertilized sea urchin eggs

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 4 2001
    Yukako Asano
    Abstract When an unfertilized sea urchin egg was exposed to calyculin-A (CL-A), an inhibitor of protein phosphatases, for a short period and then lysed, the cortex contracted to exclude cytoplasm and became a cup-shaped mass. We call the contracted cortex "actin cup" since actin filaments were major structural components. Electron microscopic observation revealed that the cup consisted of inner electron-dense layer, middle microfilamentous layer, and outermost granular region. Microfilaments were heavily accumulated in the inner electron-dense layer. The middle layer also contained numerous microfilaments, which were determined to be actin filaments by myosin S1 decoration, and they were aligned so that their barbed ends directed toward the outermost region. Myosin II, Arp2, Arp3, and spectrin were concentrated in the actin cup. Immuno-electron microscopy revealed that myosin II was localized to the electron-dense layer. We further found that the cortical tension of the egg increased just after application of CL-A and reached maximum within 10 min. Cytochalasin B or butanedione monoxime blocked the contraction, which suggested that both actin filaments and myosin ATPase activity were required for the contraction. Myosin regulatory light chain (MRLC) in the actin cup was shown to be phosphorylated at the activation sites Ser-19 and Thr-18, by immunoblotting with anti-phosphoepitope antibodies. The phosphorylation of MRLC was also confirmed by a 32P in vivo labeling experiment. The CL-A-induced cortical contraction may be a good model system for studying the mechanism of cytokinesis. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 48:245,261, 2001. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Establishment of a chick embryo model for analyzing liver development and a search for candidate genes

    Yuji Yokouchi
    The liver plays a crucial role in metabolism. There is considerable interest in how the liver develops, as such knowledge could prove of importance in regenerative medicine. However, our understanding of liver development remains somewhat limited. We have developed a model system using the chick embryo that is cost effective and is easy to manipulate experimentally. We performed four fundamental studies: (i) construction of an atlas of the developing chick liver; (ii) identification of differentiation marker genes in the developing chick embryo; (iii) development of germ-layer specific electroporation; and (iv) establishment of organ culture from the developing chick liver. Using this system, we have been able to demonstrate the functions of candidate genes within a shorter period and in a more cost-effective manner. In parallel with the establishment of this system, we examined the expression patterns of genes known to be required for organ development in the developing chick embryo in order to identify genes also involved in liver development. To date, we have found sixteen genes that are expressed in the developing chick liver (GELD, genes expressed in liver development). This knowledge will be fundamental to the establishment of the basic technology for engineering liver tissue in the future. [source]

    Gastrulation in the sea urchin embryo: A model system for analyzing the morphogenesis of a monolayered epithelium

    Tetsuya Kominami
    Processes of gastrulation in the sea urchin embryo have been intensively studied to reveal the mechanisms involved in the invagination of a monolayered epithelium. It is widely accepted that the invagination proceeds in two steps (primary and secondary invagination) until the archenteron reaches the apical plate, and that the constituent cells of the resulting archenteron are exclusively derived from the veg2 tier of blastomeres formed at the 60-cell stage. However, recent studies have shown that the recruitment of the archenteron cells lasts as late as the late prism stage, and some descendants of veg1 blastomeres are also recruited into the archenteron. In this review, we first illustrate the current outline of sea urchin gastrulation. Second, several factors, such as cytoskeletons, cell contact and extracellular matrix, will be discussed in relation to the cellular and mechanical basis of gastrulation. Third, differences in the manner of gastrulation among sea urchin species will be described; in some species, the archenteron does not elongate stepwise but continuously. In those embryos, bottle cells are scarcely observed, and the archenteron cells are not rearranged during invagination unlike in typical sea urchins. Attention will be also paid to some other factors, such as the turgor pressure of blastocoele and the force generated by blastocoele wall. These factors, in spite of their significance, have been neglected in the analysis of sea urchin gastrulation. Lastly, we will discuss how behavior of pigment cells defines the manner of gastrulation, because pigment cells recently turned out to be the bottle cells that trigger the initial inward bending of the vegetal plate. [source]

    The mechanism of Drosophila leg development along the proximodistal axis

    Tetsuya Kojima
    During development of higher organisms, most patterning events occur in growing tissues. Thus, unraveling the mechanism of how growing tissues are patterned into final morphologies has been an essential subject of developmental biology. Limb or appendage development in both vertebrates and invertebrates has attracted great attention from many researchers for a long time, because they involve almost all developmental processes required for tissue patterning, such as generation of the positional information by morphogen, subdivision of the tissue into distinct parts according to the positional information, localized cell growth and proliferation, and control of adhesivity, movement and shape changes of cells. The Drosophila leg development is a good model system, upon which a substantial amount of knowledge has been accumulated. In this review, the current understanding of the mechanism of Drosophila leg development is described. [source]

    Modeling the model organism Dictyostelium discoideum

    Seido Nagano
    The cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum is a fascinating organism, not only for biologists, but also for physicists. Since the Belousov,Zhabotinskii reaction pattern, a well-known non-linear phenomenon in chemistry, was observed during aggregation of Dictyostelium amoebae, Dictyostelium has been one of the major subjects of non-linear dynamics studies. Macroscopic theory, such as continuous cell density approximation, has been a common approach to studying pattern formation since the pioneering work of Turing. Recently, promising microscopic approaches, such as the cellular dynamics method, have emerged. They have shown that Dictyostelium is useful as a model system in biology. The synchronization mechanism of oscillatory production of cyclic adenosine 3,,5,-monophosphate in Dictyostelium is discussed in detail to show how it is a universal feature that can explain synchronization in other organisms. [source]

    Sequential activation of transcription factors in lens induction

    Hajime Ogino
    Since the pioneering work of the early 1900s, the lens has been used as a model system for the study of tissue development in vertebrates. A number of embryological transplantation experiments designed to elucidate the role of tissue interactions in the formation of the lens have led to the proposal of a stepwise determination model. This model has recently been refined through the identification of certain transcription factor genes, which exhibit distinct expression patterns and functional properties in the lens cell lineage. Otx2, Pax6, and Lens1 are induced by the adjacent anterior neural plate and expressed in predifferentiated lens ectoderm. Contact between the optic vesicle and lens ectoderm promotes expression of mafs, Soxs, and Prox1, which are responsible for the initiation of lens differentiation programs including crystallin expression, cell elongation, and cell cycle arrest. Further analysis of the expression and functional characteristics of these transcription factors will allow greater detail when describing the orchestration of genetic programs, which control tissue development from induction to maturation. [source]

    Beyond early development: Xenopus as an emerging model for the study of regenerative mechanisms

    Caroline W. Beck
    Abstract While Xenopus is a well-known model system for early vertebrate development, in recent years, it has also emerged as a leading model for regeneration research. As an anuran amphibian, Xenopus laevis can regenerate the larval tail and limb by means of the formation of a proliferating blastema, the lens of the eye by transdifferentiation of nearby tissues, and also exhibits a partial regeneration of the postmetamorphic froglet forelimb. With the availability of inducible transgenic techniques for Xenopus, recent experiments are beginning to address the functional role of genes in the process of regeneration. The use of soluble inhibitors has also been very successful in this model. Using the more traditional advantages of Xenopus, others are providing important lineage data on the origin of the cells that make up the tissues of the regenerate. Finally, transcriptome analyses of regenerating tissues seek to identify the genes and cellular processes that enable successful regeneration. Developmental Dynamics 238:1226,1248, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Signaling pathways regulating the expression of Prx1 and Prx2 in the chick mandibular mesenchyme

    Aikaterini-El Doufexi
    Abstract Prx1 and Prx2 are members of the aristaless-related homeobox genes shown to play redundant but essential roles in morphogenesis of the mandibular processes. To gain insight into the signaling pathways that regulate expression of Prx genes in the mandibular mesenchyme, we used the chick as a model system. We examined the patterns of gene expression in the face and the roles of signals derived from the epithelium on the expression of Prx genes in the mandibular mesenchyme. Our results demonstrated stage-dependent roles of mandibular epithelium on the expression of Prx in the mandibular mesenchyme and provide evidence for positive roles of members of the fibroblast and hedgehog families derived from mandibular epithelium on the expression of Prx genes in the mandibular mesenchyme. Our studies suggest that endothelin-1 signaling derived from the mesenchyme is involved in restricting the expression of Prx2 to the medial mandibular mesenchyme. Developmental Dynamics 237:3115,3127, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Vestigial expression in the Drosophila embryonic central nervous system

    Kirsten A. Guss
    Abstract The Drosophila central nervous system is an excellent model system in which to resolve the genetic and molecular control of neuronal differentiation. Here we show that the wing selector vestigial is expressed in discrete sets of neurons. We track the axonal trajectories of VESTIGIAL-expressing cells in the ventral nerve cord and show that these cells descend from neuroblasts 1-2, 5-1, and 5-6. In addition, along the midline, VESTIGIAL is expressed in ventral unpaired median motorneurons and cells that may descend from the median neuroblast. These studies form the requisite descriptive foundation for functional studies addressing the role of vestigial during interneuron differentiation. Developmental Dynamics 237:2483,2489, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]