Model

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Model

  • Arrheniu model
  • Hotell model
  • Ise model
  • Markov-switch model
  • OL model
  • Reynold stress model
  • Schole model
  • abcx model
  • abscess model
  • academic model
  • acceptance model
  • access model
  • accounting model
  • accurate model
  • activity relationship model
  • acute model
  • adaptation model
  • adaptive model
  • additive model
  • adequate model
  • adjusted model
  • adjustment model
  • adsorption model
  • adult model
  • adverse selection model
  • affine term structure model
  • age model
  • agency model
  • agent model
  • agricultural household model
  • aid model
  • al. model
  • allocation model
  • allograft model
  • alternative model
  • analysis model
  • analytic model
  • analytical model
  • andersen behavioral model
  • anderson model
  • animal model
  • ann model
  • another model
  • anova model
  • appropriate model
  • approximate model
  • ar model
  • arch model
  • area model
  • arma model
  • artery ligation model
  • artery occlusion model
  • arthritis model
  • artificial neural network model
  • assessment model
  • asset pricing model
  • assimilation model
  • association model
  • assumed model
  • asthma model
  • atmosphere model
  • atmospheric general circulation model
  • atmospheric model
  • atom model
  • atomic model
  • attractive model
  • autoregressive model
  • average model
  • avrami model
  • background model
  • balance model
  • bargaining model
  • base model
  • basic model
  • basin model
  • bayesian hierarchical model
  • bayesian model
  • beam model
  • behavioral model
  • behavioural model
  • belief model
  • benchmark model
  • bertalanffy growth model
  • best model
  • best-fit model
  • best-fitting model
  • better model
  • bias model
  • big five model
  • binary logistic regression model
  • binding model
  • binomial model
  • binomial regression model
  • bio-economic model
  • biochemical model
  • bioclimatic model
  • bioenergetic model
  • biofilm model
  • biological model
  • biomechanical model
  • biomedical model
  • biophysical model
  • biopsychosocial model
  • biosocial model
  • block model
  • body model
  • boltzmann model
  • bond model
  • box model
  • broken-line model
  • budget model
  • bulkley model
  • burger model
  • business model
  • calculation model
  • calibration model
  • cancer model
  • cancer xenograft model
  • canine model
  • capacity model
  • capital asset pricing model
  • capital model
  • carcinogenesi model
  • care model
  • carlo model
  • cash flow model
  • causal model
  • cavitation model
  • cell culture model
  • cell line model
  • cell model
  • cellular model
  • cerebral artery occlusion model
  • cfd model
  • cge model
  • chain model
  • challenge model
  • chamber model
  • change model
  • channel model
  • charge model
  • chemical model
  • choice model
  • chronic care model
  • chronic model
  • circuit model
  • circulation model
  • class model
  • classic model
  • classical model
  • classification model
  • clay model
  • climate model
  • clinical model
  • closure model
  • cloud-resolving model
  • cluster model
  • co-culture model
  • coalescent model
  • coculture model
  • cognitive model
  • coherent model
  • cohesive zone model
  • cohort model
  • colitis model
  • collaborative model
  • combined model
  • combustion model
  • communication model
  • compact model
  • comparative model
  • compartment model
  • compartmental model
  • competition model
  • competitive model
  • complete model
  • complex model
  • complexation model
  • component model
  • composite model
  • comprehensive mathematical model
  • comprehensive model
  • computable general equilibrium model
  • computational model
  • computer model
  • computer simulation model
  • conceptual model
  • conditional logit model
  • conduction model
  • conductor-like screening model
  • connectionist model
  • constitutive model
  • contact model
  • continuous model
  • continuum model
  • continuum solvation model
  • control model
  • conventional model
  • convolution model
  • copula model
  • core model
  • correction model
  • cosmological model
  • cost model
  • coupled model
  • coupling model
  • cox model
  • cox proportional hazard model
  • cox proportional hazard regression model
  • cox regression model
  • crack model
  • creation model
  • crystallographic model
  • cultural model
  • culture model
  • current model
  • curve model
  • cybernetic model
  • cycle model
  • cylinder model
  • damage model
  • darcy model
  • data model
  • dea model
  • death model
  • decay model
  • decision analysis model
  • decision model
  • decision-making model
  • defect model
  • deformable model
  • deformation model
  • delay model
  • delivery model
  • demand model
  • demographic model
  • density model
  • depositional model
  • descriptive model
  • design model
  • detailed model
  • deterministic model
  • developed model
  • development model
  • developmental model
  • diabetes model
  • diabetic rat model
  • diagnostic model
  • dialectical model
  • dielectric continuum model
  • difference model
  • different model
  • differentiation model
  • diffusion model
  • diffusive tank model
  • digestion model
  • digital elevation model
  • dimensional model
  • dimer model
  • disc model
  • discrete choice model
  • discrete model
  • discrete-time model
  • discretized model
  • disease model
  • disorder model
  • dispersal model
  • dispersion model
  • displacement model
  • dissipation model
  • distributed hydrological model
  • distributed lag model
  • distribution model
  • dog model
  • dominant model
  • drag model
  • drosophila model
  • drude model
  • dual-porosity model
  • duopoly model
  • duration model
  • dynamic equilibrium model
  • dynamic factor model
  • dynamic general equilibrium model
  • dynamic linear model
  • dynamic mathematical model
  • dynamic model
  • dynamic programming model
  • dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model
  • dynamical model
  • dynamics model
  • eae model
  • earth model
  • ecological model
  • econometric model
  • economic model
  • economy model
  • ecosystem model
  • education model
  • effect model
  • effective medium model
  • effective model
  • effects model
  • efficiency model
  • elastic model
  • elastoplastic model
  • electrothermal model
  • element model
  • elevation model
  • ellipsoidal model
  • emax model
  • emerging model
  • emission model
  • empirical model
  • employment model
  • endogenous growth model
  • energy balance model
  • energy model
  • ensemble model
  • epidemiological model
  • epilepsy model
  • epithelial cell model
  • equation model
  • equilibrium model
  • equilibrium search model
  • equivalent circuit model
  • equivalent-circuit model
  • erosion model
  • error correction model
  • error model
  • error-correction model
  • established animal model
  • established model
  • estimated model
  • estimation model
  • et al. model
  • eulerian model
  • european model
  • european social model
  • evaluation model
  • event history model
  • evolution model
  • evolutionary model
  • ex vivo model
  • excellent model
  • exchange model
  • existing model
  • experimental animal model
  • experimental model
  • experimental murine model
  • experimental rabbit model
  • explanatory model
  • explant model
  • explicit model
  • exploratory model
  • exponential model
  • exposure model
  • extended hubbard model
  • extended model
  • extreme value model
  • face model
  • factor model
  • failure model
  • family model
  • fault model
  • fe model
  • feasible model
  • fem model
  • fibrosis model
  • fickian diffusion model
  • field model
  • filter model
  • filtration model
  • final model
  • finite difference model
  • finite element model
  • finite-element model
  • firm model
  • first model
  • first-order kinetic model
  • first-order model
  • first-order reaction model
  • fisher model
  • fit model
  • fitted model
  • fitting model
  • five factor model
  • five model
  • five-factor model
  • fixed effects model
  • fixed-effect model
  • flap model
  • flexible model
  • flow model
  • fluid model
  • flux model
  • forecast model
  • forecasting model
  • formal model
  • formation model
  • four-factor model
  • fracture model
  • frailty model
  • french model
  • friction model
  • frontier model
  • full model
  • function model
  • functional model
  • fuzzy model
  • game model
  • game theoretic model
  • game-theoretic model
  • gamma frailty model
  • garch model
  • gas model
  • gaussian mixture model
  • gaussian model
  • gaussian process model
  • gee model
  • general circulation model
  • general dynamic model
  • general equilibrium model
  • general linear mixed model
  • general linear model
  • general mathematical model
  • general model
  • general-circulation model
  • generalized additive model
  • generalized linear mixed model
  • generalized linear model
  • generalized model
  • generation model
  • generic model
  • genetic model
  • geological model
  • geometric model
  • geometrical model
  • gerbil model
  • glioma model
  • global climate model
  • global model
  • goat model
  • gompertz model
  • good model
  • governance model
  • graph model
  • graphical model
  • gravity model
  • grey model
  • ground water flow model
  • groundwater flow model
  • growth model
  • guinea pig model
  • guinea-pig model
  • habitat model
  • hazard model
  • hazard regression model
  • head model
  • health belief model
  • health promotion model
  • heart model
  • heat transfer model
  • hedonic model
  • heisenberg model
  • heterogeneity model
  • heterogeneous model
  • heuristic model
  • hierarchical bayesian model
  • hierarchical model
  • high resolution limited area model
  • higuchi model
  • history model
  • holistic model
  • homogeneous model
  • homology model
  • household model
  • hubbard model
  • human capital model
  • human model
  • hybrid model
  • hydraulic model
  • hydrodynamic model
  • hydrologic model
  • hydrological model
  • hydrology model
  • hypothesized model
  • hypothetical model
  • ideal model
  • implantation model
  • implicit solvent model
  • important model
  • improved model
  • in vitro model
  • in-vitro model
  • inclusive model
  • index model
  • indirect response model
  • infection model
  • inflammation model
  • inflammatory model
  • inhibition model
  • initial model
  • injection model
  • injury model
  • innovative model
  • institutional model
  • integrate model
  • integrative model
  • interaction model
  • interactive model
  • interesting model
  • interface model
  • intertemporal capital asset pricing model
  • intervention model
  • inventory model
  • inverse model
  • investment model
  • ischemia model
  • island model
  • isolation-by-distance model
  • isotherm model
  • job search model
  • joint model
  • keynesian model
  • kidney model
  • kinematic model
  • kinetic model
  • kinetics model
  • kmc model
  • knockout model
  • knockout mouse model
  • knowledge model
  • labor supply model
  • laboratory model
  • labour supply model
  • lag model
  • langmuir model
  • large animal model
  • large model
  • latent class model
  • latent variable model
  • latter model
  • lattice boltzmann model
  • lattice model
  • law model
  • layer model
  • leadership model
  • learning model
  • lens model
  • lesion model
  • level model
  • libor market model
  • life cycle model
  • life-cycle model
  • ligation model
  • likelihood model
  • limited area model
  • line model
  • linear mixed effects model
  • linear mixed model
  • linear model
  • linear programming model
  • linear regression model
  • liver injury model
  • liver model
  • liver transplantation model
  • local model
  • log-linear model
  • logistic model
  • logistic regression model
  • logit model
  • loglinear model
  • lognormal model
  • longitudinal model
  • lumped parameter model
  • lung model
  • lupus model
  • macaque model
  • macro model
  • macroeconometric model
  • macroeconomic model
  • management model
  • market model
  • markov chain model
  • markov model
  • markov switching model
  • mass transfer model
  • mass transport model
  • matching model
  • material model
  • mathematical model
  • mathematical programming model
  • matrix model
  • matrix population model
  • maturity model
  • maxwell model
  • mean model
  • measurement error model
  • measurement model
  • mechanical model
  • mechanistic model
  • mediation model
  • mediational model
  • medical model
  • medium model
  • melanoma model
  • membrane model
  • memory model
  • mental model
  • menten model
  • mesh model
  • mesoscale model
  • metabolic model
  • metapopulation model
  • metastasis model
  • micromechanical model
  • microscopic model
  • microsimulation model
  • middle cerebral artery occlusion model
  • migration model
  • minimal model
  • mixed effects model
  • mixed linear model
  • mixed model
  • mixed-effect model
  • mixing model
  • mixture model
  • mlr model
  • mm model
  • mobility model
  • modified model
  • molecular model
  • molecular thermodynamic model
  • molecule model
  • monetary model
  • monkey model
  • monod model
  • monte carlo model
  • mortality model
  • mouse model
  • mouse xenograft model
  • moving average model
  • multi-period model
  • multidimensional model
  • multifactorial model
  • multilevel model
  • multinomial logit model
  • multinomial model
  • multiphase model
  • multiple logistic regression model
  • multiple regression model
  • multiplicative model
  • multipolar atom model
  • multipole model
  • multistage model
  • multivariable logistic regression model
  • multivariable model
  • multivariate cox model
  • multivariate cox regression model
  • multivariate garch model
  • multivariate logistic regression model
  • multivariate model
  • multivariate regression model
  • murine model
  • mutation model
  • negative binomial model
  • negative binomial regression model
  • neoclassical growth model
  • neoclassical model
  • nerve injury model
  • nested logit model
  • net model
  • network model
  • neural network model
  • neutral model
  • new analytical model
  • new animal model
  • new conceptual model
  • new experimental model
  • new keynesian model
  • new mathematical model
  • new model
  • new rat model
  • new theoretical model
  • nn model
  • noise model
  • non-human primate model
  • non-linear model
  • nonhuman primate model
  • nonlinear dynamic model
  • nonlinear mixed-effect model
  • nonlinear model
  • normal model
  • novel animal model
  • novel mathematical model
  • novel model
  • novel murine model
  • nude mouse model
  • null model
  • numerical model
  • numerical simulation model
  • numerical weather prediction model
  • nursing model
  • nwp model
  • oa model
  • object model
  • occlusion model
  • ocean model
  • oedema model
  • olg model
  • oligopoly model
  • one model
  • one-compartment model
  • one-dimensional model
  • one-factor model
  • open model
  • optimal model
  • optimization model
  • option model
  • option pricing model
  • order kinetic model
  • order model
  • ordered probit model
  • organ culture model
  • organizational model
  • original model
  • orthotopic model
  • oscillator model
  • other model
  • output model
  • ovine model
  • oxidation model
  • page model
  • pain model
  • panel data model
  • panel model
  • parameter model
  • parametric model
  • parcel model
  • parsimonious model
  • partial equilibrium model
  • partial model
  • particle model
  • particular model
  • path model
  • pathway model
  • patient model
  • pcm model
  • pd model
  • percolation model
  • performance model
  • perfusion model
  • peritoneal model
  • peritonitis model
  • ph model
  • phantom model
  • pharmacodynamic model
  • pharmacokinetic model
  • pharmacological model
  • pharmacophore model
  • phenomenological model
  • photosynthesi model
  • physical model
  • physicochemical model
  • physiological model
  • pig model
  • piglet model
  • pk model
  • pl model
  • planning model
  • plant model
  • plasma model
  • plastic model
  • plasticity model
  • plate model
  • plausible model
  • poisson model
  • poisson regression model
  • polarizable continuum model
  • polarization model
  • polygenic model
  • polynomial model
  • population balance model
  • population dynamics model
  • population model
  • population pharmacokinetic model
  • porcine model
  • pore model
  • possible model
  • potential model
  • pouch model
  • power law model
  • power model
  • power-law model
  • powerful model
  • practice model
  • practitioner model
  • preclinical model
  • prediction model
  • predictive model
  • prefer model
  • present model
  • presented model
  • previous model
  • prey model
  • pricing model
  • primary model
  • primate model
  • prior model
  • priori model
  • probabilistic model
  • probability model
  • probit model
  • process model
  • processing model
  • product model
  • production model
  • prognostic model
  • programming model
  • promising model
  • promotion model
  • propagation model
  • proportional hazard model
  • proportional hazard regression model
  • proposed conceptual model
  • proposed model
  • protein model
  • pseudo-second-order model
  • pseudophase model
  • public good model
  • published model
  • qsar model
  • qualitative model
  • quality model
  • quantitative model
  • queueing model
  • rabbit model
  • radiation model
  • radiative transfer model
  • rainfall-runoff model
  • random effect model
  • random effects model
  • random model
  • random walk model
  • random-effect model
  • rat heart model
  • rat model
  • rate model
  • ratio model
  • rational model
  • reaction model
  • reactor model
  • realistic model
  • recent model
  • recessive model
  • reduced model
  • reduced-order model
  • reference model
  • refined model
  • regional climate model
  • regional model
  • regression model
  • regulatory model
  • relations model
  • relationship model
  • relevant model
  • reliability model
  • reliable model
  • reporting model
  • research model
  • resolution limited area model
  • response model
  • response surface model
  • resulting model
  • revised model
  • rheological model
  • risk model
  • robust model
  • rodent model
  • role model
  • runoff model
  • same model
  • sample selection model
  • scale model
  • scale-down model
  • scattering model
  • scientist-practitioner model
  • scoring model
  • screening model
  • search model
  • second model
  • segment model
  • seizure model
  • selected model
  • selection model
  • self-consistent model
  • semi-empirical model
  • semi-markov model
  • semiparametric model
  • sequential model
  • series model
  • service model
  • services model
  • shallow water model
  • sheep model
  • shell model
  • sigma model
  • signal model
  • signaling model
  • significant model
  • similar model
  • simple analytical model
  • simple linear regression model
  • simple mathematical model
  • simple model
  • simple theoretical model
  • simpler model
  • simplest model
  • simplified model
  • simulation model
  • simultaneous equation model
  • single model
  • site model
  • six-factor model
  • skin model
  • slice culture model
  • slice model
  • smagorinsky model
  • small animal model
  • snow model
  • social model
  • social relations model
  • soil model
  • solution model
  • solvation model
  • solvent model
  • source model
  • space model
  • space-filling model
  • spatial model
  • spatiotemporal model
  • speciation model
  • specific model
  • spectral model
  • spherical model
  • spring model
  • stage model
  • stakeholder model
  • standard model
  • starting model
  • state model
  • state space model
  • state-space model
  • static model
  • statistical mechanical model
  • statistical model
  • steady-state model
  • stem cell model
  • stochastic general equilibrium model
  • stochastic growth model
  • stochastic model
  • stochastic programming model
  • stochastic volatility model
  • stress model
  • stroke model
  • structural equation model
  • structural model
  • structure model
  • study model
  • successful model
  • suggested model
  • suitable animal model
  • suitable model
  • supply model
  • support model
  • surface model
  • surgical model
  • surrogate model
  • survival model
  • svm model
  • swat model
  • swine model
  • switching model
  • switching regression model
  • synthesis model
  • synthetic model
  • system model
  • systemic model
  • tank model
  • technology acceptance model
  • temperature model
  • temporal model
  • tentative model
  • term structure model
  • terrain model
  • test model
  • theoretic model
  • theoretical model
  • theory model
  • therapeutic model
  • thermal model
  • thermodynamic model
  • third model
  • this model
  • three-compartment model
  • three-dimensional finite element model
  • three-dimensional model
  • three-factor model
  • three-parameter model
  • three-stage model
  • threshold model
  • thrombosis model
  • tidal model
  • tight-binding model
  • time model
  • time series model
  • tissue model
  • tobit model
  • topological model
  • toxicity model
  • toy model
  • tractable model
  • trade model
  • trade-off model
  • traditional model
  • traffic flow model
  • traffic model
  • training model
  • transactional model
  • transfer model
  • transformation model
  • transgenic model
  • transgenic mouse model
  • transgenic rat model
  • transition model
  • transplant model
  • transplantation model
  • transport model
  • transtheoretical model
  • treatment model
  • tree model
  • trend model
  • tripartite model
  • true model
  • tube model
  • tumor model
  • tumour model
  • turbulence model
  • two-compartment model
  • two-compartmental model
  • two-country model
  • two-dimensional finite element model
  • two-dimensional mathematical model
  • two-dimensional model
  • two-factor model
  • two-layer model
  • two-part model
  • two-period model
  • two-phase model
  • two-sector model
  • two-stage model
  • two-state model
  • type model
  • ulcer model
  • unconstrained model
  • underlying genetic model
  • underlying model
  • unfolding model
  • unidimensional model
  • unified model
  • unifying model
  • unique model
  • unitary model
  • univariate model
  • updated model
  • used model
  • useful animal model
  • useful model
  • utility model
  • validated model
  • valuable model
  • valuation model
  • value model
  • var model
  • variable model
  • variance model
  • vector autoregressive model
  • vector error correction model
  • vegetation model
  • vehicle model
  • velocity model
  • vertebrate model
  • very simple model
  • viable model
  • viscoelastic model
  • viscoplastic model
  • viscosity model
  • vitro model
  • vivo experimental model
  • vivo model
  • vivo rat model
  • volatility model
  • volterra model
  • von bertalanffy growth model
  • voting model
  • walk model
  • wall model
  • water balance model
  • water flow model
  • water model
  • watershed model
  • wave model
  • weather prediction model
  • weibull model
  • well-characterized model
  • well-characterized mouse model
  • well-established model
  • whole model
  • worm-like chain model
  • wound model
  • wound-healing model
  • xenograft model
  • xenotransplant model
  • yeast model
  • zebrafish model
  • zone model

  • Terms modified by Model

  • model ability
  • model able
  • model account
  • model accounting
  • model accuracy
  • model age
  • model algorithm
  • model analysis
  • model analyte
  • model animal
  • model anova
  • model answer
  • model antigen
  • model applicable
  • model application
  • model approach
  • model assessment
  • model assuming
  • model assumption
  • model atmosphere
  • model averaging
  • model bacterium
  • model behavior
  • model behaviour
  • model best
  • model bias
  • model building
  • model calculation
  • model calibration
  • model capability
  • model capable
  • model capture
  • model case
  • model catalyst
  • model cell line
  • model characteristic
  • model checking
  • model chemical
  • model choice
  • model chromophore
  • model class
  • model cluster
  • model coefficient
  • model combining
  • model community
  • model comparison
  • model complex
  • model complexity
  • model component
  • model composite
  • model compound
  • model configuration
  • model consistent
  • model consisting
  • model constant
  • model construction
  • model control
  • model data
  • model description
  • model design
  • model development
  • model discrimination
  • model disease
  • model domain
  • model drug
  • model ecosystem
  • model enzyme
  • model equation
  • model error
  • model estimate
  • model estimation
  • model evaluation
  • model example
  • model experiment
  • model explaining
  • model expression
  • model field
  • model fit
  • model fitting
  • model fluid
  • model food
  • model forecast
  • model form
  • model formulation
  • model framework
  • model function
  • model generation
  • model group
  • model help
  • model highlight
  • model i
  • model identification
  • model ii
  • model improvement
  • model incorporated
  • model input
  • model input parameter
  • model integration
  • model lead
  • model legume lotus japonicu
  • model make
  • model material
  • model membrane
  • model membrane system
  • model minority
  • model misspecification
  • model mixture
  • model molecule
  • model mouse
  • model need
  • model only
  • model optimization
  • model order reduction
  • model organism
  • model output
  • model parameter
  • model parameter estimate
  • model parameter estimation
  • model parameter uncertainty
  • model parameterization
  • model parametrization
  • model pathogen
  • model peptide
  • model performance
  • model plant
  • model plant Arabidopsi
  • model plant Arabidopsi thaliana
  • model plant species
  • model potential
  • model prediction
  • model predictive control
  • model predictive controller
  • model problem
  • model procedure
  • model projection
  • model protein
  • model quality
  • model rat
  • model reaction
  • model reduction
  • model reduction problem
  • model reference adaptive control
  • model refinement
  • model regression
  • model representation
  • model resolution
  • model response
  • model result
  • model reveal
  • model robustness
  • model run
  • model sample
  • model scale
  • model scenario
  • model selection
  • model selection approach
  • model selection criterioN
  • model selection procedure
  • model sensitivity
  • model sequence
  • model set
  • model show
  • model shows
  • model simulation
  • model size
  • model solution
  • model space
  • model species
  • model specification
  • model specifications
  • model structure
  • model studies
  • model study
  • model substance
  • model substrate
  • model suitable
  • model support
  • model surface
  • model system
  • model system consisting
  • model take
  • model term
  • model test
  • model testing
  • model theory
  • model transformation
  • model type
  • model uncertainty
  • model updating
  • model use
  • model used
  • model validation
  • model value
  • model variable
  • model version
  • model viruse
  • model yield

  • Selected Abstracts


    PREDICTING THE IMPACT OF ANTICIPATORY ACTION ON U.S. STOCK MARKET,AN EVENT STUDY USING ANFIS (A NEURAL FUZZY MODEL)

    COMPUTATIONAL INTELLIGENCE, Issue 2 2007
    P. Cheng
    In this study, the adaptive neural fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), a hybrid fuzzy neural network, is adopted to predict the actions of the investors (when and whether they buy or sell) in a stock market in anticipation of an event,changes in interest rate, announcement of its earnings by a major corporation in the industry, or the outcome of a political election for example. Generally, the model is relatively more successful in predicting when the investors take actions than what actions they take and the extent of their activities. The findings do demonstrate the learning and predicting potential of the ANFIS model in financial applications, but at the same time, suggest that some of the market behaviors are too complex to be predictable. [source]


    COMPENSATORY RESTORATION IN A RANDOM UTILITY MODEL OF RECREATION DEMAND

    CONTEMPORARY ECONOMIC POLICY, Issue 4 2010
    GEORGE R. PARSONS
    Natural Resource Damage Assessment cases often call for compensation in non-monetary or restoration equivalent terms. In this article, we present an approach that uses a conventional economic model, a travel cost random utility model of site choice, to determine compensatory restoration equivalents for hypothetical beach closures on the Gulf Coast of Texas. Our focus is on closures of beaches on the Padre Island National Seashore and compensation for day-trip users. We identify restoration projects that compensate for beach closures and that have good alignment in terms of compensating those who actually suffer from the closures. (JEL Q26) [source]


    THE EFFECTS OF THE 1.03 MILLION YEN CEILING IN A DYNAMIC LABOR SUPPLY MODEL

    CONTEMPORARY ECONOMIC POLICY, Issue 2 2009
    YUKIKO ABE
    In this paper I examine the effects of a means-tested transfer system in Japan ("1.03 million yen ceiling") in a dynamic labor supply model with endogenous retirement. In Japan, married women have reason to limit their annual earnings to no more than 1.03 million yen in order to receive a number of benefits available to low-income wives, and in fact often choose to do so. In a dynamic model, the optimal labor supply schedule follows a pattern that is not seen in a static framework, which I call the "spillover effect." The paper also examines the properties of dynamic welfare cost of this ceiling. (JEL J22, H24, H55) [source]


    SOCIAL SUPPORT, INEQUALITY, AND HOMICIDE: A CROSS-NATIONAL TEST OF AN INTEGRATED THEORETICAL MODEL,

    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 3 2003
    TRAVIS C. PRATT
    Social support, institutional anomie, and macrolevel general strain perspectives have emerged as potentially important explanations of aggregate levels of crime. Drawing on insights from each of these perspectives in a cross-national context, the analyses show that 1) our measure of social support is inversely related to homicide rates, 2) economic inequality also maintains a direct relationship with homicide rates, and 3) social support significantly interacts with economic inequality to influence homicide rates. The implications of the analysis for ongoing discourse concerning the integration of these criminological theories and the implications for the development of effective crime control policies are discussed. [source]


    INTEGRATING CELERITY, IMPULSIVITY, AND EXTRALEGAL SANCTION THREATS INTO A MODEL OF GENERAL DETERRENCE: THEORY AND EVIDENCE,

    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 4 2001
    DANIEL S. NAGIN
    We propose a model that integrates the extralegal consequences from conviction and impulsivity into the traditional deterrence framework. The model was tested with 252 college students, who completed a survey concerning drinking and driving. Key findings include the following: (1) Although variation in sanction certainty and severity predicted offending, variation in celerity did not; (2) the extralegal consequences from conviction appear to be at least as great a deterrent as the legal consequences; (3) the influence of sanction severity diminished with an individual's "present-orientation"; and (4) the certainty of punishment was far more robust a deterrent to offending than was the severity of punishment. [source]


    THE EFFECTS OF SOCIAL TIES ON CRIME VARY BY CRIMINAL PROPENSITY: A LIFE-COURSE MODEL OF INTERDEPENDENCE,

    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 2 2001
    BRADLEY R. ENTNER WRIGHT
    Previous studies have explained the transition from criminal propensity in youth to criminal behavior in adulthood with hypotheses of enduring criminal propensity, unique social causation, and cumulative social disadvantage. In this article we develop an additional hypothesis derived from the life-course concept of interdependence: The effects of social ties on crime vary as a function of individuals' propsensity for crime. We tested these four hypotheses with data from the Dunedin Study. In support of life-course interdependence, prosocial ties, such as education, employment, family ties, and partnerships, deterred crime, and antisocial ties, such as delinquent peers, promoted crime, most strongly among low self-control individuals. Our findings bear implications for theories and policies of crime. [source]


    MODELING MEDIATION IN THE ETIOLOGY OF VIOLENT BEHAVIOR IN ADOLESCENCE: A TEST OF THE SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT MODEL,

    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 1 2001
    BU HUANG
    The social development model seeks to explain human behavior through specification of predictive and mediating developmental relationships. It incorporates the effects of empirical predictors ("risk factors" and "protective factors") for antisocial behavior and seeks to synthesize the most strongly supported propositions of control theory, social learning theory, and differential association theory. This article examines the fit of the social development model using constructs measured at ages 10, 13, 14, and 16 to predict violent behavior at age 18. The sample of 808 is from the longitudinal panel of the Seattle Social Development Project, which in 1985 surveyed fifth-grade students from schools serving high crime neighborhoods in Seattle, Washington. Structural equation modeling techniques were used to examine the fit of the model to the data. The model fit the data (CFI ,.90, RMSEA ,.05). We conclude that the social development model adequately predicts violence at age 18 and mediates much of the effect of prior violence. Implications for theory and for prevention are discussed. [source]


    PRELIMINARY EXPERIENCE OF A PROTOTYPE FORWARD-VIEWING CURVED LINEAR ARRAY ECHOENDOSCOPE IN A TRAINING PHANTOM MODEL

    DIGESTIVE ENDOSCOPY, Issue 2010
    Hiroshi Imaizumi
    Oblique-viewing curved linear array (OV-CLA) echoendoscopes have been widely used to perform endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration and interventional endoscopic ultrasonography. Recently a prototype forward-viewing curved liner array (FV-CLA) echoendoscope was developed. In the present trial, 11 endoscopists participated in a hands-on trial and a questionnaire survey to evaluate the operation performance and visualization performance of a prototype FV-CLA scope in a phantom model designed for training of endoscopic ultrasonography. The results of our trial suggested that the FV-CLA scope is slightly inferior or equivalent to the conventional OV-CLA scope in operation performance, and that the FV-CLA scope is equivalent to the OV-CLA scope with regard to the visualization performance in a phantom model. [source]


    COACHING COSTS AS TULLOCK COSTS: A MODEL OF RISING COACHING SALARIES

    ECONOMIC AFFAIRS, Issue 3 2010
    Kurt Rotthoff
    Escalating sports coaching costs have strained budgets at many universities. This paper analyses these expenditures as a form of Tullock Costs (Tullock, 1967). In this framework the money the universities receive is spent on recruiting top talent, so the schools receive little, or no, monetary gain under current scholarship rules. [source]


    HOW USEFUL IS THE ECONOMIC MODEL OF CRIME IN ASSISTING THE WAR AGAINST TERRORISM?

    ECONOMIC AFFAIRS, Issue 3 2002
    Dorothy Manning
    This article considers whether the economic model of crime can be applied to terrorist activity. It concludes that the model does explain both secular and religiously motivated terrorism: policy-makers wishing to reduce terrorist activity should aim at devising policies which increase costs and/or decrease benefits to change terrorist incentives. The ,war' should continue as long as the probable costs to society incurred by terrorist activity are greater than the costs of abatement. [source]


    COSTLY EXTERNAL FINANCE AND INVESTMENT EFFICIENCY IN A MARKET EQUILIBRIUM MODEL

    ECONOMIC INQUIRY, Issue 4 2009
    JÁN ZÁBOJNÍK
    The corporate finance literature suggests that a financially constrained firm invests less than an identical unconstrained firm. This does not imply that financial frictions cause firms to invest less than in a frictionless economy. When firms compete for investment funds, an increase in financial frictions can lead individual firms to increase their investment levels. A greater than the frictionless level of investment is likely in low-productivity firms, in cash-rich firms, and in firms with cheap external capital. Government programs that make capital cheaper for small firms may lead to lower levels of investment for all firms and decrease efficiency (JEL O16, E22, E44, G20) [source]


    INDUSTRIAL DYNAMICS AND THE NEOCLASSICAL GROWTH MODEL

    ECONOMIC INQUIRY, Issue 4 2009
    WILLIAM F. BLANKENAU
    This paper studies industry-level dynamics and demonstrates the ability of a modified neoclassical growth model to capture a range of empirical facts. The paper begins by using U.S. data to document skilled and unskilled labor trends within industry sector classifications as well as industry sector output trends. Using Current Population Survey data from 1968 to 2004, it is shown that the ratio of skilled workers to unskilled workers employed has risen in all industries. The absolute increase in this ratio was larger in the more skilled industries, while the growth rate was larger in the less skilled industries. Furthermore, using national income account data, it is shown that relatively high-skilled industries have accounted for an increasing share of output over time. A version of the neoclassical growth model is then constructed to match these observations. One important feature of this model is a structure that introduces new goods into the economy at each moment of time. The model is able to capture a rich set of labor market movements between sectors and between skill levels as well as changes in the relative output shares across industries, yet preserves many nice features of the neoclassical growth model.(JEL E13, J20, 030) [source]


    THE GRAVITY MODEL: AN ILLUSTRATION OF STRUCTURAL ESTIMATION AS CALIBRATION

    ECONOMIC INQUIRY, Issue 4 2008
    EDWARD J. BALISTRERI
    Dawkins, Srinivasan, and Whalley ("Calibration,"Handbook of Econometrics, 2001) propose that estimation is calibration. We illustrate their point by examining a leading econometric application in the study of international and interregional trade by Anderson and van Wincoop ("Gravity with Gravitas: A Solution to the Border Puzzle,"American Economic Review, 2003). We replicate the econometric process and show it to be a calibration of a general equilibrium model. Our approach offers unique insights into structural estimation, and we highlight the importance of traditional calibration considerations when one uses econometric techniques to calibrate a model for comparative policy analysis. (JEL F10, C13, C60) [source]


    SHARED SERVICES IN AUSTRALIAN LOCAL GOVERNMENT: A CASE STUDY OF THE QUEENSLAND LOCAL GOVERNMENT ASSOCIATION MODEL

    ECONOMIC PAPERS: A JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECONOMICS AND POLICY, Issue 4 2008
    BRIAN DOLLERY Professor of Economics, Director
    A host of recent public inquiries into Australian local government have recommended increased use of shared services and resource-sharing models between groups of local councils. While little is known about the extent and consequences of service sharing, emphasis has been fixed on ,horizontal' shared service models between different local councils in the same municipal jurisdictions. However, other models of shared services and resource sharing are possible. This paper considers the Queensland Local Government Association (LGAQ) model as a case study of a resource sharing between all councils in a given system of local government. This form of shared service and resource sharing seems to offer excellent prospects for cost savings and capacity enhancement. [source]


    A TEST OF THE NEUTRAL MODEL OF EXPRESSION CHANGE IN NATURAL POPULATIONS OF HOUSE MOUSE SUBSPECIES

    EVOLUTION, Issue 2 2010
    Fabian Staubach
    Changes in expression of genes are thought to contribute significantly to evolutionary divergence. To study the relative role of selection and neutrality in shaping expression changes, we analyzed 24 genes in three different tissues of the house mouse (Mus musculus). Samples from two natural populations of the subspecies M. m. domesticus and M. m. musculus were investigated using quantitative PCR assays and sequencing of the upstream region. We have developed an approach to quantify expression polymorphism within such populations and to disentangle technical from biological variation in the data. We found a correlation between expression polymorphism within populations and divergence between populations. Furthermore, we found a correlation between expression polymorphism and sequence polymorphism of the respective genes. These data are most easily interpreted within a framework of a predominantly neutral model of gene expression change, where only a fraction of the changes may have been driven by positive selection. Although most genes investigated were expressed in all three tissues analyzed, significant changes of expression levels occurred predominantly in a single tissue only. This adds to the notion that enhancer-specific effects or transregulatory effects can modulate the evolution of gene expression in a tissue-specific way. [source]


    A SELECTION MODEL OF MOLECULAR EVOLUTION INCORPORATING THE EFFECTIVE POPULATION SIZE

    EVOLUTION, Issue 2 2009
    Hans Ellegren
    First page of article [source]


    THE EVOLUTION OF DISPERSAL IN A LEVINS' TYPE METAPOPULATION MODEL

    EVOLUTION, Issue 10 2007
    Vincent A.A. Jansen
    We study the evolution of the dispersal rate in a metapopulation model with extinction and colonization dynamics, akin to the model as originally described by Levins. To do so we extend the metapopulation model with a description of the within patch dynamics. By means of a separation of time scales we analytically derive a fitness expression from first principles for this model. The fitness function can be written as an inclusive fitness equation (Hamilton's rule). By recasting this equation in a form that emphasizes the effects of competition we show the effect of the local competition and the local population size on the evolution of dispersal. We find that the evolution of dispersal cannot be easily interpreted in terms of avoidance of kin competition, but rather that increased dispersal reduces the competitive ability. Our model also yields a testable prediction in term of relatedness and life-history parameters. [source]


    ESTIMATING A GEOGRAPHICALLY EXPLICIT MODEL OF POPULATION DIVERGENCE

    EVOLUTION, Issue 3 2007
    L. Lacey Knowles
    Patterns of genetic variation can provide valuable insights for deciphering the relative roles of different evolutionary processes in species differentiation. However, population-genetic models for studying divergence in geographically structured species are generally lacking. Since these are the biogeographic settings where genetic drift is expected to predominate, not only are population-genetic tests of hypotheses in geographically structured species constrained, but generalizations about the evolutionary processes that promote species divergence may also be potentially biased. Here we estimate a population-divergence model in montane grasshoppers from the sky islands of the Rocky Mountains. Because this region was directly impacted by Pleistocene glaciation, both the displacement into glacial refugia and recolonization of montane habitats may contribute to differentiation. Building on the tradition of using information from the genealogical relationships of alleles to infer the geography of divergence, here the additional consideration of the process of gene-lineage sorting is used to obtain a quantitative estimate of population relationships and historical associations (i.e., a population tree) from the gene trees of five anonymous nuclear loci and one mitochondrial locus in the broadly distributed species Melanoplus oregonensis. Three different approaches are used to estimate a model of population divergence; this comparison allows us to evaluate specific methodological assumptions that influence the estimated history of divergence. A model of population divergence was identified that significantly fits the data better compared to the other approaches, based on per-site likelihood scores of the multiple loci, and that provides clues about how divergence proceeded in M. oregonensis during the dynamic Pleistocene. Unlike the approaches that either considered only the most recent coalescence (i.e., information from a single individual per population) or did not consider the pattern of coalescence in the gene genealogies, the population-divergence model that best fits the data was estimated by considering the pattern of gene lineage coalescence across multiple individuals, as well as loci. These results indicate that sampling of multiple individuals per population is critical to obtaining an accurate estimate of the history of divergence so that the signal of common ancestry can be separated from the confounding influence of gene flow,even though estimates suggest that gene flow is not a predominant factor structuring patterns of genetic variation across these sky island populations. They also suggest that the gene genealogies contain information about population relationships, despite the lack of complete sorting of gene lineages. What emerges from the analyses is a model of population divergence that incorporates both contemporary distributions and historical associations, and shows a latitudinal and regional structuring of populations reminiscent of population displacements into multiple glacial refugia. Because the population-divergence model itself is built upon the specific events shaping the history of M. oregonensis, it provides a framework for estimating additional population-genetic parameters relevant to understanding the processes governing differentiation in geographically structured species and avoids the problems of relying on overly simplified and inaccurate divergence models. The utility of these approaches, as well as the caveats and future improvements, for estimating population relationships and historical associations relevant to genetic analyses of geographically structured species are discussed. [source]


    THE POPULATION GENETICS OF ADAPTATION ON CORRELATED FITNESS LANDSCAPES: THE BLOCK MODEL

    EVOLUTION, Issue 6 2006
    H. Allen Orr
    Abstract Several recent theoretical studies of the genetics of adaptation have focused on the mutational landscape model, which considers evolution on rugged fitness landscapes (i.e., ones having many local optima). Adaptation in this model is characterized by several simple results. Here I ask whether these results also hold on correlated fitness landscapes, which are smoother than those considered in the mutational landscape model. In particular, I study the genetics of adaptation in the block model, a tunably rugged model of fitness landscapes. Considering the scenario in which adaptation begins from a high fitness wild-type DNA sequence, I use extreme value theory and computer simulations to study both single adaptive steps and entire adaptive walks. I show that all previous results characterizing single steps in adaptation in the mutational landscape model hold at least approximately on correlated landscapes in the block model; many entire-walk results, however, do not. [source]


    HIGHER DISEASE PREVALENCE CAN INDUCE GREATER SOCIALITY: A GAME THEORETIC COEVOLUTIONARY MODEL

    EVOLUTION, Issue 9 2005
    Matthew H. Bonds
    Abstract There is growing evidence that communicable diseases constitute a strong selective force on the evolution of social systems. It has been suggested that infectious diseases may determine upper limits of host sociality by, for example, inducing territoriality or early juvenile dispersal. Here we use game theory to model the evolution of host sociality in the context of communicable diseases. Our model is then augmented with the evolution of virulence to determine coevolutionarily stable strategies of host sociality and pathogen virulence. In contrast to a controversial hypothesis by Ewald (1994), our analysis indicates that pathogens may become more virulent when contact rates are low, and their prevalence can ultimately induce greater sociality. [source]


    THE SHAPES OF NEUTRAL GENE GENEALOGIES IN TWO SPECIES: PROBABILITIES OF MONOPHYLY, PARAPHYLY, AND POLYPHYLY IN A COALESCENT MODEL

    EVOLUTION, Issue 7 2003
    Noah A. Rosenberg
    Abstract., The genealogies of samples of orthologous regions from multiple species can be classified by their shapes. Using a neutral coalescent model of two species, I give exact probabilities of each of four possible genealogical shapes: reciprocal monophyly, two types of paraphyly, and polyphyly. After the divergence that forms two species, each of which has population size N, polyphyly is the most likely genealogical shape for the lineages of the two species. At , 1.300N generations after divergence, paraphyly becomes most likely, and reciprocal monophyly becomes most likely at ,1.665N generations. For a given species, the time at which 99% of its loci acquire monophyletic genealogies is ,5.298N generations, assuming all loci in its sister species are monophyletic. The probability that all lineages of two species are reciprocally monophyletic given that a sample from the two species has a reciprocally monophyletic genealogy increases rapidly with sample size, as does the probability that the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) for a sample is also the MRCA for all lineages from the two species. The results have potential applications for the testing of evolutionary hypotheses. [source]


    TOWARD A REALISTIC MODEL OF MUTATIONS AFFECTING FITNESS

    EVOLUTION, Issue 3 2003
    Peter D. Keightley
    Abstract Analysis of a recent mutation accumulation (MA) experiment has led to the suggestion that as many as one-half of spontaneous mutations in Arabidopsis are advantageous for fitness. We evaluate this in the light of data from other MA experiments, along with molecular evidence, that suggest the vast majority of new mutations are deleterious. [source]


    QUANTITATIVE GENETICS OF SEXUAL PLASTICITY: THE ENVIRONMENTAL THRESHOLD MODEL AND GENOTYPE-BY-ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION FOR PHALLUS DEVELOPMENT IN THE SNAIL BULINUS TRUNCATUS

    EVOLUTION, Issue 5 2000
    Marie-France Ostrowski
    Abstract Sexual polymorphisms are model systems for analyzing the evolution of reproductive strategies. However, their plasticity and other binary traits have rarely been studied, with respect to environmental variables. A possible reason is that, although threshold models offer an adequate quantitative genetics framework for binary traits in a single environment, analyzing their plasticity requires more refined empirical and theoretical approaches. The statistical framework proposed here, based on the environmental threshold model (ETM), should partially fill this gap. This methodology is applied to an empirical dataset on a plastic sexual polymorphism, aphally, in the snail Bulinus truncatus. Aphally is characterized by the co-occurrence of regular hermaphrodites (euphallics) together with hermaphrodites deprived of the male copulatory organ (aphallics). Reaction norms were determined for 40 inbred lines, distributed at three temperatures, in a first experiment. A second experiment allowed us to rule out maternal effects. We confirmed the existence of high broad-sense heritabilities as well as a positive effect of high temperatures on aphally. However a significant genotype-by-environment interaction was detected for the first time, suggesting that sexual plasticity itself can respond to selection. A nested series of four ETM-like models was developed for estimating genetical effects on both mean aphally rate and plasticity. These models were tested using a maximum-likelihood procedure and fitted to aphally data. Although no perfect fit of models to data was observed, the refined versions of ETM models conveniently reduce the analysis of complex reaction norms of binary traits into standard quantitative genetics parameters, such as genetic values and environmental variances. [source]


    A RATIONAL DECISION MAKING MODEL FOR EXPERIMENTAL MECHANICS

    EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUES, Issue 4 2000
    E.J. Olden
    First page of article [source]


    THE LASTING SCIENTIFIC IMPACT OF THE THORNTHWAITE WATER,BALANCE MODEL

    GEOGRAPHICAL REVIEW, Issue 3 2010
    BARRY D. KEIM
    First page of article [source]


    AN ON-THE-JOB SEARCH MODEL OF CRIME, INEQUALITY, AND UNEMPLOYMENT*

    INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC REVIEW, Issue 3 2004
    Kenneth Burdett
    We extend simple search models of crime, unemployment, and inequality to incorporate on-the-job search. This is valuable because, although simple models are useful, on-the-job search models are more interesting theoretically and more relevant empirically. We characterize the wage distribution, unemployment rate, and crime rate theoretically, and use quantitative methods to illustrate key results. For example, we find that increasing the unemployment insurance replacement rate from 53 to 65 percent increases unemployment and crime rates from 10 and 2.7 percent to 14 and 5.2 percent. We show multiple equilibria arise for some fairly reasonable parameters; in one case, unemployment can be 6 or 23 percent, and crime 0 or 10 percent, depending on the equilibrium. [source]


    RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS , AETIOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS/ANIMAL MODEL

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RHEUMATIC DISEASES, Issue 2006
    Article first published online: 6 JUL 200
    First page of article [source]


    STROKE UNITS AND ACUTE CARE FOR ELDERS MODEL OF CARE

    JOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 9 2004
    Renzo Rozzini MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    THE CAPITAL STRUCTURE CHOICE: NEW EVIDENCE FOR A DYNAMIC TRADEOFF MODEL

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED CORPORATE FINANCE, Issue 1 2002
    Armen Hovakimian
    Most academic insights about corporate capital structure decisions come from models that focus on the trade-off between the tax benefits and financial distress costs of debt financing. But empirical tests of corporate capital structure indicate that actual debt ratios are considerably different from those predicted by the models, casting doubt on whether most companies have leverage targets at all. In particular, there is considerable evidence that corporate leverage ratios reflect in large part the tendency of profitable companies to use their excess cash flow to pay down debt, while unprofitable companies build up higher leverage ratios. Such behavior is consistent with a competing theory of capital structure known as the "pecking order" model, in which management's main objectives are to preserve financing flexibility and avoid issuing equity. The results of the authors' recent study suggest that although past profits are an important predictor of observed debt ratios at any given time, companies nevertheless often make financing and stock repurchase decisions designed to offset the effects of past profitability and move their debt ratios toward their target capital structures. This evidence provides support for a compromise theory called the dynamic tradeoff model, which says that although companies often deviate from their leverage targets, over the longer run they take measures to close the gap between their actual and targeted leverage ratios. [source]


    TOWARD A MORE COMPLETE MODEL OF OPTIMAL CAPITAL STRUCTURE

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED CORPORATE FINANCE, Issue 1 2002
    Roger Heine
    Most corporate finance practitioners understand the trade-off involved in making effective use of debt capacity while safeguarding the firm's ability to execute its business strategy without disruption. But quantifying that trade-off to arrive at an optimal level of debt can be a complicated and challenging task. This paper develops a simulation model of capital structure that starts by generating multiple estimates of market rates (LIBOR, currency rates) and corresponding company operating cash flows. To arrive at an optimal capital structure, the model then incorporates the shareholder value effects of alternative financing decisions by directly measuring the costs of financial distress, including the costs of missed investment opportunities and higher working capital requirements. The model generates both a target credit rating and a lower fallback rating that permits a higher level of debt to maintain investments and dividends when operating cash flows are weak. As the model shows, companies with volatile cash flows and significant investment opportunities can add substantial shareholder value by establishing a fallback credit rating that is one or two notches below the target rating. The model also optimizes the mix of fixed versus floating debt, the maturity structure, and the currency composition. Another distinctive feature of the model is its ability to estimate the expected cost of alternative liability structures that can provide the liquidity insurance necessary to sustain the firm through periods of severe stress. This cost turns out to be quite small relative to the total market capitalization of the average firm. [source]