Mitochondrial Respiration (mitochondrial + respiration)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences


Selected Abstracts


Mitochondrial respiration and respiration-associated proteins in cell lines created through Parkinson's subject mitochondrial transfer

JOURNAL OF NEUROCHEMISTRY, Issue 3 2010
A. Raquel Esteves
J. Neurochem. (2010) 113, 674,682. Abstract Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with perturbed mitochondrial function. Studies of cytoplasmic hybrid (cybrid) cell lines containing mitochondria from PD subjects suggest complex I dysfunction in particular is a relatively upstream biochemical defect. To evaluate potential downstream consequences of PD mitochondrial dysfunction, we used a cybrid approach to model PD mitochondrial dysfunction; our cybrid cell lines were generated via transfer of PD or control subject platelet mitochondria to mtDNA-depleted NT2 cells. To confirm our PD cybrid mitochondria did indeed differ from control cybrid mitochondria we measured complex I Vmax activities. Consistent with other PD cybrid reports, relative to control cybrid cell lines the PD cybrid cell line mean complex I Vmax activity was reduced. In this validated model, we used an oxygen electrode to characterize PD cybrid mitochondrial respiration. Although whole cell basal oxygen consumption was comparable between the PD and control cybrid groups, the proton leak was increased and maximum respiratory capacity was decreased in the PD cybrids. PD cybrids also had reduced SIRT1 phosphorylation, reduced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-, coactivator-1, levels, and increased NF-kB activation. We conclude mitochondrial respiration and pathways influenced by aerobic metabolism are altered in NT2 cybrid cell lines generated through transfer of PD subject platelet mitochondria. [source]


,-Amyloid inhibits integrated mitochondrial respiration and key enzyme activities

JOURNAL OF NEUROCHEMISTRY, Issue 1 2002
C. S. Casley
Abstract Disrupted energy metabolism, in particular reduced activity of cytochrome oxidase (EC 1.9.3.1), ,-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.4.2) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.4.1) have been reported in post-mortem Alzheimer's disease brain. ,-Amyloid is strongly implicated in Alzheimer's pathology and can be formed intracellularly in neurones. We have investigated the possibility that ,-amyloid itself disrupts mitochondrial function. Isolated rat brain mitochondria have been incubated with the ,-amyloid alone or together with nitric oxide, which is known to be elevated in Alzheimer's brain. Mitochondrial respiration, electron transport chain complex activities, ,-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase activity and pyruvate dehydrogenase activity have been measured. ,-Amyloid caused a significant reduction in state 3 and state 4 mitochondrial respiration that was further diminished by the addition of nitric oxide. Cytochrome oxidase, ,-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase activities were inhibited by ,-amyloid. The Km of cytochrome oxidase for reduced cytochrome c was raised by ,-amyloid. We conclude that ,-amyloid can directly disrupt mitochondrial function, inhibits key enzymes and may contribute to the deficiency of energy metabolism seen in Alzheimer's disease. [source]


Exogenous nitric oxide causes potentiation of hippocampal synaptic transmission during low-frequency stimulation via the endogenous nitric oxide,cGMP pathway

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE, Issue 4 2001
Christelle L. M. Bon
Abstract Nitric oxide (NO) is a putative participant in synaptic plasticity and demonstrations that exogenous NO can elicit the same plastic changes have been taken to support such a role. The experiments, carried out on the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices, were aimed at testing this interpretation. A major component of tetanus-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) was lost in response to l -nitroarginine, which inhibits NO synthase, and 1H -[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3- a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), which inhibits NO-sensitive soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC). At 0.2 Hz afferent fibre stimulation, exogenous NO produced, concentration-dependently, a synaptic depression that reverted on washout to a persistent potentiation that occluded tetanus-induced LTP. The NO concentrations necessary (estimated in the 100-nm range), however, were mostly supramaximal for stimulating hippocampal slice sGC activity. Nevertheless the potentiation, but not the preceding depression, was blocked by ODQ. l -nitroarginine and an NMDA antagonist were similarly effective, indicating mediation by the endogenous NMDA receptor,NO synthase,sGC pathway. At a concentration normally too low to affect synaptic transmission but sufficient to stimulate sGC (estimated to be 50 nm), exogenous NO reversed the effect of l -nitroarginine and caused a potentiation which was blocked by ODQ. At a concentration inducing the depression/potentiation sequence, NO partially inhibited hippocampal slice oxygen consumption. It is concluded that, at physiological levels, exogenous NO can directly elicit a potentiation of synaptic transmission through sGC, provided that the synapses are suitably primed. At higher concentrations, NO inhibits mitochondrial respiration, which can result in an enduring synaptic potentiation due to secondary activation of the endogenous NO,cGMP pathway. [source]


Complementation of coenzyme Q-deficient yeast by coenzyme Q analogues requires the isoprenoid side chain

FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 9 2010
Andrew M. James
The ubiquinone coenzyme Q (CoQ) is synthesized in mitochondria with a large, hydrophobic isoprenoid side chain. It functions in mitochondrial respiration as well as protecting membranes from oxidative damage. Yeast that cannot synthesize CoQ (,CoQ) are viable, but cannot grow on nonfermentable carbon sources, unless supplied with ubiquinone. Previously we demonstrated that the isoprenoid side chain of the exogenous ubiquinone was important for growth of a ,CoQ strain on the nonfermentable substrate glycerol [James AM et al. (2005) J Biol Chem280, 21295,21312]. In the present study we investigated the structural requirements of exogenously supplied CoQ2 for growth on glycerol and found that the first double bond of the initial isoprenoid unit is essential for utilization of respiratory substrates. As CoQ2 analogues that did not complement growth on glycerol supported respiration in isolated mitochondria, discrimination does not occur via the respiratory chain complexes. The endogenous form of CoQ in yeast (CoQ6) is extremely hydrophobic and transported to mitochondria via the endocytic pathway when supplied exogenously. We found that CoQ2 does not require this pathway when supplied exogenously and the pathway is unlikely to be responsible for the structural discrimination observed. Interestingly, decylQ, an analogue unable to support growth on glycerol, is not toxic, but antagonizes growth of ,CoQ yeast in the presence of exogenous CoQ2. Using a ,CoQ double-knockout library we identified a number of genes that decrease the ability of yeast to grow on exogenous CoQ. Here we suggest that CoQ or its redox state may be a signal for growth during the shift to respiration. [source]


Calcium-independent cytoskeleton disassembly induced by BAPTA

FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 15 2004
Yasmina Saoudi
In living organisms, Ca2+ signalling is central to cell physiology. The Ca2+ chelator 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane- N,N,N,,N,-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA) has been widely used as a probe to test the role of calcium in a large variety of cell functions. Here we show that in most cell types BAPTA has a potent actin and microtubule depolymerizing activity and that this activity is completely independent of Ca2+ chelation. Thus, the depolymerizing effect of BAPTA is shared by a derivative (D-BAPTA) showing a dramatically reduced calcium chelating activity. Because the extraordinary depolymerizing activity of BAPTA could be due to a general depletion of cell fuel molecules such as ATP, we tested the effects of BAPTA on cellular ATP levels and on mitochondrial function. We find that BAPTA depletes ATP pools and affects mitochondrial respiration in vitro as well as mitochondrial shape and distribution in cells. However, these effects are unrelated to the Ca2+ chelating properties of BAPTA and do not account for the depolymerizing effect of BAPTA on the cell cytoskeleton. We propose that D-BAPTA should be systematically introduced in calcium signalling experiments, as controls for the known and unknown calcium independent effects of BAPTA. Additionally, the concomitant depolymerizing effect of BAPTA on both tubulin and actin assemblies is intriguing and may lead to the identification of a new control mechanism for cytoskeleton assembly. [source]


Isocitrate dehydrogenase of Plasmodium falciparum

FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 8 2003
Energy metabolism or redox control?
Erythrocytic stages of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum rely on glycolysis for their energy supply and it is unclear whether they obtain energy via mitochondrial respiration albeit enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle appear to be expressed in these parasite stages. Isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) is either an integral part of the mitochondrial TCA cycle or is involved in providing NADPH for reductive reactions in the cell. The gene encoding P. falciparum ICDH was cloned and analysis of the deduced amino-acid sequence revealed that it possesses a putative mitochondrial targeting sequence. The protein is very similar to NADP+ -dependent mitochondrial counterparts of higher eukaryotes but not Escherichia coli. Expression of full-length ICDH generated recombinant protein exclusively expressed in inclusion bodies but the removal of 27 N-terminal amino acids yielded appreciable amounts of soluble ICDH consistent with the prediction that these residues confer targeting of the native protein to the parasites' mitochondrion. Recombinant ICDH forms homodimers of 90 kDa and its activity is dependent on the bivalent metal ions Mg2+ or Mn2+ with apparent Km values of 13 m and 22 m, respectively. Plasmodium ICDH requires NADP+ as cofactor and no activity with NAD+ was detectable; the for NADP+ was found to be 90 m and that of d -isocitrate was determined to be 40 m. Incubation of P. falciparum under exogenous oxidative stress resulted in an up-regulation of ICDH mRNA and protein levels indicating that the enzyme is involved in mitochondrial redox control rather than energy metabolism of the parasites. [source]


Molecular analyses and identification of promising candidate genes for loci on mouse chromosome 1 affecting alcohol physical dependence and associated withdrawal

GENES, BRAIN AND BEHAVIOR, Issue 5 2008
D. L. Denmark
We recently mapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs) with large effects on predisposition to physical dependence and associated withdrawal severity following chronic and acute alcohol exposure (Alcdp1/Alcw1) to a 1.1-Mb interval of mouse chromosome 1 syntenic with human chromosome 1q23.2-23.3. Here, we provide a detailed analysis of the genes within this interval and show that it contains 40 coding genes, 17 of which show validated genotype-dependent transcript expression and/or non-synonymous coding sequence variation that may underlie the influence of Alcdp1/Alcw1 on ethanol dependence and associated withdrawal. These high priority candidates are involved in diverse cellular functions including intracellular trafficking, oxidative homeostasis, mitochondrial respiration, and extracellular matrix dynamics, and indicate both established and novel aspects of the neurobiological response to ethanol. This work represents a substantial advancement toward identification of the gene(s) that underlies the phenotypic effects of Alcdp1/Alcw1. Additionally, a multitude of QTLs for a variety of complex traits, including diverse behavioral responses to ethanol, have been mapped in the vicinity of Alcdp1/Alcw1, and as many as four QTLs on human chromosome 1q have been implicated in human mapping studies for alcoholism and associated endophenotypes. Thus, our results will be primary to further efforts to identify genes involved in a wide variety of behavioral responses to alcohol and may directly facilitate progress in human alcoholism genetics. [source]


Acclimation of photosynthesis and respiration to elevated atmospheric CO2 in two Scrub Oaks

GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY, Issue 4 2002
Graham J. Hymus
Abstract For two species of oak, we determined whether increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration (Ca) would decrease leaf mitochondrial respiration (R) directly, or indirectly owing to their growth in elevated Ca, or both. In particular, we tested whether acclimatory decreases in leaf-Rubisco content in elevated Ca would decrease R associated with its maintenance. This hypothesis was tested in summer 2000 on sun and shade leaves of Quercus myrtifolia Willd. and Quercus geminata Small. We also measured R on five occasions between summer 1999 and 2000 on leaves of Q. myrtifolia. The oaks were grown in the field for 4 years, in either current ambient or elevated (current ambient + 350 mol mol,1) Ca, in open-top chambers (OTCs). For Q. myrtifolia, an increase in Ca from 360 to 710 mol mol,1 had no direct effect on R at any time during the year. In April 1999, R in young Q. myrtifolia leaves was significantly higher in elevated Ca,the only evidence for an indirect effect of growth in elevated Ca. Leaf R was significantly correlated with leaf nitrogen (N) concentration for the sun and shade leaves of both the species of oak. Acclimation of photosynthesis in elevated Ca significantly reduced maximum RuBP-saturated carboxylation capacity (Vc max) for both the sun and shade leaves of only Q. geminata. However, we estimated that only 11,12% of total leaf N was invested in Rubisco; consequently, acclimation in this plant resulted in a small effect on N and an insignificant effect on R. In this study measurements of respiration and photosynthesis were made on material removed from the field; this procedure had no effect on gas exchange properties. The findings of this study were applicable to R expressed either per unit leaf area or unit dry weight, and did not support the hypothesis that elevated Ca decreases R directly, or indirectly owing to acclimatory decreases in Rubisco content. [source]


Chronic alcohol consumption increases the sensitivity of rat liver mitochondrial respiration to inhibition by nitric oxide

HEPATOLOGY, Issue 1 2003
Aparna Venkatraman
Chronic alcohol consumption is a well-known risk factor for hepatic injury, and mitochondrial damage plays a significant role in this process. Nitric oxide (NO) is an important modulator of mitochondrial function and is known to inhibit mitochondrial respiration. However, the impact of chronic alcohol consumption on NO-dependent control of liver mitochondrial function is unknown. This study examines the effect of alcohol exposure on liver mitochondria in a rat model and explores the interaction of NO and mitochondrial respiration in this context. Mitochondria were isolated from the liver of both control and ethanol-fed rats after 5 to 6 weeks of alcohol consumption. Mitochondria isolated from ethanol-treated rats showed a significant decrease in state 3 respiration and respiratory control ratio that was accompanied by an increased sensitivity to NO-dependent inhibition of respiration. In conclusion, we show that chronic alcohol consumption leads to increased sensitivity to the inhibition of respiration by NO. We propose that this results in a greater vulnerability to hypoxia and the development of alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity. [source]


Ascochlorin activates p53 in a manner distinct from DNA damaging agents

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER, Issue 12 2009
Ji-Hak Jeong
Abstract Ascochlorin, a prenylphenol antitumor antibiotic, profoundly increases the expression of endogenous p53 by increasing protein stability in the human osteosarcoma cells and human colon cancer cells. Ascochlorin also increases DNA binding activity to the p53 consensus sequence in nuclear extract and enhances transcription of p53 downstream targets. Ascochlorin specifically induces p53 phosphorylation at ser 392 without affecting ser 15 or 20, whereas DNA damaging agents typically phosphorylate these serines. Moreover, ascochlorin does not induce phosphorylation of ATM and CHK1, an established substrate of ATR that is activated by genotoxins, nor does it increase DNA strand break, as confirmed by comet assay. The structure-activity relationship suggests that p53 activation by ascochlorin is related to inhibition of mitochondrial respiration, which is further supported by the observation that respiratory inhibitors activate p53 in a manner similar to ascochlorin. These results suggest that ascochlorin, through the inhibition of mitochondrial respiration, activates p53 through a mechanism distinct from genotoxins. 2009 UICC [source]


Nitric Oxide, Mitochondria, and Cell Death

IUBMB LIFE, Issue 3-5 2001
Guy C. Brown
Abstract NO or its derivatives (reactive nitrogen species: RNS) have three types of actions on mitochondria: 1) reversible inhibition of mitochondrial respiration at cytochrome oxidase by NO, and irreversible inhibition at multiple sites by RNS; 2) stimulation of mitochondrial production of superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and peroxynitrite by NO; and 3) induction of mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) by RNS. Similarly there are three main roles of mitochondria in NO-induced cell death: a) NO inhibition of respiration can induce necrosis (or excitotoxicity in neurons) and inhibit apoptosis if glycolysis is insufficient to compensate, b) RNS- or oxidant-induced signal transduction or DNA damage may activate the mitochondrial pathway to apoptosis, and c) RNS-induced MPT may induce apoptosis or necrosis. [source]


Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress Plays a Key Role in Aging and Apoptosis

IUBMB LIFE, Issue 5 2000
Juan Sastre
Abstract Harman first suggested in 1972 that mitochondria might be the biological clock in aging, noting that the rate of oxygen consumption should determine the rate of accumulation of mitochondrial damage produced by free radical reactions. Later in 1980 Miquel and coworkers proposed the mitochondrial theory of cell aging. Mitochondria from postmitotic cells use O2 at a high rate, hence releasing oxygen radicals that exceed the cellular antioxidant defences. The key role of mitochondria in cell aging has been outlined by the degeneration induced in cells microinjected with mitochondria isolated from fibroblasts of old rats, especially by the inverse relationship reported between the rate of mitochondrial production of hydroperoxide and the maximum life span of species. An important change in mitochondrial lipid composition is the age-related decrease found in cardiolipin content. The concurrent enhancement of lipid peroxidation and oxidative modification of proteins in mitochondria further increases mutations and oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the aging process. The respiratory enzymes containing the defective mtDNA-encoded protein subunits may increase the production of reactive oxygen species, which in turn would aggravate the oxidative damage to mitochondria. Moreover, superoxide radicals produced during mitochondrial respiration react with nitric oxide inside mitochondria to yield damaging peroxynitrite. Treatment with certain antioxidants, such as sulphur-containing antioxidants, vitamins C and E, or the Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761, protects against the ageassociated oxidative damage to mtDNA and the oxidation of mitochondrial glutathione. Moreover, the EGb 761 extract also prevents changes in mitochondrial morphology and function associated with aging of the brain and liver. [source]


Induction of hepatotoxicity by sanguinarine is associated with oxidation of protein thiols and disturbance of mitochondrial respiration

JOURNAL OF APPLIED TOXICOLOGY, Issue 8 2008
Cheuk-Sing Choy
Abstract Sanguinarine (SANG) has been suggested to be one of the principle constituents responsible for the toxicity of Argemone mexicana seed oil. In this study, we focused on the possible mechanism of SANG-induced hepatotoxicity. The serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, hepatic vacuolization, lipid accumulation and lipid peroxidation of the liver were increased, and triglyceride (TG) was decreased in SANG-treated mice (10 mg kg,1 i.p.), indicating damage to the liver. SANG induced cell death and DNA fragmentation, in a concentration- (0,30 m) and time-dependent (0,24 h) manner, and the cytotoxicity of SANG (15 m) was accompanied by an increase in reactive oxygen species and a lessening in protein thiol content; these outcomes were reversed by glutathione, N -acetyl- l -cysteine and 1,4-dithiothretol, and slightly improved by other antioxidants in hepatocytes. SANG can affect the function of mitochondria, leading to the depletion of the mitochondrial membrane potential and adenosine 5,-triphosphate content of hepatocytes. SANG caused an uncoupling effect of the respiratory chain at lower concentrations, but inhibited the respiratory chain at higher concentrations in mitochondria isolated from rat liver. In conclusion, the data suggest that SANG is a liver toxin that induces cytotoxicity in liver cells, possibly through oxidation of protein thiols, resulting in oxidative stress on the cells and disturbance of mitochondrial function. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


iNOS expression requires NADPH oxidase-dependent redox signaling in microvascular endothelial cells,

JOURNAL OF CELLULAR PHYSIOLOGY, Issue 1 2008
Feng Wu
Redox regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression was investigated in lipopolysaccharide and interferon-, (LPS,+,IFN,)-stimulated microvascular endothelial cells from mouse skeletal muscle. Unstimulated endothelial cells produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) sensitive to inhibition of NADPH oxidase (apocynin and DPI), mitochondrial respiration (rotenone) and NOS (L-NAME). LPS,+,IFN, caused a marked increase in ROS production; this increase was abolished by inhibition of NADPH oxidase (apocynin, DPI and p47phox deficiency). LPS,+,IFN, induced substantial expression of iNOS protein. iNOS expression was prevented by the antioxidant ascorbate and by NADPH oxidase inhibition (apocynin, DPI and p47phox deficiency), but not by inhibition of mitochondrial respiration (rotenone) and xanthine oxidase (allopurinol). iNOS expression also was prevented by selective antagonists of ERK, JNK, Jak2, and NF,B activation. LPS,+,IFN, stimulated activation/phosphorylation of ERK, JNK, and Jak2 and activation/degradation of I,B, but only the activation of JNK and Jak2 was sensitive to ascorbate, apocynin and p47phox deficiency. Ascorbate, apocynin and p47phox deficiency also inhibited the LPS,+,IFN,-induced DNA binding activity of transcription factors IRF1 and AP1 but not NF,B. In conclusion, LPS,+,IFN,-induced NF,B activation is necessary for iNOS induction but is not dependent on ROS signaling. LPS,+,IFN,-stimulated NADPH oxidase activity produces ROS that activate the JNK-AP1 and Jak2-IRF1 signaling pathways required for iNOS induction. Since blocking either NF,B activation or NADPH oxidase activity is sufficient to prevent iNOS expression, they are separate targets for therapeutic interventions that aim to modulate iNOS expression in sepsis. J. Cell. Physiol. 217: 207,214, 2008. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Neuronal expression of a single-subunit yeast NADH,ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Ndi1) extends Drosophila lifespan

AGING CELL, Issue 2 2010
Sepehr Bahadorani
Summary The ,rate of living' theory predicts that longevity should be inversely correlated with the rate of mitochondrial respiration. However, recent studies in a number of model organisms, including mice, have reported that interventions that retard the aging process are, in fact, associated with an increase in mitochondrial activity. To better understand the relationship between energy metabolism and longevity, we supplemented the endogenous respiratory chain machinery of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster with the alternative single-subunit NADH,ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Ndi1) of the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we report that expression of Ndi1 in fly mitochondria leads to an increase in NADH,ubiquinone oxidoreductase activity, oxygen consumption, and ATP levels. In addition, exogenous Ndi1 expression results in increased CO2 production in living flies. Using an inducible gene-expression system, we expressed Ndi1 in different cells and tissues and examined the impact on longevity. In doing so, we discovered that targeted expression of Ndi1 in fly neurons significantly increases lifespan without compromising fertility or physical activity. These findings are consistent with the idea that enhanced respiratory chain activity in neuronal tissue can prolong fly lifespan. [source]


Nicotinamide enhances mitochondria quality through autophagy activation in human cells

AGING CELL, Issue 4 2009
Hyun Tae Kang
Summary Nicotinamide (NAM) treatment causes a decrease in mitochondrial respiration and reactive oxygen species production in primary human fibroblasts and extends their replicative lifespan. In the current study, it is reported that NAM treatment induces a decrease in mitochondrial mass and an increase in membrane potential (,,m) by accelerating autophagic degradation of mitochondria. In the NAM-treated cells, the level of LC3-II as well as the number of LC3 puncta and lysosomes co-localizing with mitochondria substantially increased. Furthermore, in the NAM-treated cells, the levels of Fis1, Drp1, and Mfn1, proteins that regulate mitochondrial fission and fusion, increased and mitochondria experienced dramatic changes in structure from filaments to dots or rings. This structural change is required for the decrease of mitochondrial mass indicating that NAM accelerates mitochondrial autophagy, at least in part, by inducing mitochondrial fragmentation. The decrease in mitochondria mass was attenuated by treatment with cyclosporine A, which prevents the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential by blocking the mitochondrial permeability transition, suggesting autophagic degradation selective for mitochondria with low ,,m. All these changes were accompanied by and dependent on an increase in the levels of GAPDH, and are blocked by inhibition of the cellular conversion of NAM to NAD+. Taken together with our previous findings, these results suggest that up-regulation of GAPDH activity may prolong healthy lifespan of human cells through autophagy-mediated mitochondria quality maintenance. [source]


Mitochondrial respiration and respiration-associated proteins in cell lines created through Parkinson's subject mitochondrial transfer

JOURNAL OF NEUROCHEMISTRY, Issue 3 2010
A. Raquel Esteves
J. Neurochem. (2010) 113, 674,682. Abstract Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with perturbed mitochondrial function. Studies of cytoplasmic hybrid (cybrid) cell lines containing mitochondria from PD subjects suggest complex I dysfunction in particular is a relatively upstream biochemical defect. To evaluate potential downstream consequences of PD mitochondrial dysfunction, we used a cybrid approach to model PD mitochondrial dysfunction; our cybrid cell lines were generated via transfer of PD or control subject platelet mitochondria to mtDNA-depleted NT2 cells. To confirm our PD cybrid mitochondria did indeed differ from control cybrid mitochondria we measured complex I Vmax activities. Consistent with other PD cybrid reports, relative to control cybrid cell lines the PD cybrid cell line mean complex I Vmax activity was reduced. In this validated model, we used an oxygen electrode to characterize PD cybrid mitochondrial respiration. Although whole cell basal oxygen consumption was comparable between the PD and control cybrid groups, the proton leak was increased and maximum respiratory capacity was decreased in the PD cybrids. PD cybrids also had reduced SIRT1 phosphorylation, reduced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-, coactivator-1, levels, and increased NF-kB activation. We conclude mitochondrial respiration and pathways influenced by aerobic metabolism are altered in NT2 cybrid cell lines generated through transfer of PD subject platelet mitochondria. [source]


2-Deoxyglucose and NMDA inhibit protein synthesis in neurons and regulate phosphorylation of elongation factor-2 by distinct mechanisms

JOURNAL OF NEUROCHEMISTRY, Issue 3 2006
M. Maus
Abstract Cerebral ischaemia is associated with brain damage and inhibition of neuronal protein synthesis. A deficit in neuronal metabolism and altered excitatory amino acid release may both contribute to those phenomena. In the present study, we demonstrate that both NMDA and metabolic impairment by 2-deoxyglucose or inhibitors of mitochondrial respiration inhibit protein synthesis in cortical neurons through the phosphorylation of eukaryotic elongation factor (eEF-2), without any change in phosphorylation of initiation factor eIF-2,. eEF-2 kinase may be activated both by Ca2+ -independent AMP kinase or by an increase in cytosolic Ca2+. Although NMDA decreases ATP levels in neurons, only the effects of 2-deoxyglucose on protein synthesis and phosphorylation of elongation factor eEF-2 were reversed by Na+ pyruvate. Protein synthesis inhibition by 2-deoxyglucose was not as a result of a secondary release of glutamate from cortical neurons as it was not prevented by the NMDA receptor antagonist 5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo-(a,d)-cyclohepten-5,10-imine hydrogen maleate (MK 801), nor to an increase in cytosolic-free Ca2+. Conversely, 2-deoxyglucose likely activates eEF-2 kinase through a process involving phosphorylation by AMP kinase. In conclusion, we provide evidence that protein synthesis can be inhibited by NMDA and metabolic deprivation by two distinct mechanisms involving, respectively, Ca2+ -dependent and Ca2+ -independent eEF-2 phosphorylation. [source]


,-Amyloid inhibits integrated mitochondrial respiration and key enzyme activities

JOURNAL OF NEUROCHEMISTRY, Issue 1 2002
C. S. Casley
Abstract Disrupted energy metabolism, in particular reduced activity of cytochrome oxidase (EC 1.9.3.1), ,-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.4.2) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.4.1) have been reported in post-mortem Alzheimer's disease brain. ,-Amyloid is strongly implicated in Alzheimer's pathology and can be formed intracellularly in neurones. We have investigated the possibility that ,-amyloid itself disrupts mitochondrial function. Isolated rat brain mitochondria have been incubated with the ,-amyloid alone or together with nitric oxide, which is known to be elevated in Alzheimer's brain. Mitochondrial respiration, electron transport chain complex activities, ,-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase activity and pyruvate dehydrogenase activity have been measured. ,-Amyloid caused a significant reduction in state 3 and state 4 mitochondrial respiration that was further diminished by the addition of nitric oxide. Cytochrome oxidase, ,-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase activities were inhibited by ,-amyloid. The Km of cytochrome oxidase for reduced cytochrome c was raised by ,-amyloid. We conclude that ,-amyloid can directly disrupt mitochondrial function, inhibits key enzymes and may contribute to the deficiency of energy metabolism seen in Alzheimer's disease. [source]


The expression, function and regulation of mitochondrial alternative oxidase under biotic stresses

MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY, Issue 3 2010
FENG HANQING
SUMMARY To survive, plants possess elaborate defence mechanisms to protect themselves against virus or pathogen invasion. Recent studies have suggested that plant mitochondria may play an important role in host defence responses to biotic stresses. In contrast with animal mitochondria, plant mitochondria possess a unique respiratory pathway, the cyanide-insensitive alternative pathway, which is catalysed by the alternative oxidase (AOX). Much work has revealed that the genes encoding AOX, AOX protein and the alternative respiratory pathway are frequently induced during plant,pathogen (or virus) interaction. This raises the possibility that AOX is involved in host defence responses to biotic stresses. Thus, a key to the understanding of the role of mitochondrial respiration under biotic stresses is to learn the function and regulation of AOX. In this article, we focus on the theoretical and experimental progress made in the current understanding of the function and regulation of AOX under biotic stresses. We also address some speculative aspects to aid further research in this area. [source]


Mechanisms influencing the evolution of resistance to Qo inhibitor fungicides,,

PEST MANAGEMENT SCIENCE (FORMERLY: PESTICIDE SCIENCE), Issue 9 2002
Ulrich Gisi
Abstract Fungicides inhibiting the mitochondrial respiration of plant pathogens by binding to the cytochrome bc1 enzyme complex (complex III) at the Qo site (Qo inhibitors, QoIs) were first introduced to the market in 1996. After a short time period, isolates resistant to QoIs were detected in field populations of a range of important plant pathogens including Blumeria graminis Speer f sp tritici, Sphaerotheca fuliginea (Schlecht ex Fr) Poll, Plasmopara viticola (Berk & MA Curtis ex de Bary) Berl & de Toni, Pseudoperonospora cubensis (Berk & MA Curtis) Rost, Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet and Venturia inaequalis (Cooke) Wint. In most cases, resistance was conferred by a point mutation in the mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b) gene leading to an amino-acid change from glycine to alanine at position 143 (G143A), although additional mutations and mechanisms have been claimed in a number of organisms. Transformation of sensitive protoplasts of M fijiensis with a DNA fragment of a resistant M fijiensis isolate containing the mutation yielded fully resistant transformants, demonstrating that the G143A substitution may be the most powerful transversion in the cyt b gene conferring resistance. The G143A substitution is claimed not to affect the activity of the enzyme, suggesting that resistant individuals may not suffer from a significant fitness penalty, as was demonstrated in B graminis f sp tritici. It is not known whether this observation applies also for other pathogen species expressing the G143A substitution. Since fungal cells contain a large number of mitochondria, early mitotic events in the evolution of resistance to QoIs have to be considered, such as mutation frequency (claimed to be higher in mitochondrial than nuclear DNA), intracellular proliferation of mitochondria in the heteroplasmatic cell stage, and cell to cell donation of mutated mitochondria. Since the cyt b gene is located in the mitochondrial genome, inheritance of resistance in filamentous fungi is expected to be non-Mendelian and, therefore, in most species uniparental. In the isogamous fungus B graminis f sp tritici, crosses of sensitive and resistant parents yielded cleistothecia containing either sensitive or resistant ascospores and the segregation pattern for resistance in the F1 progeny population was 1:1. In the anisogamous fungus V inaequalis, donation of resistance was maternal and the segregation ratio 1:0. In random mating populations, the sex ratio (mating type distribution) is generally assumed to be 1:1. Therefore, the overall proportion of sensitive and resistant individuals in unselected populations is expected to be 1:1. Evolution of resistance to QoIs will depend mainly on early mitotic events; the selection process for resistant mutants in populations exposed to QoI treatments may follow mechanisms similar to those described for resistance controlled by single nuclear genes in other fungicide classes. It will remain important to understand how the mitochondrial nature of QoI resistance and factors such as mutation, recombination, selection and migration might influence the evolution of QoI resistance in different plant pathogens. 2002 Society of Chemical Industry [source]


METI-acaricide resistance in Tetranychus urticae does not confer resistance to the naphthoquinones

PEST MANAGEMENT SCIENCE (FORMERLY: PESTICIDE SCIENCE), Issue 8 2001
Gregor J Devine
Abstract The naphthoquinones and the METI group of compounds act on sites associated with mitochondrial respiration, but METI-resistant strains of two-spotted spider mite from Japan and the UK exhibited no cross-resistance to the naphthoquinones. The potential for developing commercial naphthoquinones therefore remains high. 2001 Society of Chemical Industry [source]


Kinetics of leaf oxygen uptake represent in planta activities of respiratory electron transport and terminal oxidases

PHYSIOLOGIA PLANTARUM, Issue 1 2007
Agu Laisk
We present, for the first time, the oxygen response kinetics of mitochondrial respiration measured in intact leaves (sunflower and aspen). Low O2 concentrations in N2 (9,1500 ppm) were preset in a flow-through gas exchange measurement system, and the decrease in O2 concentration and the increase in CO2 concentration as result of leaf respiration were measured by a zirconium cell O2 analyser and infrared-absorption CO2 analyser, respectively. The low O2 concentrations little influenced the rate of CO2 evolution during the 60-s exposure. The initial slope of the O2 uptake curve on the dissolved O2 concentration basis was relatively constant in leaves of a single species, 1.5 mm s,1 in sunflower and 1.8 mm s,1 in aspen. The apparent K0.5(O2) values ranged from 0.33 to 0.67 ,M in sunflower and from 0.33 to 1.1 ,M in aspen, mainly because of the variation of the maximum rate, Vmax (leaf temperature 22C). The initial slope of the O2 response of respiration characterizes the catalytic efficiency of terminal oxidases, an important parameter of the respiratory machinery in leaves. The plateau of the response characterizes the activity of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and is subject to regulations in accordance with the necessity for ATP production. The relatively low oxygen conductivity of terminal oxidases means that in leaves, less than 10% of the photosynthetic oxygen can be reassimilated by mitochondria. [source]


The different fates of mitochondria and chloroplasts during dark-induced senescence in Arabidopsis leaves

PLANT CELL & ENVIRONMENT, Issue 12 2007
OLIVIER KEECH
ABSTRACT Senescence is an active process allowing the reallocation of valuable nutrients from the senescing organ towards storage and/or growing tissues. Using Arabidopsis thaliana leaves from both whole darkened plants (DPs) and individually darkened leaves (IDLs), we investigated the fate of mitochondria and chloroplasts during dark-induced leaf senescence. Combining in vivo visualization of fates of the two organelles by three-dimensional reconstructions of abaxial parts of leaves with functional measurements of photosynthesis and respiration, we showed that the two experimental systems displayed major differences during 6 d of dark treatment. In whole DPs, organelles were largely retained in both epidermal and mesophyll cells. However, while the photosynthetic capacity was maintained, the capacity of mitochondrial respiration decreased. In contrast, IDLs showed a rapid decline in photosynthetic capacity while maintaining a high capacity for mitochondrial respiration throughout the treatment. In addition, we noticed an unequal degradation of organelles in the different cell types of the senescing leaf. From these data, we suggest that metabolism in leaves of the whole DPs enters a ,stand-by mode' to preserve the photosynthetic machinery for as long as possible. However, in IDLs, mitochondria actively provide energy and carbon skeletons for the degradation of cell constituents, facilitating the retrieval of nutrients. Finally, the heterogeneity of the degradation processes involved during senescence is discussed with regard to the fate of mitochondria and chloroplasts in the different cell types. [source]


Ca2+ -activated myosin-ATPases, creatine and adenylate kinases regulate mitochondrial function according to myofibre type in rabbit

THE JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY, Issue 3 2005
N. Gueguen
Mitochondrial respiration rates and their regulation by ADP, AMP and creatine, were studied at different free Ca2+ concentrations (0.1 versus 0.4 ,m) on permeabilized fibre bundles of rabbit skeletal muscles differing in their myosin heavy chain profiles. Four fibre bundle types were obtained: pure types I and IIx, and mixed types IIax (approximately 50% IIa and 50% IIx fibres) and IIb+ (60% IIb fibres, plus IIx and IIa). At rest, pure type I fibres displayed a much higher apparent Km for ADP (212 ,m) than IIx fibres (8 ,m). Within the IIax and IIb+ mixed fibre bundle types, two KADPm values were observed (70 ,m and 5 ,m). Comparison between pure IIx and mixed types indicates that the intermediate Km of 70 ,m most probably corresponds to the mitochondrial affinity for ADP in IIa fibres, the lowest Km for ADP (5 ,m) corresponding to IIx and IIb types. Activation of mitochondrial creatine and adenylate kinase reactions stimulated mitochondrial respiration only in type I and IIax fibre bundles, indicating an efficient coupling between both kinases and ADP rephosphorylation in type I and, likely, IIa fibres, since no effect was observed in pure IIx fibres. Following Ca2+ -induced activation of myosin-ATPase, an increase in mitochondrial sensitivity to ADP of 45% and 250% was observed in type IIax and I bundles, respectively, an effect mostly prevented by addition of vanadate, an inhibitor of myosin-ATPase. Ca2+ -induced activation of myosin-ATPase also prevented the stimulation of respiration rates by creatine and AMP in I and IIax bundles. In addition to differential regulation of mitochondrial respiration and energy transfer systems at rest in I and IIa versus IIx and IIb muscle fibres, our results indicate a regulation of phosphotransfer systems by Ca2+ via the stimulation of myosin-ATPases in type I and IIa fibres of rabbit muscles. [source]


Impaired Energy Metabolism after Co-Exposure to Leadand Ethanol

BASIC AND CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY & TOXICOLOGY, Issue 6 2005
Suresh Kumar Verma
One such factor, ethanol, might affect the neurotoxicity of lead by regulating its absorption and distribution. However, there is little information regarding the possible biochemical mechanism by which ethanol might be affecting the state of neuronal functions in lead-exposed individuals. Therefore, the present investigation involved the effect of alcohol (3 g/kg body weight, intragastrically, for 8 weeks) on lead-induced (50 mg/kg body weight, intragastrically, for 8 weeks) mitochondrial dysfunction in adult rat brain. Ethanol was found to enhance the toxic effects of lead in terms of decreased cellular energy reserves (ATP levels). Co-exposure to lead and ethanol caused marked decline in the rate of mitochondrial respiration as compared to lead alone. Further the activies of various components of the electron transport chain, viz. NADH dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase and cytochrome oxidase depicted a significant decrease in the lead and ethanol co-exposed rats as compared to the lead-treated group. The results of the present study reflect that ethanol makes adult rat brain more vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of lead in terms of altered mitochondrial energy metabolism. [source]


Insulin-like growth factor-induced signals activate mitochondrial respiration

BIOTECHNOLOGY JOURNAL, Issue 6 2008
Hermann Unterluggauer
Abstract From experiments with lower eukaryotes it is known that the metabolic rate and also the rate of aging are tightly controlled by the insulin-like growth factor (IGF)/insulin signal transduction pathway. The mitochondrial theory of aging implies that an increased metabolic rate leads to increased mitochondrial activity; increased production of reactive oxygen species due to these alterations would speed up the aging process. To address the question if mitochondrial activity is influenced by insulin/IGF signaling, we have established an experimental system to determine the influence of IGF-I-dependent signaling on mitochondrial function. We used DU145 prostate cancer cells, known for the intact IGF signal transduction pathway, to address the influence of IGF receptor activation on mitochondrial function by high-resolution respirometry. These experiments revealed that indeed mitochondrial function is regulated by IGF signaling, and up-regulation of respiration seems to require phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT signaling, but is independent of IGF effects on cell cycle progression. Collectively these data establish a regulatory cross-talk between insulin/IGF signal transduction and mitochondrial function, two major pathways implicated in controlling the rate of aging. [source]


Nicorandil Improves Myocardial High-Energy Phosphates In Postinfarction Porcine Hearts

CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL PHARMACOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY, Issue 8 2002
Yo Murakami
SUMMARY 1.,Nicorandil is a potent vasodilator combining the effects of a nitrate with an ATP-sensitive potassium channel (KATP) opener. Because the postinfarct remodelled heart has increased vulnerability to subendocardial hypoperfusion, it is possible that the vasodilator effects of nicorandil could cause transmural redistribution of blood flow away from the subendocardium. Alternatively, the KATP channel opening effects of nicorandil could exert a beneficial effect on mitochondrial respiration. Consequently, the present study was performed to examine the effect of nicorandil on energy metabolism in the postinfarct heart. 2.,Studies were performed in swine in which myocardial infarction produced by proximal left circumflex coronary artery ligation had resulted in left ventricular remodeling. [31P] nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used to examine the myocardial energy supply/demand relationship across the left ventricular wall while the transmural distribution of blood flow was examined with radioactive microspheres. Data were obtained during baseline conditions and during infusion of nicorandil (100 ,g, i.v., followed an infusion of 25 ,g/kg per min). 3.,Nicorandil caused coronary vasodilation with a preferential increase in subepicardial flow; however, subendocardial flow also increased significantly. Nicorandil had no significant effect on the rate,pressure product or myocardial oxygen consumption. The ratio of phosphocreatine (PCr)/ATP determined with MRS was abnormally depressed in remodelled hearts (2.01 0.11, 1.85 0.10 and 1.59 0.11 for subepicardium, midwall and subendocardium, respectively) compared with normal (2.22 0.11, 2.01 0.15 and 1.80 0.09, respectively). Nicorandil had no effect on the high-energy phosphate content of normal hearts. However, nicorandil increased the PCr/ATP ratio in the subendocardium of remodelled hearts from 1.59 0.11 to 1.87 0.10 (P < 0.05). 4.,Although nicorandil caused modest redistribution of blood flow away from the subendocardium of the postinfarct left ventricle, this was associated with an increase of the PCr/ATP ratio towards normal. These results suggest that nicorandil exerts a beneficial effect on energy metabolism in the subendocardium of the postinfarct remodelled left ventricle. [source]