Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Mood

  • comorbid mood
  • depressed mood
  • depressive mood
  • good mood
  • low mood
  • negative mood
  • positive mood

  • Terms modified by Mood

  • mood change
  • mood disorder
  • mood disorder patient
  • mood disorder questionnaire
  • mood disorders
  • mood disturbance
  • mood dysregulation
  • mood effects
  • mood episode
  • mood rating
  • mood regulation
  • mood stabilizer
  • mood state
  • mood states
  • mood swing
  • mood symptom
  • mood variation

  • Selected Abstracts

    Screening for depression and anxiety disorders in primary care patients

    Adomas Bunevicius B.S.
    Abstract Mood and anxiety disorders are highly prevalent in primary health care. In this study we assessed performance of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) for screening of depression and anxiety disorders in a population of primary care patients. A total of 503 primary care patients consecutively admitted to the primary care medical center in Kaunas, Lithuania, completed the study. We found that the HADS subscale of depression (HADS-D) at a cutoff score of 6 or more showed the best performance screening for a major depressive episode diagnosed by means of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), with a sensitivity of 80%, specificity of 69%, positive predictive value of 80%, negative predictive value of 92%, and area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.75. Performance of the HADS-D against MINI diagnosis of dysthymia was weak. The HADS subscale of anxiety (HADS-A) at a cutoff score of 9 or more showed the best performance screening for MINI diagnosis of overall anxiety disorders, with a sensitivity of 77%, specificity of 75%, positive predictive value of 53%, negative predictive value of 90%, and area under the ROC curve of 0.76. These results suggest that in primary care patients HADS is an adequate screening instrument for the MINI diagnoses of major depressive episode, but not for dysthymia at a cutoff score of 6, and for anxiety disorders at a cutoff score of 9. Depression and Anxiety 24:455,460, 2007. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Patterns of change in withdrawal symptoms, desire to smoke, reward motivation and response inhibition across 3 months of smoking abstinence

    ADDICTION, Issue 5 2009
    Lynne Dawkins
    ABSTRACT Aims We have demonstrated previously that acute smoking abstinence is associated with lowered reward motivation and impaired response inhibition. This prospective study explores whether these impairments, along with withdrawal-related symptoms, recover over 3 months of sustained abstinence. Design Participants completed a 12-hour abstinent baseline assessment and were then allocated randomly to quit unaided or continue smoking. All were re-tested after 7 days, 1 month and 3 months. Successful quitters' scores were compared with those of continuing smokers, who were tested after ad libitum smoking. Setting Goldsmiths, University of London. Participants A total of 33 smokers who maintained abstinence to 3 months, and 31 continuing smokers. Measurements Indices demonstrated previously in this cohort of smokers to be sensitive to the effect of nicotine versus acute abstinence: reward motivation [Snaith,Hamilton pleasure scale (SHAPS), Card Arranging Reward Responsivity Objective Test (CARROT), Stroop], tasks of response inhibition [anti-saccade task; Continuous Performance Task (CPT)], clinical indices of mood [Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)], withdrawal symptoms [Mood and Physical Symptoms Scale (MPSS)] and desire to smoke. Findings SHAPS anhedonia and reward responsivity (CARROT) showed significant improvement and plateaued after a month of abstinence, not differing from the scores of continuing smokers tested in a satiated state. Mood, other withdrawal symptoms and desire to smoke all declined from acute abstinence to 1 month of cessation and were equivalent to, or lower than, the levels reported by continuing, satiated smokers. Neither group showed a change in CPT errors over time while continuing smokers, but not abstainers, showed improved accuracy on the anti-saccade task at 3 months. Conclusion Appetitive processes and related affective states appear to improve in smokers who remain nicotine-free for 3 months, whereas response inhibition does not. Although in need of replication, the results suggest tentatively that poor inhibitory control may constitute a long-term risk factor for relapse and could be a target for intervention. [source]

    Effect of Exogenous Melatonin on Mood and Sleep Efficiency in Emergency Medicine Residents Working Night Shifts

    Milan Jockovich MD
    Abstract. Objective: To determine whether melatonin taken prior to attempted daytime sleep sessions will improve daytime sleep quality, nighttime sleepiness, and mood state in emergency medicine (EM) residents, changing from daytime to nighttime work schedules. Methods: A prospective, randomized, double-blind crossover design was used in an urban emergency department. Emergency medicine residents who worked two strings of nights, of at least three nights' duration each, and separated by at least one week of days were eligible. Subjects were randomized to receive either melatonin 1 mg or placebo, 30 to 60 minutes prior to their daytime sleep session, for three consecutive days after each night shift. Crossover to the other agent occurred during their subsequent night shifts. Objective measures of quality of daytime sleep were obtained using the Actigraph 1000. This device measures sleep motion and correlates with sleep efficiency, total sleep time, time in bed, and sleep latency. The Profile of Mood States (POMS) and the Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS) were also used to quantify nighttime mood and sleepiness. Results: Among the 19 volunteers studied, there was no difference in sleep efficiency (91.16% vs 90.98%, NS), sleep duration (379.6 min vs 342.7 min, NS), or sleep latency (7.59 min vs 6.80 min, NS), between melatonin and placebo, respectively. In addition, neither the POMS total mood disturbance (5.769 baseline vs 12.212 melatonin vs 5.585 placebo, NS) nor the SSS (1.8846 baseline vs 2.2571 melatonin vs 2.1282 placebo, NS) demonstrated a statistical difference in nighttime mood and sleepiness between melatonin and placebo. Conclusions: There are no beneficial effects of a 1-mg melatonin dose on sleep quality, alertness, or mood state during night shift work among EM residents. [source]

    The addition of mood and anxiety domains to the University of Washington quality of life scale,

    Simon N. Rogers FDS
    Abstract Background There are numerous head and neck specific quality of life questionnaires, each having its own merits and disadvantages. The University of Washington questionnaire has been widely used and is notable by the inclusion of a shoulder dysfunction domain, domain importance ratings, and patient free text. It is short, simple to process, and provides clinically relevant information. However, it has lacked any psychological dimension of quality of life. The aim of this study was to report the inclusion of two psychological domains (mood, anxiety) to the most recent refinement of the questionnaire (version 3). Method A cross-sectional survey was performed in April 2000. Questionnaires were sent to 183 patients alive and disease free after surgery for oral and oro-pharyngeal malignancy. Replies were received from 145 patients (79% response rate). Results The new domains (mood and anxiety) correlated significantly with the emotional functioning domains from the EORTC C30 and with the pain and appearance domains of UW-QOL. There were also significant correlations between the "global quality of life" item and the two new domains. Mood (p = .005) and anxiety (p < .001) scores were associated with patient age but with no other clinicodemographic variable. Conclusion The addition of mood and anxiety domains makes the UW-QOL version 4 a single broad measure suitable for effective health-related quality of life evaluation in the routine clinical setting. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 24: 521,529, 2002 [source]

    The Effect of Maternal Depressed Mood on Infant Emotional Reaction in a Surprise-Eliciting Situation

    Nadja Reissland
    The purpose of this study is to examine the claim that an infant's ability to respond appropriately to an emotional situation varies according to the emotional state of the mother. Surprise expressions in mother and child were examined both in terms of paralinguistic aspects of surprise vocalizations as well as facial expressions. Seventy-two infants and their mothers (mean age=8 months, range=5,11 months) were video- and audiotaped in their homes. Half of the infants, matched for age and gender, had mothers who reported depressed mood. Infants of mothers with depressed mood showed significantly fewer components of facial expressions of surprise compared with infants of nondepressed mothers. Mothers with depressed mood exclaimed surprise with a significantly lower pitch (mean F0=386.13 Hz) compared to nondepressed mothers (mean F0=438.10 Hz). Furthermore, mothers with depressed mood showed fewer associations between elements of emotional expression than the nondepressed group. Infants' expressions of surprise are influenced by maternal mood, resulting in reduced expression of the emotion in infants of mothers with depressed mood. These results are discussed in terms of coordination of vocal parameters in mother,infant dyadic interaction. [source]

    Dismantling the Built Drawing: Working with Mood in Architectural Design

    Randall TealArticle first published online: 15 MAR 2010
    From the late Middle Ages onward an emphasis on the rational and the technical aspects of design and design drawing gained hold of architectural practice. In this transformation, the phenomenon of mood has been frequently overlooked or seen as something to be added on to a design; yet the fundamental grounding of mood, as described in Martin Heidegger's philosophy, is anything but secondary to our experience of the world. In fact, other facilities such as embodied experience, tactile and spatial awareness, and temporal perception all spring from the basic encounter with mood. In this article I describe how a lack of attunement to, and limited ability with, the various manifestations of mood perpetuates a disconnection between the architectural drawing and real buildings. I argue that as long as educational frameworks relegate the emotional and experiential to the place of a supplement, then our design processes will continue to unconsciously promote environments of thinness and superficiality. [source]

    Treatment of Depression Improves Physical Functioning in Older Adults

    Christopher M. Callahan MD
    Objectives: To determine the effect of collaborative care management for depression on physical functioning in older adults. Design: Multisite randomized clinical trial. Setting: Eighteen primary care clinics from eight healthcare organizations. Participants: One thousand eight hundred one patients aged 60 and older with major depressive disorder. Intervention: Patients were randomized to the Improving Mood: Promoting Access to Collaborative Treatment (IMPACT) intervention (n=906) or to a control group receiving usual care (n=895). Control patients had access to all health services available as part of usual care. Intervention patients had access for 12 months to a depression clinical specialist who coordinated depression care with their primary care physician. Measurements: The 12-item short form Physical Component Summary (PCS) score (range 0,100) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) (range 0,7). Results: The mean patient age was 71.2, 65% were women, and 77% were white. At baseline, the mean PCS was 40.2, and the mean number of IADL dependencies was 0.7; 45% of participants rated their health as fair or poor. Intervention patients experienced significantly better physical functioning at 1 year than usual-care patients as measured using between-group differences on the PCS of 1.71 (95% confidence interval (CI)=0.96,2.46) and IADLs of ,0.15 (95% CI=,0.29 to ,0.01). Intervention patients were also less likely to rate their health as fair or poor (37.3% vs 52.4%, P<.001). Combining both study groups, patients whose depression improved were more likely to experience improvement in physical functioning. Conclusion: The IMPACT collaborative care model for late-life depression improves physical function more than usual care. [source]

    Evening Light Exposure: Implications for Sleep and Depression

    Geralyn M. Wallace-Guy MA
    OBJECTIVES: To examine whether dim illumination in the evening is a factor in sleep disturbances of aging, depression, and circadian phase advance. DESIGN: One-week continuous recordings were made to record illumination exposure and to infer 24-hour sleep patterns from wrist activity. SETTING: Recordings took place during normal home and community activities. PARTICIPANTS: Complete data of 154 postmenopausal women, mean age 66.7, were selected from a larger study of participants in the Women's Health Initiative. MEASUREMENTS: Illumination in lux was averaged for 4 hours before bedtime and over 24 hours. Mood was measured using a brief eight-item screen. RESULTS: Illumination in the 4 hours before bedtime was quite dim: median 24 lux. Nevertheless, evening light exposure was not significantly related to sleep amount (in bed or out of bed) sleep efficiency, sleep latency, wake within sleep, or mood. In contrast, the overall amount of light throughout the 24 hours was negatively correlated with sleep latency, wake within sleep, and depressed mood. CONCLUSIONS: Low evening lighting does not appear to be a crucial factor in sleep and mood disturbances of aging, but overall lighting may contribute to these disturbances. [source]

    Sleep Apnea, Delirium, Depressed Mood, Cognition, and ADL Ability After Stroke

    Olov Sandberg MD
    OBJECTIVES: The incidence of sleep apnea and stroke increases with age. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of sleep apnea after stroke and its relationship to delirium, depressed mood, cognitive functioning, ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs), and psychiatric and behavior symptoms. DESIGN:Cross-sectional study. SETTING:Geriatric stroke rehabilitation unit. PARTICIPANTS:133 patients (78 women and 55 men, mean age 77.1 ± 7.7 years) consecutively admitted to a geriatric stroke rehabilitation unit. MEASUREMENTS: All patients underwent overnight respiratory sleep recordings at 23 ± 7 days (range 11 to 41 days) after suffering a stroke. The patients were assessed using the Organic Brain Syndrome Scale, Montgomery-Åsberg-Depression-Rating Scale, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and Barthel-ADL Index. Sleep apnea was defined as an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of 10 or more. RESULTS: The median of the AHI for the studied sample (N = 133) was 13 (range 0,79; interquartile range 6,28). Fifty-nine percent fulfilled the criteria for sleep apnea; 52% with first-ever stroke had sleep apnea. More patients with sleep apnea than without were delirious, depressed, or more ADL-dependent. Sleep apnea patients also had a higher frequency of ischemic heart disease and had more often suffered from an earlier cerebral infarction. Multivariate analysis showed that obesity, low ADL scores, ischemic heart disease, and depressed mood were independently associated with sleep apnea. Low ADL scores, apnea-related hypoxemia, body mass index ,27, and impaired vision were independently associated with delirium. The presence of sleep apnea was not associated with any specific type of stroke or location of the brain lesion. CONCLUSIONS:Sleep apnea is common in stroke patients and is associated with delirium, depressed mood, latency in reaction and in response to verbal stimuli, and impaired ADL ability. We suggest a trial investigating whether delirium, depressed mood, and ADL ability improve with nasal continuous positive airway pressure treatment of sleep apnea in stroke patients. [source]

    The Effect of Reminiscence Group Work on Life Satisfaction, Self-Esteem and Mood of Ageing People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Joris Van Puyenbroeck
    Background, This study evaluates the effects of reminiscence group work on the subjective well-being of ageing people with intellectual disabilities. Methods, The content of the successive group work sessions was manipulated as follows: a control-phase with three ,current topics' sessions, an experimental phase with six ,reminiscence' sessions and finally three ,current topics' sessions. Life satisfaction, perceived self-competence and mood were measured by questionnaires, filled in by the participants and direct support workers. Results, A quasi-experimental pre-test,post-test design (n = 41) did not detect any changes in life satisfaction and perceived self-competence. For mood, a quasi-experimental ABA-design (n = 41) did not yield an experimental treatment effect, but a significant increase in scores was observed over time. Personality characteristics ,extraversion' and ,emotional stability', but not memory specificity were found to be significant covariates for the mood scores. Conclusion, Although the study's design did not allow us to confirm the effect of reminiscence group work, the analysis nonetheless revealed some useful indications for further research. Also, interviews conducted before and after the programme resulted in positive appraisals of the programme as a worthwhile and meaningful activity for ageing people with intellectual disability. [source]

    Effects of Violent Versus Nonviolent Video Games on Children's Arousal, Aggressive Mood, and Positive Mood

    Michele J. Fleming
    This study investigated the relationship between violent video games and children's mood. A total of 71 children aged 8 to 12 years played a paper-and-pencil game, a nonviolent video game, and a violent video game. Results indicate that arousal, as measured by heart rate and self-reported arousal, increased significantly after playing the violent video game, as compared with the other two game conditions, with girls reporting more arousal than did boys. There was no significant increase in aggressive mood scores for either boys or girls after playing the violent game. Positive mood, as measured by positive affect, showed no significant increases or decreases after playing either video game. However, positive mood, as measured by general mood, showed a significant increase after playing the violent game for both boys and girls, but only as compared with the paper-and-pencil game. Results are interpreted in terms of social learning and cognitive information processing theories of aggression. [source]

    RNA from Borna disease virus in patients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective patients, and in their biological relatives

    Sandra Odebrechet Vargas Nunes
    Abstract Numerous interactions of the immune system with the central nervous system have been described recently. Mood and psychotic disorders, such as severe depression and schizophrenia, are both heterogeneous disorders regarding clinical symptomatology, the acuity of symptoms, the clinical course, the treatment response, and probably also the etiology. Detection of p24 RNA from Borna disease virus (BDV) by the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in patients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and in their biological relatives was evaluated. The subjects were 27 schizophrenic and schizoaffective patients, 27 healthy controls, 20 relatives without psychiatric disease, and 24 relatives with mood disorder, who attended the Psychiatric Ambulatory of Londrina State University, Paraná, Brazil. The subjects were interviewed by structured diagnostic criteria categorized according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV, axis I, (SCID-IV). The mean duration of illness in schizophrenic and schizoaffective patients was 15.341±1.494 years and the median age at onset was 22.4±7.371 years. There were no significant differences in gender (P=0.297), age (P=0.99), albumin (P=0.26), and body mass index (kg/m2) (p=0.28), among patients, controls, and relatives. Patients and biological relatives had significantly higher positive p24 RNA BDV detection than controls (P=0.04); however, the clinical significance of BDV remains to be clarified. J. Clin. Lab. Anal. 22:314,320, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Depressive symptom patterns in patients with Parkinson's disease and other older adults

    Kristi J. Erdal
    Research on depression in Parkinson's disease (PD) has suggested that PD patients experience a qualitatively different depression from that of other older adults, endorsing fewer cognitive symptoms of depression (e.g., guilt, failure) and greater somatic (e.g., poor sleep) and mood symptoms (e.g., sadness, hopelessness); however, this has never been tested directly. In the present study, two PD groups, one with cognitive impairment (PD + CI; n = 26) and one without cognitive impairment (PD; n = 45), and three control groups of older adults were compared on measures of depressive symptomatology. The control groups included a physically disabled group (n = 46), a cognitively impaired group (CI; n = 21), and a healthy group (n = 50). Confirmatory factor analysis verified a four-factor model of depressive symptoms (Cognitive, Mood, Somatic, and Fatigue symptoms). Comparisons revealed that the PD group had a depressive-symptom pattern that was not significantly different from the disabled and healthy groups. The PD + CI group had a symptom pattern that was more similar to the CI group than to the PD group. Implications for the conceptualization of depression in older adults are discussed. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Clin Psychol 57: 1559,1569, 2001. [source]

    The relationship between levels of mood, interest and pleasure and ,challenging behaviour' in adults with severe and profound intellectual disability

    E. Ross
    Abstract Background Research on affective disorders in adults with intellectual disability (ID) suggests that depression may not present a ,classic picture' in individuals with severe and profound ID, but may include challenging behaviours, which are referred to as ,atypical symptoms', such as self-injury, aggression and irritability. The aim of the present study was to explore whether there is an association between constructs relating closely to the core symptoms of depression and challenging behaviours in adults with severe and profound ID. Method Mood and levels of interest and pleasure were measured in 53 adults with severe or pro-found ID using the Mood, Interest and Pleasure Questionnaire (MIPQ). Results Two groups of adults were identified based on MIPQ scores: (1) a ,low mood' group (lowest score = 12); and (2) a comparison group (highest scoring = 12). The groups were clearly differentiated on the MIPQ (P < 0.0001), but were comparable on age, gender and medication use. The Challenging Behaviour Interview showed no difference between the two groups in self-injury, aggression or disrupting the environment. A secondary analysis revealed that participants who showed challenging behaviour scored significantly lower on the MIPQ than those who did not show challenging behaviour. Conclusions Possible reasons for these results and considerations for future studies are discussed. [source]

    Sex Hormones, Mood, Mental State and Memory

    Article first published online: 24 DEC 200

    Sex Hormones, Mood, Mental State and Memory

    Article first published online: 24 DEC 200

    Mood and anxiety psychopathology and temporomandibular disorder: a spectrum approach

    D. Manfredini
    summary, Psychological factors play an important role in the aetiopathogenesis of temporomandibular disorders (TMD), as demonstrated by an increase in stress, anxiety, depression and somatization in TMD patients. The aim of this work was to investigate the presence of mood and panic-agoraphobic symptoms in different groups of TMD patients by means of a spectrum approach to psychopathology. A total of 131 subjects were included in this study and TMD signs and symptoms were investigated by means of a standardized clinical examination. Two self-report questionnaires were used to evaluate mood (MOODS-SR) and panic-agoraphobic (PAS-SR) spectrum. anova and Bonferroni's post hoc test for multiple comparisons were used to compare mean scores of all TMD groups for MOODS-SR, PAS-SR and all their domains. Results revealed a significantly higher prevalence of both mood (P < 0·001) and panic-agoraphobic (P < 0·01) symptoms in myofascial pain patients than in all other diagnostic groups (TMD-free, disc displacement and joint disorders). With regard to mood spectrum, strong differences emerged for all domains evaluating depressive symptoms. As for the panic-agoraphobic spectrum, myofascial pain patients differed from the other groups for the presence of stress sensitivity, panic, separation anxiety, hypochondriac and agoraphobic symptoms. It was concluded that myofascial pain patients differed from those with disc displacement, joint disorders and no TMD in relation to some psychopathological symptoms, while the last three groups presented very similar profiles. [source]

    The Relation of Self-Esteem Variability to Emotion Variability, Mood, Personality Traits, and Depressive Tendencies

    Annerieke Oosterwegel
    The relation of self-esteem variability to personality, mood, and behavior was investigated. Self-esteem variability was measured by calculating the standard deviation of self-ratings made during a week of experience-sampling. Participants high in self-esteem variability were self-conscious, socially anxious, and avoidant of social contexts. Self-esteem variability was partially independent of the conceptually similar trait of affect-intensity. The contributions of the study to work on self-esteem stability are discussed. [source]

    Still "In the Mood": The Nostalgia Aesthetic in a Digital World1

    Christina Baade

    Naltrexone Is Associated With Reduced Drinking by Alcohol Dependent Patients Receiving Antidepressants for Mood and Anxiety Symptoms: Results From VA Cooperative Study No. 425, "Naltrexone in the Treatment of Alcoholism"

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 1 2008
    John H. Krystal
    Background:, It is not clear whether naltrexone is effective in reducing alcohol consumption among patients with clinically significant mood symptoms and whether naltrexone favorably interacts with antidepressant medications when they are co-prescribed. Methods:, This study reflects a secondary analysis of the first 13 weeks of VA CSP #425, a study that evaluated the efficacy of naltrexone 50 mg/d in 627 alcohol dependent military veterans receiving Twelve Step Facilitation therapy at 20 VA Medical Centers. This study included patients with comorbid mood and anxiety disorders, providing they did not need treatment for these comorbid conditions at the time of study entry. Sixty patients developed sufficiently severe mood symptoms while on study medication that they required antidepressant treatment. This analysis evaluated whether the efficacy of naltrexone and placebo was influenced by the prescription of antidepressant medications to some study patients for their mood and anxiety symptoms. Results:, In patients randomized to placebo (n = 209), prescription of antidepressants was associated with a significantly higher percentage of drinking days (lsmean = 24.4, se = 4.85 vs. lsmean = 12.9, se = 1.69, p = 0.02). Although the group of patients receiving naltrexone (n = 418) was larger than the group assigned to placebo, there were no significant differences in drinking-related outcomes in the groups who did or did not receive antidepressants (lsmean = 11.5, se = 1.18 vs. lsmean = 12.9, se = 1.69, p = 0.47). Among the group of patients receiving antidepressants, naltrexone prescription was associated with a reduction in the percent drinking days compared to placebo [lsmean = 10.1, se = 3.47 vs. lsmean = 24.4, se = 4.85, F(1,556) = 5.84, p = 0.02]. Conclusions:, Further investigation will be needed to determine whether naltrexone is efficacious among depressed alcohol dependent patients and whether naltrexone and antidepressant medications show interactive efficacy for treating alcohol dependence. [source]

    Clinical trial: B vitamins improve health in patients with coeliac disease living on a gluten-free diet

    Summary Background, Patients with coeliac disease living on a gluten-free diet show vitamin deficiency and reduced subjective health status. Aim, To study the biochemical and clinical effects of B vitamin supplementation in adults with longstanding coeliac disease. Methods, In a double blind placebo controlled multicentre trial, 65 coeliac patients (61% women) aged 45,64 years on a strict gluten-free diet for several years were randomized to a daily dose of 0.8 mg folic acid,0.5 mg cyanocobalamin and 3 mg pyridoxine or placebo for 6 months. The outcome measures were psychological general well-being (PGWB) and the plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) level, marker of B vitamin status. Results, Fifty-seven patients (88%) completed the trial. The tHcy level was baseline median 11.7 ,mol/L (7.4,23.0), significantly higher than in matched population controls [10.2 ,mol/L (6.7,22.6) (P < 0.01)]. Following vitamin supplementation, tHcy dropped a median of 34% (P < 0.001), accompanied by significant improvement in well-being (P < 0.01), notably Anxiety (P < 0.05) and Depressed Mood (P < 0.05) for patients with poor well-being. Conclusions, Adults with longstanding coeliac disease taking extra B vitamins for 6 months showed normalized tHcy and significant improvement in general well-being, suggesting that B vitamins should be considered in people advised to follow a gluten-free diet. [source]

    Teaching and Learning Guide for: Locutionary, Illocutionary, Perlocutionary

    Mikhail Kissine
    This guide accompanies the following article: Mikhail Kissine, ,Locutionary, Illocutionary, Perlocutionary', Language and Linguistics Compass 2/6 (2008) pp. 1189,1202. DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-818x.2008.00093.x. The terms locutionary act, illocutionary act and perlocutionary act originate from Austin's classical How to do with words. The corresponding notions, however, prove difficult to define. Yet, lack of careful delineating of each level can lead to important theoretical confusions. This Teaching and Learning Guide explains why proper understanding of Austin's trichotomy is crucial for semantics and pragmatics. Author's Introduction Most contemporary discussions in semantics and pragmatics employ , implicitly or explicitly , some or all of the concepts of locutionary,illocutionary or perlocutionary acts. These notions originate from Austin's posthumous and notoriously intricate book, How to do things with words. The point of interest for the linguist, however, is not so much the exegesis of Austin's ideas, as the precise delimitation of these levels of meaning. First, it is important to characterise the locutionary level , which falls short of any illocutionary force , to avoid contaminating analyses of utterance meanings with matters relative to the illocutionary level, viz. to the speech act performed. Second, the precise definition of illocutionary acts is an extremely difficult matter. However, the first, imperative step must be a clear demarcation between perlocutionary acts , relative to causal effects of the utterances , and the utterance's illocutionary force. Third, to assess theories of illocutionary forces, one must take into account the requirements for psychological and empirical plausibility. For instance, classical Gricean theories of illocutionary force attribution link it with the cognitive capacity to perform complex multi-layered mental state attributions, which is incompatible with the data available on the pragmatic and cognitive functioning of young children. In sum, gaining better understanding of the tripartite distinction between the locutionary, illocutionary and perlocutionary levels is not a taxonomical exercise, but a prerequisite for anyone willing to tackle semantic and/or pragmatic issues with the right tools. Suggested Reading Austin, J.L. (1975) How to do things with words, Second edition, Oxford, Oxford University Press. Lecture VIII. Difficult reading, but essential to understand Austin's intuitions and the origin of the debate. Strawson, P.F. (1964) "Intention and convention in speech acts", Philosophical Review, 73, 439,60. Classical criticism of Austin's claim abut the conventionality of illocutionary acts and first formulation of a Gricean theory of speech acts. Strawson, P.F. (1973) "Austin and ,Locutionary meaning'", in I. Berlin et al. (eds.) Essays on J.L. Austin, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 46,68. This equally classical paper sheds light onto the difficult notions of rhetic and locutionary acts; it paves the way for using these concepts interchangeably. Recanati, F. (1987) Meaning and Force. The pragmatics of performative utterances, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Chapter 9. This is a lucid discussion and elaboration of Strawson's conception of the locuitonary act as a potential for the illocutionary level. Wilson, D. and Sperber, D. (1988) "Mood and the analysis of non-declarative sentences", in J. Dancy et al. (eds.) Human Agency, Language, Duty and Value. Philosophical essayes in honour of J.O. Urmson, Stanford, Stanford University Press, 77,101. This paper gives important reasons for not confusing the analysis of mood , of the locutionary level , with the analysis of speech acts. Kissine, M. (2009) "Illocutionary forces and what is said", Mind and Language, 24, 122,38. Provides a definition of locutionary acts as linguistic representations of mental states, and lays grounds for a theory of speech acts as reasons to believe or to act. Bach, K. (1994) "Conversational impliciture", Mind and Language, 9, 124,62. An important defence of the distinction between illocutionary and locutionary acts. However, the reader should be warned that Bach conceives of locutionary acts as context-independent propositional radicals, which is not a self-evident position. Alston (2000) Illocutionary Acts and Sentence Meaning, Ithaca, Cornell University Press, Chapter 2. Contains a clear and lucid criticism of theories that confuse illocutionary and perlocutionary levels. Dominicy, M. (2008) "Epideictic rhetoric and the representation of human decision and choice", in K. Korta and J. Garmendia (eds.) Meaning, Intentions, and Argumentation, Stanford, CSLI, 179,207. This paper contains a useful test for distinguishing verbs that describe illocutionary acts form those that describe perlocutionary acts. It is also the first proposal to formulate the illocutionary/perlocutionary divide in Davidsonian terms. Focus Questions 1,What kind of philosophy of action is called for by the distinction between locutions, perlocutions and illocutions? 2,Should the locutionary level be always fully propositional? 3,Can illocutionary acts be characterised in terms of prototypical perlocutional effects? 4,Should illocutionary acts be divided in conventional (institutional) and non-conventional (non-insitutional) ones? 5,Are there good reasons for singling out a locutionary level? 6,,Does the attribution of illocutionary forces presuppose a complex mindreading process? Connexion with to Related Material in Lectures or Discussions 1,The distinction between the locutionary and illocutionary levels is crucial for any discussion about the semantics/pragmatics interface. Many scholars hastily characterise semantics as related to sentence-meaning and pragmatics as concerning the speech act performed. However, one should not take for granted that any level where the meaning is context-dependant is necessarily that of the illocutionary act performed. 2,This distinction can also be relevant for the discussions about the meaning of moods. For instance, the imperative mood is often analysed in terms of the directive illocutionary force. However, there are cases where utterances of imperative sentences do not correspond to a directive speech act. 3,The distinction between perlocutionary and illocutionary acts remains central for any attempt to classify or to define illocutionary forces. 4,Different conceptions of illocutionary acts are important for discussions about the ontogeny and phylogeny of the pragmatic dimension(s) of linguistic competence. [source]

    The Effects of Ginseng, Ephedrine, and Caffeine on Cognitive Performance, Mood and Energy

    NUTRITION REVIEWS, Issue 4 2001
    Harris R. Lieberman Ph.D.
    A variety of claims regarding the purported energy-enhancing properties of nutritional supplements and food constituents have recently been made. It appears that the supplements most frequently associated with such assertions are ginseng, ephedrine, and caffeine. Claims of increased energy are difficult to evaluate objectively because their meaning is not usually defined or specified. Often it is not clear whether the claims refer to physical or mental energy or both. Furthermore, an agreed upon scientific definition of either physical or mental energy enhancement does not exist. In spite of obvious differences in what the term physical energy, as opposed to mental energy implies, there is no clear scientific consensus on whether there is a difference between the two types of energy. Because the substances in question have been anecdotally associated with improvements in both physical and mental performance, their effects on both functions will be discussed, but with an emphasis placed on cognitive function and mood. Of the three substances discussed, caffeine's effects on cognitive and physical function, mood, and energy are best understood. It is clear that this food/drug enhances these functions when administered in moderate doses. Ephedrine may also enhance certain physical and mental functions related to "energy," but the evidence that ginseng has such properties is exceedingly weak. [source]

    Limbically Augmented Pain Syndrome: An Explanatory Model for Pain, Mood, and Experience

    PAIN MEDICINE, Issue 1 2000
    Rollin M. Gallagher MD

    Stress and selective attention: The interplay of mood, cortisol levels, and emotional information processing

    PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY, Issue 6 2002
    Mark A. Ellenbogen
    The effects of a stressful challenge on the processing of emotional words were examined in college students. Stress induction was achieved using a competitive computer task, where the individual either repeatedly lost or won against a confederate. Mood, attention, and cortisol were recorded during the study. There were four findings: (1) Participants in the negative stressor condition were faster to shift attention away from negative words than positive or neutral words; (2) attentional shifts away from negative words were associated with stress-induced mood lowering; (3) participants in the negative stress condition with elevated scores on the Beck Depression Inventory were slow to disengage attention from all stimuli; and (4) elevated depression scores were associated with lower cortisol change from baseline during the experimental phase, and with higher cortisol levels during the recovery phase. These findings point to information-processing strategies as a means to regulate emotion, and to atypical features of cognitive and adrenocortical function that may serve as putative risk markers of depression. [source]

    Physical and emotional development, appetite and body image in adolescents who failed to thrive as infants

    R.F. Drewett
    Background:, Previous studies suggest that failure to thrive in infancy may be associated with adverse sequelae in childhood. Although cognitive abilities have been extensively investigated, little systematic research is available on other aspects of development. Methods:, Eighty-nine children who failed to thrive as infants and 91 controls were followed up when twelve years old and examined using anthropometric measurement, self-ratings of appetite and body image, the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire, the Self-perception Profile for Children, The Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale, the parent and child form of the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire and the parent and teacher's form of the Child Behavior Checklist. Results:, The children who failed to thrive were significantly shorter and lighter at twelve and had significantly lower BMIs, but they did not go into puberty any later. They were more likely to rate their appetite as lower than their best friend's, were generally more satisfied with their body shape, and had significantly lower restraint score on the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire. They were not significantly different from controls on any of the measures reflecting anxiety, depression or low self-esteem. Conclusions:, Failure to thrive in infancy is not associated with adverse emotional development in childhood. [source]

    Smoke Rising from the Villages of the Dead: Seasonal Patterns of Mood in a Papua New Guinea Society

    Simon Harrison
    This article discusses seasonal patterns of mood in a Papua New Guinea society, showing how these are connected with beliefs relating to cosmology and the afterlife, and with more abstract conceptions of personhood, sociality, and attachment. The argument suggests that cultural factors may play an important role in mediating the influences of seasonal changes on everyday moods, and that such moods may be complex socio-cultural constructs. [source]

    Mood and retrieval-induced forgetting of positive and negative autobiographical memories

    Celia B. Harris
    In two experiments, we examined the effects of high and low levels of dysphoria on retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) of positive and negative autobiographical memories. In Experiment 1, participants took part in an RIF procedure that was adapted for autobiographical memories. Regardless of level of dysphoria, participants showed facilitation for both negative and positive memories; they only showed RIF for negative memories. Differences in baseline memories were responsible for this effect: Participants recalled more positive than negative baseline memories. Experiment 2 was conducted to address these baseline differences, and also focused only on participants with high levels of dysphoria. Again, high dysphoric participants showed facilitation for both positive and negative memories; they only showed RIF for negative memories. Recall also varied depending on the content of practiced memories and individual differences in anxiety. Overall, these results suggest that retrieval-practice might have different outcomes for different kinds of autobiographical memories, that these outcomes may depend on individual memory biases and memory valence, and that practicing positive memories may assist mood repair. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Quality of life and memory performance in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy

    A. R. Giovagnoli
    Objective, To explore the contribution of memory performance to quality of life (QOL) in patients with left or right temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Subjects and methods, Sixty-five patients with left or right TLE compiled the QOL in Epilepsy-89 Inventory (QOLIE-89), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Hopelessness Scale (BDI) for self-evaluation of QOL and mood. Memory was assessed by tests of verbal and non-verbal memory and the Questionnaire of Memory Efficiency (QME). A neuropsychological battery was also administered to assess general intelligence, attention, visual perception, language, set shifting, word fluency and conceptual-motor tracking. Results, On factor analysis, the neuropsychological battery and mood scales consisted of six factors (Memory, Mental Speed, Mood, Praxis, Sorting and Perception), while the QOLIE-89 consisted of five factors (Psychosocial Satisfaction, Epilepsy-Related Effects, Role, Physical Performance, Cognition). On regression analysis, overall QOLIE-89 score was predicted by the factor Mood and QME score. The QOLIE-89 factor Cognition was predicted by QME score and the Memory, Mental Speed, Perception and Praxis factors of the neuropsychological battery. Conclusion, In TLE patients self-reported memory, as assessed by QME, is an important predictor of QOL, and also correlates with performance on memory tests. This suggests that memory improvement by specific training may help to improve QOL in these patients. [source]

    Pain in Adolescent Psychiatric Patients

    Bjørn Reigstad
    Background:, Little is known about the extent of pain among adolescent psychiatric patients, and the relationships with psychosocial factors and psychiatric symptoms. Method:, A representative sample of 129 adolescent patients were assessed with measures including the Youth Self-Report, the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire, and instruments assessing self-perceptions, coping styles, stresses, sociodemographic factors, and childhood abuse. Results:, More than half of the adolescents (54%) reported to be bothered currently by frequent pain. Frequent pain correlated with depression, self-harm, suicide attempt, and with ruminative and emotion oriented coping. Adolescents suffering from frequent pain had more often experienced childhood abuse/neglect. A stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that depression, alcohol intoxication and childhood neglect were the strongest concurrent predictors of frequent pain. Conclusions:, Clinicians should ask child and adolescent psychiatric patients about pain, and be aware of possible connections with abuse/neglect, depression and suicidality. [source]