MOVPE

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Terms modified by MOVPE

  • movpe growth

  • Selected Abstracts


    Spatially resolved X-ray diffraction as a tool for strain analysis in laterally modulated epitaxial structures

    CRYSTAL RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY, Issue 10 2009
    A. Wierzbicka
    Abstract Spatially resolved X-ray diffraction (SRXRD) is applied for micro-imaging of strain in laterally modulated epitaxial structures. In GaAs layers grown by liquid phase epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) on SiO2 -masked GaAs substrates a downward tilt of ELO wings caused by their interaction with the mask is observed. The distribution of the tilt magnitude across the wings width is determined with ,m-scale spatial resolution. This allows measuring of the shape of the lattice planes in individual ELO stripes. If a large area of the sample is studied the X-ray imaging provides precise information on the tilt of an individual wing and its distribution. In heteroepitaxial GaSb/GaAs ELO layers local mosaicity in the wing area is found. By the SRXRD the size of microblocks and their relative misorientation were analyzed. Finally, the SRXRD technique was applied to study distribution of localized strain in AlGaN epilayers grown by MOVPE on bulk GaN substrates with AlN mask. X-ray mapping proves that by mask patterning strain in AlGaN layer can be easily engineered, which opens a way to produce thicker, crack-free AlGaN layers with a higher Al content needed in GaN-based laser diodes. All these examples show that high spatial and angular resolutions offered by SRXRD makes the technique a powerful tool to study local lattice distortions in semiconductor microstructures. ( 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    MOVPE growth and characterization of a -plane AlGaN over the entire composition range

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI - RAPID RESEARCH LETTERS, Issue 7 2010
    Masihhur R. Laskar
    Abstract We report the metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) growth and characterization of non-polar (110) a -plane Alx Ga1,xN on (102) r -plane sapphire substrates over the entire composition range. Alx Ga1,xN samples with ,0.8 ,m thick layers and with x = 0, 0.18, 0.38, 0.46, 0.66, and 1.0 have been grown on r -plane sapphire substrates. The layer quality can be improved by using a 3-stage AlN nucleation layer and appropriate V/III ratio switching following nucleation. All a -plane AlGaN epilayers show an anisotropic in-plane mosaicity, strongly influenced by Al incorporation and growth conditions. Careful lattice parameter measurements show anisotropic in-plane strain that results in an orthorhombic distortion of the hexagonal unit cell, making Al composition determination from X-ray diffraction difficult. In general lower Al incorporation is seen in a -plane epilayers compared to c -plane samples grown under the same conditions. ( 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Optimization of homoepitaxially grown AlGaN/GaN heterostructures

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (A) APPLICATIONS AND MATERIALS SCIENCE, Issue 10 2010
    J. A. Grenko
    Abstract We report on the growth of Al0.25Ga0.75N/GaN heterostructures on low dislocation density semi-insulating c -axis GaN substrates by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). A room temperature (RT) Hall mobility (RT) up to 2065,cm2,V,1,s,1 at sheet density (ns) of 8.25,,1012,cm,2 has been measured. This work compliments prior studies in which we observed a buffer-induced modulation of the RT two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) ns and RT by varying the GaN buffer layer thickness. Here, we focus on the optimization of the heterostructure 2DEG properties by elimination of silicon doping in the Al0.25Ga0.75N barrier and unintentional Al in the not-intentionally doped (n.i.d.) GaN buffer layer. The 15% improvement in RT and ns relative to previous results is consistent with those predicted by Poisson solver calculations. Use of thick GaN buffers has minimized the theoretical mobility reduction based on intersubband scattering and has enabled us to determine the 2DEG sheet density associated with the polarization field () to be ,5,,1012,cm,2. [source]


    High-performance UV emitter grown on high-crystalline-quality AlGaN underlying layer

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (A) APPLICATIONS AND MATERIALS SCIENCE, Issue 6 2009
    Hirotoshi Tsuzuki
    Abstract Al0.25Ga0.75N films were grown on a grooved-Al0.25Ga0.75N/ AlN/sapphire template by MOVPE. The dislocation density on the grooved areas was as low as 1 108 cm,2. We fabricated a UVA light-emitting diode grown on such an AlGaN underlying layer exhibiting an output power of 12 mW at a DC current of 50 mA with a peak emission wavelength of 345 nm, which corresponds to an external quantum efficiency of 6.7%. This efficiency is the highest reported to date in this wavelength region. We also fabricated a 358 nm UVA laser diode (LD) using a GaN/AlGaN MQW active layer grown on an AlGaN underlying layer. This UV LD exhibits a threshold current of 73 mA and a corresponding current density of 3.8 kA/cm2 at 7 C. The characteristic temperature T0 was 174 K in the temperature range of 7,27 C. ( 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    MOVPE of InN films on GaN templates grown on sapphire and silicon(111) substrates

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (A) APPLICATIONS AND MATERIALS SCIENCE, Issue 7 2008
    Muhammad Jamil
    Abstract This paper reports the study of MOVPE of InN on GaN templates grown on sapphire and silicon(111) substrates. Thermodynamic analysis of MOVPE of InN performed using NH3 as nitrogen source and the experimental findings support the droplet-free epitaxial growth of InN under high V/III ratios of input precursors. At a growth pressure of 500 Torr, the optimum growth temperature and V/III ratio of the InN film are 575,650 C and >3 105, respectively. The surface RMS roughness of InN film grown GaN/sapphire template is ,0.3 nm on 2 ,m 2 ,m area, while the RMS roughness of the InN film grown on GaN/Si (111) templates is found as ,0.7 nm. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement reveals the (0002) texture of the InN film on GaN/sapphire template with a FWHM of 281 arcsec of the InN (0002) , rocking curve. For the film grown on GaN/Si template under identical growth conditions, the XRD measurements show the presence of metallic In, in addition to the (0002) orientation of InN layer. ( 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    MOVPE growth and optical characterization of GaAsN films with higher nitrogen concentrations

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (A) APPLICATIONS AND MATERIALS SCIENCE, Issue 7 2006
    F. Nakajima
    Abstract We have successfully grown high-N-content GaAsN films up to 5.1% on GaAs(001) substrates using tertiarybutylarsine (TBAs) as the As precursor by metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE). The narrow X-ray diffraction (XRD) peaks and clear Pendellosung fringes indicate that the GaAsN/GaAs interface is fairly flat and the GaAsN layers are uniform. By the photoluminescence (PL) measurement at 10 K, the clear PL peaks related to the near-band-edge transition could be detected and the bandgap energy was red-shifted to 1.16 eV in 1.9%-N GaAsN film. But, in higher N-content films no peak could be detected. So, post growth annealing in the reactor was applied to 4.7% and 5.1%-N films, and resulted in an enhancement of the PL peak intensity, and the bandgap energy of 5.1%-N film was consequently determined to be 0.95 eV at room temperature. ( 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Development of CdSSe/CdS VCSELs for Application to Laser Cathode Ray Tubes

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (A) APPLICATIONS AND MATERIALS SCIENCE, Issue 4 2004
    K. P. O'Donnell
    Abstract This report summarises recent progress towards the realisation of Laser Cathode Ray Tube (LCRT) devices on the basis of II,VI semiconductors. Although such devices were demonstrated over 30 years ago, using bulk crystalline materials as the active media, practical lasers that operate at room temperature for extended periods of time are not yet readily available. We aim to overcome this roadblock by reducing the threshold power densities of working lasers. By embedding heterostructures, grown using metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE), within all-dielectric microcavities, the necessary threshold reductions can be made. The construction and testing of an exemplar device, based upon CdSSe/CdS (hex) multiple quantum wells, is described. ( 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    GaAs nanowires grown by MOVPE

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (B) BASIC SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 6 2010
    Jens Bauer
    Abstract GaAs nanowire (NW) growth was studied by metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE). The vapour,liquid,solid (VLS) mechanism with gold-based alloy particles and the selective-area growth (SAG) mechanism on electron beam lithographically prepared SiNx/GaAs mask structures were applied. A special focus is set on thermodynamic aspects of the VLS process. The alloy particle formation and the influence of MOVPE growth parameters on the growth rate and the GaAs NW morphology are examined. Furthermore, the improvement of the real structure with particular interest on the twin formation is studied. Besides the commonly used continuous VLS growth mode also a pulsed VLS growth mode with alternating precursor supply is reported. Based on photoluminescence measurements the effect of strain in core/shell NW structures is confirmed. For the SAG mechanism the MOVPE growth parameters are determined and the real structure is described. [source]


    Activation energy of Mg in a -plane Ga1,xInx N (0 < x < 0.17)

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (B) BASIC SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 6 2009
    Daisuke Iida
    Abstract We investigated the electrical properties of Mg-doped Ga1,xInx N grown on an a -plane template. High-hole-concentration p-type Mg-doped Ga1,xInx N films with an InN molar fraction of 0.17 were fabricated on sidewall-epitaxial-lateral overgrown a -plane GaN grown on an r -plane sapphire substrate by MOVPE. Variable-temperature Hall effect measurement showed that a maximum hole concentration of 1.4 1019 cm,3 for x = 0.17 was reproducibly achieved at room temperature. The activation energy of Mg acceptors in Mg-doped a -plane Ga0.83In0.17N was found to be as low as 48 meV. ( 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Charge deep level transient spectroscopy of electron traps in MOVPE grown n-GaN on sapphire

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (B) BASIC SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 11 2008
    Zahid Hasan Mahmood
    Abstract We report investigation of electron traps in n-GaN, grown on sapphire by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy, by using charge deep level transient spectroscopy (Q -DLTS). Measurements have been made isothermally by rate window scanning over the temperature range 300,370 K and for rate windows in the range 105 s,1 to 1 s,1. Two traps are observed in this range with (i) activation energies ,0.58 eV and ,0.45 eV and (ii) capture cross sections ,2 10,15 cm2 and ,3 10,19 cm2 respectively. The first of these defects has been observed in all of the DLTS investigations reported in the literature. However, the second trap has not been seen in majority of the earlier reports. Possible reasons for this difference are discussed. ( 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Post-annealing effect upon phosphorus-doped ZnTe homoepitaxial layers grown by MOVPE

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (B) BASIC SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 5 2007
    Katsuhiko Saito
    Abstract The effect of post-annealing treatment upon the photoluminescence (PL) spectra of phosphorus-doped ZnTe homoepitaxial layers grown by metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy using tris-dimethylaminophosphorus (TDMAP) has been investigated. PL properties at 4 K of the layers are dramatically improved by the post-annealing in nitrogen flow, i.e. donor,acceptor pair emission vanishes and instead free-to-bound transition emission (FB) and broadened acceptor-related excitonic emission (Ia) appear. PL intensity at room temperature is enhanced remarkably by the treatment. While the post-annealing treatment in hydrogen flow also gives an increase in PL intensity at room temperature of the layer, PL spectrum at 4 K is almost unchanged. The intensity ratio of FB to broadened Ia for the layer after post-annealing treatment in nitrogen flow increases and the broadened Ia shifts towards longer wavelength side with increasing TDMAP transport rate. ( 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    The influence of aluminum composition of AlxGa1,xAs in distributed Bragg reflector on surface morphology

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (B) BASIC SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 12 2004
    B. Kim
    Abstract Surface morphology of the AlGaAs/GaAs Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) was investigated using atomic force microscopy. It is shown that the morphology of the structure strongly depends on the aluminum composition of the low Al content layer of distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) pairs and epi thickness. Whereas a high Al content layer in DBRs had little effect on the surface morphology, it was attributed that the influence of Al composition on the morphology of AlxGa1,xAs on GaAs was stronger in the range of 0 < x < 0.5 than 0.5 < x < 1. ( 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Growth of GaN on a -plane sapphire: in-plane epitaxial relationships and lattice parameters

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (B) BASIC SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 2 2003
    T. Paskova
    Abstract We have studied GaN films grown on a -plane sapphire substrates by both hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) and metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). The in-plane orientation relationships between the epitaxial films and the substrate are determined to be [11,20]GaN , [0001]sapphire and [1,100]GaN , [1,100]sapphire in the HVPE growth, while [1,100]GaN , [0001]sapphire and [11,20]GaN , [1,100]sapphire are found in the MOVPE growth. The different orientation preferences are attributed to the atom termination of the sapphire surface determined by the substrate treatment used in the different growth methods. The effect of the lattice matches on the in-plane lattice parameters and strain anisotropy in the two cases is studied. ( 2003 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Mg-related acceptors in GaN

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (C) - CURRENT TOPICS IN SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 7-8 2010
    B. Monemar
    Abstract Photoluminescence spectra of c -plane Mg doped GaN samples grown by MOVPE on bulk GaN templates reveal previously unknown properties, like the presence of several Mg-related acceptors. The use of unstrained samples allows a study of both bound exciton (BE) and donor-acceptor pair (DAP) spectra. Two main acceptors A1 and A2 are observed strongly in BE spectra as well as in DAP spectra, they have similar binding energies, i.e. about 220 meV. The common assignment of the deeper blue PL emission at 2.8,3.0 eV to a deep donor-shallow acceptor transition is questioned, and discussed in connection with the compensation problem in p-GaN. It seems like the Fermi level in p-GaN is controlled by a set of Mg-related acceptors at energies 0.2,0.6 eV from the valence band top. ( 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Effective mass of InN estimated by Raman scattering

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (C) - CURRENT TOPICS IN SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 7-8 2010
    Jung Gon Kim
    Abstract We have estimated the longitudinal effective mass (m,) of electron in n-type InN films by Raman scattering. The samples were grown by MOVPE (metal organic vapor phase epitaxy) with free carrier concentration of n =6.71018 -9.91018 cm -3 according to Hall measurement. A weak Raman signal observed at ,430 cm -1 at room temperature was sharpened and shifted to higher frequency toward the A1(TO)-phonon mode at 447 cm -1 with increasing n. This mode was assigned to the lower branch (L - ) of the longitudinal-optic-phonon-plasmon-coupled (LOPC) mode. The line shape was carefully analyzed by a semi-classical line-shape fitting analysis assuming deformation potential and electro-optic coupling mechanisms for the light scattering process. A line-shape fitting analysis was conducted by adjusting three major parameters; electron density, effective mass and plasmon damping rate. The analysis well reproduced values of electron density and mobility deduced by Hall measurement. Electron effective mass of m,*/m0 = 0.05 (0.01) was also obtained as the best-fit parameter. The result agrees well with previous data obtained by other optical methods. ( 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    AlGaN/GaN HFETs on Fe-doped GaN substrates

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (C) - CURRENT TOPICS IN SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 7-8 2010
    Yoshinori Oshimura
    Abstract AlGaN/GaN HFETs with different undoped GaN thicknesses were grown on Fe-doped freestanding GaN substrates by conventional MOVPE. To realize a high drain current, thick undoped GaN is found to be necessary. SIMS measurement shows that Fe is redistributed into the epilayer, by which the scattering center is generated at the channel when the thickness of the undoped GaN is insufficient. We also observed a similar Fe profile in the GaN/sapphire template placed on the side of the Fe-doped GaN substrate during growth. Therefore, Fe in the Fe-doped GaN substrate is redistributed not only through a solid but also through vapor. ( 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Examination of intermediate species in GaN metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy by selective-area growth

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (C) - CURRENT TOPICS IN SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 7-8 2010
    Masakazu Sugiyama
    Abstract The major reactive intermediate species of GaN has been deduced and its surface reaction rate constant has been obtained through the analysis of multi-scale growth-rate profiles both in the reactor-scale and in the micrometer-scale that were obtained by selective-area growth. Usually, it is difficult to explore surface reaction kinetics, especially for metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE), because of mass-transfer-limited kinetics. This multi-scale analysis, however, has clarified that a single precursor, a gas-phase reaction product between (CH3)3Ga and NH3, leads to the growth of GaN with a surface reaction probability of approximately 0.4 at 1400 K which is a typical growth temperature of GaN. Contribution of higher-order polymers was not significant in growth rate, but they seemed to be a cause of degraded surface morphology. A lumped reaction model of GaN MOVPE was proposed that led to reasonable agreement between a simulated growth-rate profile in the reactor-scale and a corresponding measured profile, which would lead to improved design of reactors and growth conditions. ( 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    GaN nanorods and LED structures grown on patterned Si and AlN/Si substrates by selective area growth

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (C) - CURRENT TOPICS IN SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 7-8 2010
    Shunfeng Li
    Abstract GaN nanorods (NRs) show promising applications in high-efficiency light emitting diodes, monolithic white light emission and optical interconnection due to their superior properties. In this work, we performed GaN nanostructures growth by pre-patterning the Si and AlN/Si substrates. The pattern was transferred to Si and AlN/Si substrates by photolithography and inductively-coupled plasma etching. GaN NRs were grown on these templates by metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE). GaN grown on Si pillar templates show a truncated pyramidal structure. Transmission electron microscopy measurements demonstrated clearly that the threading dislocations bend to the side facets of the GaN nanostructures and terminate. GaN growth can also be observed on the sidewalls and bottom surface between the Si pillars. A simple phenomenological model is proposed to explain the GaN nanostructure growth on Si pillar templates. Based on this model, we developed another growth method, by which we grow GaN rod structures on pre-patterned AlN/Si templates. By in-situ nitridation and decreasing of the V/III ratio, we found that GaN rods only grew on the patterned AlN/Si dots with an aspect ratio of about 1.5 - 2. ( 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Analysis of pulsed injection of precursors in AlN-MOVPE growth by computational fluid simulation

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (C) - CURRENT TOPICS IN SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 7-8 2010
    Kenichi Nakamura
    Abstract We report computational analysis of gas-phase states and main reaction pathways under AlN metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) by pulsed injection (PI) method of precursors. Interval times of 0,2 s were inserted between trimethylaluminum (Al(CH3); TMAl) and ammonia (NH3) supply phases to suppress parasitic reactions. In the cases of the interval time of 0 s, polymers and Al-N molecules were dominant species due to parasitic reaction, and the growth species was Al-N molecules generated by TMAl:NH3 pyrolysis. When an interval time was inserted between TMAl and NH3, mixing of TMAl and NH3 were suppressed. Al and NH2 generated from each precursor were dominant species. The main reaction pathway changed from TMAl:NH3 pyrolysis into TMAl pyrolysis with increasing the interval time. ( 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Total reflectance and Raman studies in AlyInxGa1-x-yN epitaxial layers

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (C) - CURRENT TOPICS IN SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 1 2010
    A. Margarida Bola
    Abstract This study comprises a set of AlyInxGa1-x-yN thin films grown on GaN/sapphire substrate by MOVPE, with In content between 2 and 8% and Al between 21 and 38%. The thin films were optically characterized by means of UV-Visible total reflectance and ,-UV-Raman scattering, performed at room temperature. It is shown that the [Al]/[In] ration influences strongly the Reflectance spectra and a good correlation has been found between the reflectance maximum located at higher energy and the band gap predicted by Vegard's law for quaternary alloys. The Raman results indicate that the LO-AlGaN-like vibration mode is the dominated vibration in good agreement with the oscillator strength values obtained theoretically [12] for this alloys. It is shown how the influence of competing effects, such as composition and strain influences the frequency observed for the LO-AlGaN-like mode ( 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Misfit dislocations and surface morphology of InGaAs/GaAs heterostructures grown by MOVPE

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (C) - CURRENT TOPICS IN SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 8 2009
    ukasz Gelczuk
    Abstract A two-dimensional network of misfit dislocations at the interface of the partially relaxed Inx Ga1- xAs epitaxial layers grown on (001)-oriented GaAs substrates by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) has been revealed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A close correspondence between the distribution of interfacial misfit dislocations and undulating surface morphology in the form of a characteristic cross-hatch pattern has been observed by means of atomic force microcopy (AFM). Anisotropic strain relaxation attributed to the asymmetry in the formation of misfit dislocations has been also reproduced on the surface in the form of a fine pattern, cutting the cross-hatch one. ( 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Impact of nitridation on structural and optical properties of MOVPE-grown m-plane GaN layers on LiAlO2

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (C) - CURRENT TOPICS IN SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue S2 2009
    C. Mauder
    Abstract In this paper, we investigate the influence of the nitridation of LiAlO2 substrates on the growth of m-plane (1-100) GaN layers by metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE). Before thin film deposition, we performed an in-situ substrate pretreatment by exposing the wafer to NH3 for different times between no pretreatment and 300 s. The properties of subsequently grown layers show a significant dependency on this nitridation step. We find that this procedure is essential for obtaining pure m-plane GaN films and has a beneficial effect on the X-ray rocking curve (XRC) full width at half maximum (FWHM) value, which decreases by almost two orders of magnitude. Deposited layers with NH3 pretreatment also exhibit much smoother surfaces with a reduction of the root mean square (RMS) roughness value from ,20 to ,6 nm. Additionally, the nitridation greatly increases the GaN band edge emission intensity in room temperature (RT) photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Furthermore, we compare the sensitivity of the substrate against water for uncoated LiAlO2 wafers with and without nitridation process. While the untreated surface shows a clear roughening when dipped into de-ionized (DI) water for 5 min, we can see no significant impact on the nitridated substrate surface. This indicates a change in surface composition which protects the sensitive substrate surface and provides good conditions for the nucleation of high-quality m-plane GaN films. ( 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Mechanism of thermal degradation in GaInN/GaN quantum wells

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (C) - CURRENT TOPICS IN SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue S2 2009
    H. Bremers
    Abstract In this contribution we focus on degradation processes of GaInN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) used in laser structures grown by metallorganic vapor pressure epitaxy (MOVPE). The influence of ramp-up time as well as the maximum temperature during growth of the barrier on the quantum well (QW) is investigated. Comparison of X-ray and photoluminescence (PL) measurements implies that a sufficient thickness of a cover layer grown at low temperature is required to prevent degradation of the QW. In a next step samples were grown using an optimal thermal budget during growth of the active region to investigate the influence of capping layers. To improve crystalline quality of these layers high temperatures are required. Our measurements show that these high temperatures lead to a decrease in average indium concentration of the QWs. This decrease is temperature as well as time dependent (, ,t) and can only explained by diffusion processes. The activation energies are in the range 0.7-0.9 eV ( 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    In-situ doping and implantation of GaN layers with Mn

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (C) - CURRENT TOPICS IN SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue S2 2009
    k Sofer
    Abstract In this paper we present a growth of Ga1,xMnxN layers by MOVPE and ion implantation of GaN layers with Mn. The Mn concentration detected by electron microprobe and PIXE was well below the solubility limit, ranging from 0.2 to 1.1 at.%. Implanted doses of Mn ions were in the range 1x1016 -5x1016 Mn atoms.cm,2 with energy of 330 keV. The analysis of the MOVPE deposition process of Ga1,xMnxN thin films revealed an unfavorable ratio between the apparent Mn concentration in the gas phase and its doping level in the deposited layer. On the other hand, the incorporation of Mn has a positive effect on the resulting surface morphology. The optimal deposition temperature of 1000 C was found out as a compromise between the layer quality and Mn concentration. In both in-situ grown and implanted samples, a ferromagnetic component persisting up to room temperature and a prevailing paramagnetic phase were observed. The ferromagnetic moment observed in implanted samples was influenced by free carrier concentration in GaN layers which were used for implantation. ( 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Influence of barrier thickness on AlInN/AlN/GaN heterostructures and device properties

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (C) - CURRENT TOPICS IN SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue S2 2009
    H. Behmenburg
    Abstract We report on structural and device properties of AlInN/AlN/GaN transistor heterostructures grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) on 2, sapphire substrates with AlInN barriers of thicknesses between 4 nm and 10 nm. The In content and thickness of the thin AlInN barrier is shown to be well determinable by high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD). Room temperature Hall measurements yielded similar mobility between 1400 cm2V,1s,1 and 1520 cm2V,1s,1 on all samples and increasing sheet carrier concentration ns with rising barrier thickness resulting in a minimum sheet resistance value of 200 Ohm/,. The effect of surface passivation with Si3N4 on the electrical properties is investigated and found to strongly increase sheet carrier concentration ns of the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) to values above 21013cm,2. Characterization of transistors with gate length Lg of 1.5 ,m produced from the grown samples reveals high transconductance (gm) and a maximum drain current (ID) of 300 mS/mm and ,1 A/mm, respectively. For the sample with 4.6 nm barrier thickness, a reduced gate leakage current (IGL) and a absolute value of the threshold voltage (Vth) of -1.2 V is detected. Radio frequency (RF) measurements of passivated samples lead to maximum current gain cut-off frequencies ft of 11 GHz and maximum oscillating frequencies fmax of 25 GHz. ( 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Influence of piezoelectric fields on excitonic complexes in InGaN quantum dots

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (C) - CURRENT TOPICS IN SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 4 2009
    K. Sebald
    Abstract We present an analysis of the optical properties of single InGaN quantum dots (QDs) grown by MOVPE. The samples were structured into mesas by focused-ion-beam etching and investigated by micro-photoluminescence measurements. The QDs are characterized by the high temperature stability of their emission up to 150 K. Furthermore, the polarization of individual QD emission lines was analyzed giving an insight into their geometrical shape. Time-resolved microphotoluminescence measurements on the excitonic and biexcitonic transition of a single quantum dot yields a radiative recombination lifetime of 2.06 ns for the exciton. The data can be fitted by a simple model for cascaded emission confirming the expected refilling of the excitonic state by biexcitonic recombination. In addition, the influence of piezoelectric fields on the exciton and biexciton emission and on their binding energy in single QDs was investigated. ( 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Trap states in n-GaN grown on AlN/sapphire template by MOVPE

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (C) - CURRENT TOPICS IN SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 9 2008
    T. Ito
    Abstract Using epitaxial AlN/sapphire templates, high crystalline quality GaN films are grown on them by metal organic chemical vapour deposition. The electron traps behaviour of these GaN films were observed by deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). Four distinct trap levels were ob-served in both n-GaN grown on AlN/sapphire template and on conventional low temperature buffer layer (LT-BL)/sapphire. The magnitude the of the DLTS signal E1 and E2 were almost same. It suggests that E1 is not only associate with dislocation density but also other defect. ( 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Pulsed layer growth of AlInGaN nanostructures

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (C) - CURRENT TOPICS IN SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 6 2008
    Michael Jetter
    Abstract A pulsed layer growth mode in the metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) was used to fabricate excellent quality AlInGaN nanostructures. The amount of material was varied, resulting in AlInGaN layer thicknesses between nominally 1.5 nm and 6 nm, respectively. We have analyzed the material properties by X-ray diffraction (XRD) as well as photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The observed XRD-spectra and the PL intensity show the high quality of the deposited material. By analyzing the PL spectra we have found an energetic shift of the resonance lines from 2.65 eV to 3.33 eV with decreasing well thickness. We attribute this shift mainly to the presence of internal electric fields at the AlIn-GaN/GaN interface. Power-dependent and time resolved PL experiments confirm this observation. Comparing the luminescence at elevated temperatures, the pulsed layer epitaxy structures reveal a much higher intensity as the conventional grown samples. ( 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Epitaxial lateral overgrowth of GaN on 4 inch Si(111) by MOVPE

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (C) - CURRENT TOPICS IN SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 6 2008
    Kai Cheng
    Abstract Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth (ELOG) of GaN on 4 inch silicon(111) substrates by MOVPE was investigated in this study. ELOG was performed on a GaN template with a couple of AlGaN intermediate layers (IL) on an AlN nucleation layer. The AlGaN ILs supply compressive stress to the top GaN template and thereafter to the ELOG layer. Consequently, layer cracking is minimized. Two masks were used in this work: a 2 inch wagon wheel mask and a 4 inch mask with parallel stripes of various filling factors and periods. The filling factor is varied from 0.33 to 0.7. The periodic spacing is in the range of 6 ,m to 10 ,m. Temperature, V/III ratio, pressure and stripe orientation were optimized to achieve fastest lateral growth rate. The highest lateral to vertical ratio can be more than 4. A fully coalesced layer within the critical thickness for a crack-free layer was achieved on 4 inch silicon substrates. ( 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]


    Morphological study of non-polar (11-20) GaN grown on r-plane (1-102) sapphire

    PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI (C) - CURRENT TOPICS IN SOLID STATE PHYSICS, Issue 6 2008
    C. F. Johnston
    Abstract In order to grow high quality non-polar GaN-based LED structures it is important to understand the mechanism of GaN growth by MOVPE on r-plane (1-102) sapphire. In this work, (11-20) GaN epilayers have been characterised at three stages of growth using high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Following nucleation, 3D islands were grown, then the V/III ratio was lowered and the islands coalesced to form a smooth film. A series of symmetric XRD ,-scans obtained at different azimuthal angles revealed an anisotropy in the layers with respect to the [1-100] and [0001] axes. AFM scans show that the islands are elongated along the [0001] axis. TEM has been used to analyse the layers further. A high density of stacking faults (5x105 cm,1) and threading dislocations (4x1010 cm,2) was found in the film with 120 s high V/III growth followed by low V/III growth. Defects were found to run perpendicular and at ,60 degrees to the sapphire interface in uncoalesced "island" samples. ( 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]