Mood Changes (mood + change)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

ORIGINAL ARTICLE: The relationship between patients' perception of the effects of neurofibromatosis type 2 and the domains of the Short Form-36

W.J. Neary
Clin. Otolaryngol. 2010, 35, 291,299 Objectives:, To investigate the relationship between those issues concerning quality of life in patients with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) as identified by the closed set NF2 questionnaire and the eight norm-based measures and the physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) scores of the Short Form-36 (SF-36) Questionnaire. Design:, Postal questionnaire study. Setting:, Questionnaires sent to subjects' home addresses. Participants:, Eighty-seven adult subjects under the care of the Manchester Multidisciplinary NF2 Clinic were invited to participate. Main outcome measures:, Sixty-two (71%) completed sets of closed set NF2 questionnaires and SF-36 questionnaires were returned. Results:, Subjects with NF2 scored less than the norm of 50 on both the physical component summary and mental component summary scores and the eight individual norm-based measures of the Short Form-36 questionnaire. Correlations (using Kendall's tau) were examined between patients' perceptions of their severity of difficulty with the following activities and the eight norm-based measures and the physical component summary and mental component summary scores of the Short Form-36 questionnaire: Communicating with spouse/significant other (N = 61). The correlation coefficients were significant at the 0.01 level for the mental component summary score, together with three of the norm-based scores [vitality (VT), social functioning and role emotional]. Social communication (N = 62). All 10 correlations were significant at the 0.01 or 0.001 level. Balance (N = 59). All 10 correlations were highly significant at the P < 0.001 level. Hearing difficulties (N = 61). All correlations were significant at either the 0.01 level or less apart from the mental component summary score and three of the norm-based scores (role physical, VT and mental health). Mood change (N = 61). All correlations were significant at the 0.01 level or less, apart from one norm-based score (role physical). Conclusions:, The Short Form-36 questionnaire has allowed us to relate patients' perceptions of their difficulties, as identified by the closed set NF2 questionnaire, to the physical and mental domains measured by this validated and widely used scale, and has provided further insight into areas of functioning affected by NF2. [source]

Modeling mood variation associated with smoking: an application of a heterogeneous mixed-effects model for analysis of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) data

ADDICTION, Issue 2 2009
Donald Hedeker
ABSTRACT Aims Mixed models are used increasingly for analysis of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) data. The variance parameters of the random effects, which indicate the degree of heterogeneity in the population of subjects, are considered usually to be homogeneous across subjects. Modeling these variances can shed light on interesting hypotheses in substance abuse research. Design We describe how these variances can be modeled in terms of covariates to examine the covariate effects on between-subjects variation, focusing on positive and negative mood and the degree to which these moods change as a function of smoking. Setting The data are drawn from an EMA study of adolescent smoking. Participants Participants were 234 adolescents, either in 9th or 10th grades, who provided EMA mood reports from both random prompts and following smoking events. Measurements We focused on two mood outcomes: measures of the subject's negative and positive affect and several covariates: gender, grade, negative mood regulation and smoking level. Findings and conclusions Following smoking, adolescents experienced higher positive affect and lower negative affect than they did at random, non-smoking times. Our analyses also indicated an increased consistency of subjective mood responses as smoking experience increased and a diminishing of mood change. [source]

Association study between cannabinoid receptor gene (CNR1) and pathogenesis and psychotic symptoms of mood disorders,

Shih-Jen Tsai MD
Abstract Cannabis can induce mood change and sometimes psychotic symptoms in normal persons. In brain, the main active ingredient of cannabis acts via the cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CNR1) which is located on chromosome 6q14-15. Linkage studies have suggested the presence of a bipolar disorder susceptibility locus on chromosome 6q. In this population based association study, we tested the hypothesis that a microsatellite polymorphism in the promoter region of the CNR1 gene confers susceptibility to mood disorders and psychotic features. We genotyped the CNR1 gene is 154 mood disorder patients and 165 normal controls. The results showed that the triplet repeat polymorphism in the promoter region of the CNR1 gene was not likely to be involved in the pathogenesis or in the psychotic symptoms of mood disorders. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Training the forgetting of negative words: The role of direct suppression and the relation to stress reactivity

Joelle LeMoult
Recent research has demonstrated that people can be trained to forget negative material. This experiment assessed the possible benefit of direct suppression in addition to the benefit of thought substitutes (indirect suppression) on subsequent attempts to recall words. We also investigated the association between recall following suppression training and subsequent responses to an acute laboratory stressor. After learning cue-target word pairs, participants completed a training phase in which they practiced suppressing targets and recalling substitutes or simply recalling substitutes with no instruction to suppress. Our results show similar effects of suppression condition on forgetting. Importantly, however, the absence of direct suppression predicted mood change in response to a subsequently presented laboratory stressor. These results suggest that direct suppression is not necessary for forgetting to occur, but it seems to protect against negative emotional consequences of interference-induced forgetting. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Neural activity related to the processing of increasing monetary reward in smokers and nonsmokers

C. Martin-Soelch
Abstract This study investigated the processing of increasing monetary reward in nonsmoking and smoking subjects. The choice of the subject populations has been motivated by the observation of differences between nonsmokers and smokers in response to rewarding stimuli in a previous study. Subjects performed a pattern recognition task with delayed response, while rCBF was measured with [\mathrm{H}^{15}_{2}O] PET. Correct responses to the task were reinforced with three different amounts of monetary reward. The subjects received the sum of the rewards at the end of the experiment. The results show that a cortico-subcortical loop, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the orbitofrontal cortex, the cingulate gyrus and the thalamus is involved in processing increasing monetary reward. Furthermore, the striatal response differentiates nonsmokers from smokers. Thus, we found significant correlations between rCBF increases in striatum and increasing monetary reward and between striatal rCBF increases and mood in nonsmokers, but not in smokers. Moreover, no significant mood changes among the different monetary rewards could be observed in smokers. We infer that the response of the striatum to reward is related to changes in subjective feelings. The differences between smokers and nonsmokers confirm our previous conclusions that the association between blood flow, performance, mood and amount of reward is more direct in nonsmokers. [source]

Personality, gender, and crying

Mathell Peter
This study examined gender differences in crying as well as associations between basic personality traits and self-reported indices of crying. Forty-eight men and 56 women completed the Five-Factor Personality Inventory and the Adult Crying Inventory. Substantial gender differences were demonstrated in crying frequency and crying proneness, but not with respect to mood changes after crying. As predicted, women reported a higher frequency of crying and more proneness to cry both for negative and positive reasons. For women, all these crying indices were negatively associated with Emotional Stability. For men, only a significant negative relationship between Emotional Stability and crying for negative reasons emerged. No clear links were found between personality and mood changes after crying. Multiple regression analysis revealed a significant predictive role of gender for crying proneness, even when controlling for personality differences, but not for crying frequency. Adding personality by gender interaction terms resulted in a disappearance of the main effect of sex, while significant interactions with personality factors showed up for crying frequency and general crying proneness. It is suggested that future research on the relationship between personality and crying should focus more on the underlying mechanisms of observed relationships. Furthermore, it is recommended that future research should examine the role of different emotion regulation strategies. In addition, biological factors, temperament, upbringing measures, and socio-demographic variables should be taken into account. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Smoking, Mood Regulation, and Personality: An Event-Sampling Exploration of Potential Models and Moderation

Nima G. Moghaddam
ABSTRACT The aim of the present study was to test potential models of smoking-related changes in mood and how these are moderated by personality (behavioral activation and inhibition systems). Three models yielding distinct predictions regarding mood changes associated with cues to smoking and effects of ingestion were identified: the negative reinforcement model, the appetitive-incentive model, and the incentive-sensitization model. Seventy participants provided baseline data on personality and mood, and subsequently monitored their smoking behavior over 48 hours using an event-contingent diary,eliciting reports of mood state immediately prior to, and after, each cigarette smoked. MANOVA and multilevel modeling indicated that mood (hedonic tone and energetic arousal) improved significantly (p<.001) from baseline to pre-smoking, but did not change from pre- to post-smoking, thereby supporting the incentive-sensitization model. Further multilevel analyses indicated that significant variability in hedonic tone was moderated by the behavioral activation system. [source]

Dexamethasone pulse therapy in pemphigus

Gg Tóth
ABSTRACT Pulse therapy with high-dose glucocorticoids was introduced 20 years ago as a treatment modality for autoimmune disease and transplant rejection. The most popular dermatological indication for pulse therapy is severe pemphigus. We reviewed the sequelae of 14 patients with pemphigus who were treated by pulse therapy. Seven of them reached complete remission, although three of them needed a new pulse course due to disease flare-up. Adverse events were minor and confined to 60% of all patients: temporary facial flushing during pulse administration, sleep disturbances during the first night after pulse administration, and mood changes occurred during the week of pulse therapy. The study showed the possibility of oral instead of an intravenous route of dexamethasone pulse administration, which makes double-blind placebo-controlled trials ethically feasible. Fifty per cent of the patients reached complete remission. This retrospective study does not allow claims on the steroid-sparing effect. [source]

Therapeutic efficacy of bilateral prefrontal slow repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in depressed patients with Parkinson's disease: An open study

a Draga, evic MD
Abstract Recent studies have suggested that both high- and low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) have antidepressant effects in patients with major depression. We conducted an open study to assess the effects of slow rTMS on mood changes in patients with depression associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). Ten depressed patients with PD (four with major depression and six with dysthymia) received daily sessions of rTMS (frequency, 0.5 Hz; pulse duration, 0.1 msec; field intensity, 10% above the motor threshold) over both prefrontal regions (a total of 100 stimuli per prefrontal region daily) over 10 consecutive days. This treatment resulted in a moderate but significant decrease in scores of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (33,37%) and the Beck Depression Inventory (24,34%), which persisted 20 days after finishing the stimulation. In parallel, we observed mild improvement (18,20%) of motor symptoms. No significant adverse effects were reported. These preliminary results suggest the therapeutic potential of daily prefrontal low-frequency rTMS (0.5 Hz) in depression associated with PD. © 2002 Movement Disorder Society [source]

Morbidity in former sawmill workers exposed to pentachlorophenol (PCP): A cross-sectional study in New Zealand

David McLean PhD
Abstract Background From 1950 to 1990 pentachlorophenol (PCP) was used widely in the New Zealand sawmill industry, and persistent claims of long-term health effects have been made. Methods We surveyed surviving members of a cohort enumerated to study mortality in sawmill workers employed from 1970 to 1990. Estimates of historical exposure were based on job titles held, using the results of a PCP biomonitoring survey conducted in the 1980s. The survey involved interviews and clinical examinations, with interviewers and examiners blinded to exposure status. Results Of the 293 participants 177 had not been exposed, and of the 116 exposed all but 10% had low or short-term PCP exposure. Nevertheless, a number of significant associations between PCP exposure and the prevalence of various symptoms were observed including associations between: (i) exposure levels and self-reported tuberculosis, pleurisy or pneumonia (P,<,0.01) and a deficit in cranial nerve function (P,=,0.04); (ii) duration of employment and thyroid disorders (P,=,0.04), and neuropsychological symptoms including often going back to check things (P,=,0.04), low libido (P,=,0.02) and heart palpitations (P,=,0.02), and a strong dose,response trend for frequent mood changes without cause (P,<,0.01); and (iii) cumulative exposure and frequent mood changes without cause (P,=,0.02), low libido (P,=,0.04), and in the overall number of neuropsychological symptoms reported (P,=,0.03). Conclusions PCP exposure was associated with a number of physical and neuropsychological health effects that persisted long after exposure had ceased. Am. J. Ind. Med. 52:271,281, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Latest news and product developments

PRESCRIBER, Issue 8 2007
Article first published online: 23 JUL 200
Lamotrigine for partial, valproate for generalised A large UK trial has shown that lamotrigine is the most effective choice in the treatment of partial epilepsy (Lancet 2007;369: 1000-15). The SANAD trial, commissioned by the National Institute for Health Research's Health Technology Assessment programme, randomised 1721 patients (for whom carbamazepine monotherapy would have been the treatment of choice) to treatment with carbamazepine, gabapentin, lamotrigine, oxcarbazepine (Trileptal) or topiramate (Topamax). Lamotrigine was associated with a longer time to treatment failure, though time to 12-month remission favoured carbamazepine. Over four years' follow-up, lamotrigine was numerically but not significantly superior. The authors concluded lamotrigine is clinically superior to carbamazepine for partial epilepsy A second arm of the trial, yet to be published, evaluated the treatment of generalised epilepsy and found valproate to be clinically most effective, though topiramate was cost effective for some patients. Chronic pain common in nursing homes Most residents in nursing homes say they have long- term pain but only one in seven say a health professional has ever discussed its treatment with them, according to a report by the Patients' Association ( Pain in Older People ,A Hidden Problem was a qualitative study of 77 older residents in care homes in England. Most were frail and suffered long-term illness. The study found that 85 per cent of residents said they were often troubled by aches or pains and these lasted over a year in 74 per cent. Most described their pain as moderate (33 per cent) or severe (38 per cent) but 8 per cent said it was excruciating. Many reported limitations on mobility and social activities despite a high level of stoicism. All but one were taking medication to relive pain; one-third experienced adverse effects but 78 per cent believed drugs offered the most effective treatment. One-quarter said a doctor or nurse had discussed how to stop their pain worsening, and 15 per cent said they had discussed how to treat their pain. Visits from GPs appeared to be uncommon. Atherothrombotic events despite treatment Between one in five and one in seven of high-risk patients experience atherothrombotic events despite evidence-based treatment, the REACH study has shown (J Am Med Assoc 2007;297:1197-1206). REACH (REduction of Atherothrombosis for Continued Health) is an international observational study involving 68 236 patients with atherothrombotic disease or at least three risk factors. Most were taking conventional evidence-based medication. After one year, the incidence of the combined endpoint of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke or hospitalisation for atherothrombotic events was approximately 15 per cent for patients with coronary artery disease or cardiovascular disease, and 21 per cent in patients with peripheral artery disease and established coronary disease. Event rates increased with the number of vascular beds affected, rising to 26 per cent in patients with three symptomatic arterial disease locations. Extended CD prescribing by nurses and pharmacists The Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) is consulting on expanding the prescribing of controlled drugs (CDs) by nonmedical prescribers. Currently, nurse independent prescribers can prescribe 12 CDs, including diamorphine and morphine, but pharmacist independent prescribers may not prescribe any CDs. The proposal is to allow both professions to prescribe any CDs within their competence, with the exception of cocaine, diamorphine or dipipanone for the management of addiction. The closing date for consultation is 15 June. Consultation is also underway on expanding the range of CDs nurses and pharmacists can prescribe under a patient group direction (PGD), and their use for pain relief. The closing date for consultation is 20 April. Intrinsa: transdermal testosterone for women A transdermal formulation of testosterone has been introduced for the treatment of low sexual desire associated with distress in women who have experienced an early menopause following hysterectomy involving a bilateral oophorectomy and are receiving concomitant oestrogen therapy. Manufacturer Procter & Gamble says that Intrinsa, a twice-weekly patch, delivers testosterone 300µg every 24 hours, achieving premenopausal serum testosterone levels. Clinical trials showed that Intrinsa reduced distress in 65-68 per cent and increased satisfying sexual activity in 51-74 per cent of women. A month's treatment (eight patches) costs Ł28.00. Fish oil for secondary ,not primary ,prevention of CHD Supplementing statin therapy with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) reduces the risk of major coronary events in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) ,but not in patients with no history of CHD Lancet 2007;369:1090-8). The five-year study in 18 645 patients with total cholesterol levels of 6.5mmol per litre or greater found that the incidence of sudden cardiac death, fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction in CHD patients treated with EPA plus a statin was 8.7 per cent compared with 10.7 per cent with a statin alone (relative risk reduction 19 per cent). A similar relative risk reduction in patients with no CHD was not statistically significant. There was no difference in mortality between the groups but EPA did reduce unstable angina and nonfatal coronary events. Department pilots information prescriptions The Department of Health has announced 20 sites to pilot information prescriptions prior to a nationwide roll-out in 2008. The prescriptions will guide people with long-term conditions such as diabetes and cancer to sources of support and information about their condition. The Department hopes the project will increase patients' understanding of their discussions with health professionals, empower them to locate the information they need, and provide long-term support. NPSA guidelines for safer prescribing The National Patient Safety Agency ( has published five guidelines to improve medication safety in the NHS. Targeting ,high-risk issues', the guidance covers anticoagulant prescribing, liquid medicines for oral or enteral administration, injectable medicines, epidural injections and infusions, and paediatric intravenous infusions. The implementation of each guide is supported by additional tools and resources. Better adherence not matched to outcomes A systematic review has found that interventions can increase adherence to prescribed medication but there is no evidence that clinical outcomes also improve (Arch Intern Med 2007;167:540-9). The review of 37 trials identified 20 reporting increased adherence. The most effective interventions were behavioural changes to reduce dose demands and those involving monitoring and feedback. Improvements in clinical outcomes were variable and did not correspond to changes in adherence. Antidepressant plus mood stabiliser no better US investigators have found that combining a mood stabiliser with an antidepressant is no more effective than a mood stabiliser alone in preventing mood changes (N Engl J Med 2007; published online 28 March, doi.10.1056/NEJMoa064135). The study found durable recovery occurred in 23.5 per cent of patients treated with a mood stabiliser and adjunctive antidepressant therapy for six months compared with 27.3 per cent of those taking a mood stabiliser plus placebo. [source]

Cognitive and mood changes in men undergoing intermittent combined androgen blockade for non-metastatic prostate cancer

M.M. Cherrier
Abstract Purpose: Men with prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-only relapse of prostate cancer after primary therapy are generally fully functional and asymptomatic with a life expectancy of up to 10 or more years. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is a common treatment option. This study examined mood and cognitive changes in otherwise healthy men with prostate cancer prior to, during and after ADT. Experimental design: Twenty hormone naďve, eugonadal prostate cancer patients without evidence of metastases and with a rising PSA were treated with intermittent ADT consisting of 9 months of complete androgen blockade (CAB) achieved with combined leuprolide and flutamide followed by an ,off treatment' period. Cognitive function tests and mood measures were administered at baseline, after 3 and 9 months of ADT and after 3 months of no treatment. Twenty healthy control patients without prostate cancer range matched for age and education were tested at the same time intervals. Results: ADT patients evidenced a significant decline in spatial reasoning, spatial abilities and working memory during treatment compared with baseline. No changes were noted for measures of verbal or spatial memory, selective attention or language. Significant changes in self-rated mood such as increased depression, tension, anxiety, fatigue and irritability were evident during treatment compared with baseline for ADT patients. No significant changes in either cognitive tests or mood measures were noted for the healthy control group. Conclusions: These findings, suggest that 9 months of combined androgen blockade may result in some adverse changes in cognition and mood. However, many but not all of these changes can return to baseline after cessation of ADT. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Hormonal Changes in Menopause and Implications on Sexual Health

Anneliese Schwenkhagen MD
ABSTRACT Introduction., The menopause is characterized by an array of changes to the female body caused by modulations which occur in the production of estrogens and androgens. The ovaries are important sites of testosterone production in the peri- and postmenopausal women, but the contribution of testosterone pro-hormones from the adrenal glands falls precipitously to the extent where the ovaries cannot correct the deficit. This results in a net decline in circulating testosterone levels. Aims., This paper gives an overview of this interesting subject area. Researchers have cogitated on the relationship between the physical effects of the menopause and the observed declines in testosterone levels, but it is now much clearer that falling testosterone levels cannot explain all of these changes. Main Outcome Measures., The cessation of follicular functioning results in a steep decline in the production of estrogens. This modulation is responsible for the physical manifestations of the menopause,hot flushes, sleep disturbances, mood changes, bleeding problems, local urogenital problems, vaginal changes, etc. Methods., A review of the pertinent literature was conducted to investigate hormonal changes around the menopause. A précis of the salient information is presented here. Results., Although the most obvious and well-known effects of the menopause are due to the decline of estrogen levels, the effects of falling testosterone levels are subtle, but by no means less significant. Reductions in sexual motivation, sexual arousal, vaginal lubrication, etc. are all associated with plummeting androgen levels. Conclusions., Today, several options exist for the treatment of the endocrinological changes associated with the menopause. Estrogen deficiency can be corrected with hormone replacement therapy and topical preparations for the genitalia. A new transdermal system for the administration of testosterone shows a great deal of potential for the treatment of androgen deficiency. Schwenkhagen A. Hormonal changes in menopause and implications on sexual health. J Sex Med 2007;4(suppl 3):220,226. [source]

Dark therapy for mania: a pilot study

Barbara Barbini
Background:, Recent findings suggest that extended bed rest and darkness could stabilize mood swings in rapid cycling bipolar patients. Method:, We exposed 16 bipolar inpatients affected by a manic episode to a regimen of 14 h of enforced darkness from 6 p.m. to 8 a.m. each night for three consecutive days [dark therapy (DT)]. Pattern of mood changes were recorded with the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and compared with a control group of 16 inpatients matched for age, sex, age at onset, number of previous illness episodes and duration of current episode, and were treated with therapy as usual (TAU). Results:, Adding DT to TAU resulted in a significantly faster decrease of YMRS scores when patients were treated within 2 weeks from the onset of the current manic episode. When duration of current episode was longer, DT had no effect. Follow-up confirmed that good responders needed a lower dose of antimanic drugs and were discharged earlier from the hospital. Conclusions:, Chronobiological interventions and control of environmental stimuli can be a useful add-on for the treatment of acute mania in a hospital setting. [source]

No sign of harm: issues for disabled children communicating about abuse

Rebecca Oosterhoorn
Abstract While all children may be the victims of abuse, disabled children are particularly vulnerable. This paper explores the views of professionals working with children using alternative/augmented communication systems on the issues relating to communication about abuse. Interviews were carried out with 20 staff from eight establishments for disabled children across Scotland. It describes the range of alternative/augmented communication systems used and the barriers to communication about abuse. Staff generally accepted the importance of providing the appropriate vocabulary in augmented communication systems, but systems that provide such vocabulary were not widely used. Staff considered that a major difficulty concerned the level of understanding disabled children might have about concepts of abuse. They were unsure how the appropriate vocabulary could be introduced in a natural way and how links could be made between the signs and their meanings. Staff saw themselves as those most able to protect the children, but it was felt that discovery of abuse was more likely to come from them noticing physical signs, behaviour or mood changes than from the child communicating explicitly about abuse. The need for appropriate training and increased coordination between social work, health and education is highlighted. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]