Appropriate Guidelines (appropriate + guideline)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Application of two-state M -integral for analysis of adhesive lap joints

Yongwoo Lee
Abstract With the aid of the two-state M -integral and finite element analysis, the asymptotic solution in terms of the complete eigenfunction expansion is obtained for adhesive lap joints. The notch stress intensity is introduced to characterize the singular stress field near the notch vertex of adhesive lap joints. The proposed scheme enables us to extract the intensity of each eigenfunction term from the far field data without resort to special singular elements at the vertex. It turns out that a weak stress singularity is not negligible around the vertex when it exists in addition to the major singularity. For a thin adhesive layer, there exist two asymptotic solutions: one is the inner solution approaching the eigenfunction solution for the vertex at which the adherend meets with the adhesive and the other is intermediate solution represented by the eigenfunction series that would be obtained in the absence of the adhesive layer. An appropriate guideline for choosing the geometric parameters in designing the adhesive lap joints, particularly the overlap length or the size of the adhesive zone, is suggested from the viewpoint of minimizing the notch stress intensity. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Growth and characterization of ZnMgTe/ZnTe layered structures grown by molecular beam epitaxy

S. Imada
Abstract ZnMgTe/ZnTe layered structures were grown on ZnTe substrates by molecular beam epitaxy, and the crystal structures were characterized using X-ray diffraction methods. This structure would be the waveguide for various optoelectronic devices. Therefore, the crystal quality of this layered structure would be very crucial for the realization of high performance devices. ZnMgTe is lattice mismatched to ZnTe, and the increase of the ZnMgTe layer thickness or Mg mole fraction ratio would result in the crystal quality deterioration of the layered structure. The critical layer thickness (CLT) was theoretically derived, and various structures with various ZnMgTe layer thickness and Mg mole fraction were grown. The lattice mismatch strain relief and crystal quality of those samples were investigated by means of X-ray reciprocal space mapping (RSM) and cross sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The dislocation formation and the lattice mismatch relaxation were confirmed for various samples and it was revealed that the calculated CLT values could be used as an appropriate guideline to design the dislocation free and high performance device structures ( 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

The alcohol industry and public interest science

ADDICTION, Issue 2 2010
Kerstin Stenius
ABSTRACT Aims This report argues that the growing involvement of the alcohol industry in scientific research needs to be acknowledged and addressed. It suggests a set of principles to guide ethical decision-making in the future. Methods We review relevant issues with regard to relationships between the alcohol industry and the international academic community, especially alcohol research scientists. The guiding principles proposed are modelled after expert committee statements, and describe the responsibilities of governmental agencies, the alcohol industry, journal editors and the academic community. These are followed by recommendations designed to inform individuals and institutions about current ,best practices' that are consistent with the principles. Findings and conclusions Growing evidence from the tobacco, pharmaceutical and medical fields suggests that financial interests of researchers may compromise their professional judgement and lead to research results that are biased in favour of commercial interests. It is recommended that the integrity of alcohol science is best served if all financial relationships with the alcoholic beverage industry are avoided. In cases where research funding, consulting, writing assignments and other activities are initiated, institutions, individuals and the alcoholic beverage industry itself are urged to follow appropriate guidelines that will increase the transparency and ethicality of such relationships. [source]

Critiquing Bachelor candidates' theses: are the criteria useful?

I. Kapborg RN
Abstract Nursing education programmes should be at an academic level and connected to research. In Sweden, empirical studies are generally required in order to obtain a Bachelor's degree; hence, in some cases, these studies are replaced by a literature review. A study was conducted using 11 criteria. Thirteen theses produced in a department of nursing science were examined, elaborated and reproduced by reviewing international and national literature. Thereafter, the criteria themselves were scrutinized. Principal findings when critiquing the theses were that in eight theses the purpose was clearly identified and well defined in relation to the study accomplished; in three theses the purpose was indistinct and vague; and in two the definitions and research questions were lacking. The topic was relevant for the area of nursing in all theses. General problems identified were poor spelling and grammar, and unsatisfactory thesis structure. This article discusses whether criteria are useful when examining the Bachelor candidates' theses. The authors report that the criteria seemed to be useful, giving some guidance for scrutinizing theses and facilitating correspondence. Criteria could be appropriate guidelines for using to increase the quality of the theses as well as the quality of nursing. [source]

Barriers to Neglect and Self-Neglect Research

Terry Fulmer PhD
Neglect is proportionally the largest category for adult protective services referrals, yet there is a dearth of science that generates appropriate guidelines for the detection and intervention of neglect cases. Despite implementation of mandatory reporting laws and models for appropriate responding to elder neglect, there remain challenges to research in this field. These challenges include diagnosis, recruitment, retention, attrition, research language, obtaining informed consent, and many other obstacles that impede the progression of research in elder self-neglect. Despite these impediments, much-needed research continues, and new ways of addressing these challenges are being developed. [source]

Pregnancy in uremic patients: An eventful journey

Davide Bolignano
Abstract Renal damage, which can be caused by gestational anomalies such as pre-eclampsia, carries a risk of gestational complications; the greatest risk being in women who become pregnant while on hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. If this rare event occurs, there is a marked increase in the risk of pre-eclampsia, early uterine contractions and hydramnios, hypertensive crisis, preterm delivery and intrauterine growth retard. Furthermore, newborns are almost always of low birthweight. Patients who undergo renal transplantation are another high-risk category. In such cases, the pregnancy itself can compromise the success of the transplant and the immunosuppressive therapy correlated to it can become a threat to the course of the pregnancy and normal fetal growth. Therefore, in view of the lack of appropriate guidelines for the best possible approach to the treatment of women on dialysis or of those with a renal transplantation, it is best to advise these patients against becoming pregnant and/or to provide a valid counselling service illustrating the extreme difficulties and dangers involved in becoming pregnant. [source]

A guide to antibiotic resistance in bacterial skin infections

G Perera
ABSTRACT The emergence of bacterial resistance to commonly used antibiotics is not new. In this review we have tried to cover the ever increasing problems facing the treatment and containment of bacterial skin infections. We have tried to give an overview of the varied mechanisms by which bacteria gain and spread antimicrobial resistance, whilst dealing with the patterns of resistance exhibited by some of the commonly encountered organisms. Where there is evidence, we have formulated an approach on how to tackle antibiotic resistance. Where there is a lack of evidence we have formulated what we perceive to be appropriate guidelines. [source]

Antibiotic prophylaxis in elective colorectal surgery

Yunus A. Gul
Background: Antibiotics are often administered in elective colorectal surgery to prevent wound infection. The tendency for surgeons to prolong the administration of prophylactic antibiotic therapy in the postoperative period is a well-known fact. The aim of this study was to elucidate the pattern of prophylactic antibiotic utilization in elective colorectal surgery and to determine if evidence-based medicine is employed in relation to this practice. Methods: A cross-sectional study encompassing general surgeons performing elective colorectal surgery was performed. Questionnaires were distributed to 144 surgeons (national, academic and private health care). Questions pertaining to the type, timing and duration of antibiotic administration were asked. The prevalence of wound infection audit rate and whether or not there were specific guidelines related to antibiotic administration were also determined. Results: The response rate obtained was 67% (n = 96). Although evidence from the current medical literature and recommended national guidelines support the use of single-dose prophylactic antibiotics, 72% of the respondents used more than a single dose. Forty surgeons (42%) claimed that their prescribing practice was supported by the medical literature, 31 respondents (32%) based their practice on hospital guidelines and personal preference was cited as a reason by 21 surgeons (22%). The remaining four respondents (4%) used a similar scheduling policy to that practiced by their colleagues in relation to antibiotic administration. There was no significant difference in antibiotic dose scheduling between national, private and university academic institutions (P = 0.85). Conclusions: These results suggest that a significant proportion of surgeons administer excessive and unnecessary doses of antibiotics in elective colorectal surgery. Further studies are required to uncover the reasons but lack of appropriate guidelines and failure to exercise evidence-based medicine are major factors that account for this practice. [source]