Metabolic Costs (metabolic + cost)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences


Selected Abstracts


Metabolic cost of lengthening, isometric and shortening contractions in maximally stimulated rat skeletal muscle

ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 2 2004
J. G. M. Beltman
Abstract Aim:, The present study investigated the energy cost of lengthening, isometric and shortening contractions in rat muscle (n = 19). Methods:, With electrical stimulation the rat medial gastrocnemius muscle was maximally stimulated to perform 10 lengthening, isometric and shortening contractions (velocity 25 mm s,1) under experimental conditions (e.g. temperature, movement velocity) that resemble conditions in human movement. Results:, Mean SD force,time-integral of the first contraction was significantly different between the three protocols, 2.4 0.2, 1.7 0.2 and 1.0 0.2 N s, respectively (P < 0.05). High-energy phosphate consumption was not significantly different between the three modes of exercise but a trend could be observed from lengthening (7.7 2.7 ,mol , P muscle,1) to isometric (8.9 2.2 ,mol , P muscle,1) to shortening contractions (10.4 1.6 ,mol , P muscle,1). The ratio of high-energy phosphate consumption to force,time-integral was significantly lower for lengthening [0.3 0.1 ,mol , P (N s),1] and isometric [0.6 0.2 ,mol , P (N s),1] contractions compared with shortening [1.2 0.2 ,mol , P (N s),1] contractions (P < 0.05). Conclusion:, The present results of maximally stimulated muscles are comparable with data in the literature for voluntary human exercise showing that the energy cost of force production during lengthening exercise is ,30% of that in shortening exercise. The present study suggests that this finding in humans probably does reflect intrinsic muscle properties rather than effects of differential recruitment and/or coactivation. [source]


Autumnal moth , why autumnal?

ECOLOGICAL ENTOMOLOGY, Issue 6 2001
Toomas Tammaru
Summary 1. As for some other spring-feeding moths, adult flight of Epirrita autumnata (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) occurs in late autumn. Late-season flight is a result of a prolonged pupal period. Potential evolutionary explanations for this phenological pattern are evaluated. 2. In a laboratory rearing, there was a weak correlation between pupation date and the time of adult emergence. A substantial genetic difference in pupal period was found between two geographic populations. Adaptive evolution of eclosion time can thus be expected. 3. Metabolic costs of a prolonged pupal period were found to be moderate but still of some ecological significance. Pupal mortality is likely to form the main cost of the prolonged pupal period. 4. Mortality rates of adults, exposed in the field, showed a declining temporal trend from late summer to normal eclosion time in autumn. Lower predation pressure on adults may constitute the decisive selective advantage of late-season flight. It is suggested that ants, not birds, were the main predators responsible for the temporal trend. 5. Egg mortality was estimated to be low; it is thus unlikely that the late adult period is selected for to reduce the time during which eggs are exposed to predators. 6. In a laboratory experiment, oviposition success was maximal at the time of actual flight peak of E. autumnata, however penalties resulting from sub-optimal timing of oviposition remained limited. [source]


Metabolic costs of force generation for constant-frequency and catchlike-inducing electrical stimulation in human tibialis anterior muscle

MUSCLE AND NERVE, Issue 3 2002
Aivaras Ratkevicius PhD
Abstract Metabolic costs of force generation were compared for constant-frequency and catchlike-inducing electrical stimulation. Repetitive catchlike-inducing trains consisted of 2 interpulse intervals (IPIs) at 12.5 ms, 1 IPI at 25 ms, and 5 IPIs at 50 ms. Constant-frequency trains consisted of 8 IPIs at 37.5 ms. One train was delivered to the peroneal nerve every 2.5 s for 36 times under ischemic conditions. Anaerobic adenosine triphosphate (ATP) turnover was determined using 31-phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (P-MRS) of the human tibialis anterior muscle. Compared with constant-frequency trains, catchlike-inducing trains produced a faster force generation and were more effective in maintaining the force,time integral as well as peak force. However, ATP costs of force generation were similar for the catchlike-inducing and constant-frequency stimulation (6.7 1.1 and 6.6 1.0 ,mol ATP/kg wet weight/Ns, respectively, P = 0.601). This suggests that the positive effects of catchlike-inducing stimulation on force maintenance are mediated by potentiated Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum rather than by lower metabolic costs of muscle force generation. Our findings also suggest that catchlike-inducing stimulation produces larger forces in fatigued muscle than constant-frequency trains and thus may be beneficial for muscle training or rehabilitation when muscle loading needs to be maintained in repetitive contractions. 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Muscle Nerve 25: 000,000, 2002 [source]


The lateral intercellular space as osmotic coupling compartment in isotonic transport

ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 1 2009
E. H. Larsen
Abstract Solute-coupled water transport and isotonic transport are basic functions of low- and high-resistance epithelia. These functions are studied with the epithelium bathed on the two sides with physiological saline of similar composition. Hence, at transepithelial equilibrium water enters the epithelial cells from both sides, and with the reflection coefficient of tight junction being larger than that of the interspace basement membrane, all of the water leaves the epithelium through the interspace basement membrane. The common design of transporting epithelia leads to the theory that an osmotic coupling of water absorption to ion flow is energized by lateral Na+/K+ pumps. We show that the theory accounts quantitatively for steady- and time dependent states of solute-coupled fluid uptake by toad skin epithelium. Our experimental results exclude definitively three alternative theories of epithelial solute,water coupling: stoichiometric coupling at the molecular level by transport proteins like SGLT1, electro-osmosis and a ,junctional fluid transfer mechanism'. Convection-diffusion out of the lateral space constitutes the fundamental problem of isotonic transport by making the emerging fluid hypertonic relative to the fluid in the lateral intercellular space. In the Na+ recirculation theory the ,surplus of solutes' is returned to the lateral space via the cells energized by the lateral Na+/K+ pumps. We show that this theory accounts quantitatively for isotonic and hypotonic transport at transepithelial osmotic equilibrium as observed in toad skin epithelium in vitro. Our conclusions are further developed for discussing their application to solute,solvent coupling in other vertebrate epithelia such as small intestine, proximal tubule of glomerular kidney and gallbladder. Evidence is discussed that the Na+ recirculation theory is not irreconcilable with the wide range of metabolic cost of Na+ transport observed in fluid-transporting epithelia. [source]


Effects of pre- and postnatal polychlorinated biphenyl exposure on metabolic rate and thyroid hormones of white-footed mice,

ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY & CHEMISTRY, Issue 8 2001
John B. French Jr.
Abstract Energy budgets have proven to be a valuable tool for predicting life history from physiological data in terrestrial vertebrates, yet these concepts have not been applied to the physiological effects of contaminants. Contaminants might affect energy budgets by imposing an additional metabolic cost or by reducing the overall amount of energy taken in; either process will reduce the energy available for production (i.e., growth or reproduction). This study examined whole animal energetic effects of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure in white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus). Exposure to PCBs is known to reduce concentrations of plasma thyroid hormones, and thyroid hormones exert strong control over the rate of energy metabolism in mammals. Peromyscus leucopus that were proven breeders were fed PCBs in their food at 0, 10, and 25 ppm. Through lactation, offspring were exposed to PCB from conception and were maintained on the maternal diet to adulthood. No effects were seen on energy metabolism (O2 consumption, measured in adulthood) or on growth, but there were large dose-dependent decreases in thyroid hormone concentrations, particularly T4. The apparent disparity in our data between unchanged metabolic rates and 50% reductions in T4 concentrations can be rationalized by noting that free T3 (the fraction not bound to plasma protein) in treated mice was not significantly different from controls and that metabolism is most strongly influenced by free T3. Overall, this study did not demonstrate any energetic consequences of PCB exposure in P. leucopus at dietary concentrations up to 25 ppm. [source]


Ventilatory control in humans: constraints and limitations

EXPERIMENTAL PHYSIOLOGY, Issue 2 2007
Susan A. Ward
Below the lactate threshold (,L), ventilation responds in close proportion to CO2 output to regulate arterial partial pressure of CO2. While ventilatory control models have traditionally included proportional feedback (central and carotid chemosensory) and feedforward (central and peripheral neurogenic) elements, the mechanisms involved remain unclear. Regardless, putative control schemes have to accommodate the close dynamic ,coupling' between and . Above ,L, is driven down to constrain the fall of arterial pH by a compensatory hyperventilation, probably of carotid body origin. When requirements are high (as in highly fit endurance athletes), can attain limiting proportions. Not only does this impair gas exchange at these work rates, but there may be an associated high metabolic cost for generation of respiratory muscle power, which may be sufficient to divert a fraction of the cardiac output away from the muscles of locomotion to the respiratory muscles, further compromising exercise tolerance. [source]


Effect of drought on the growth of Lolium perenne genotypes with and without fungal endophytes

FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY, Issue 6 2000
G. P. Cheplick
Abstract 1Grass leaves are often inhabited by fungal endophytes that can enhance host growth. In some forage species, endophytes improve host resistance to, and recovery from, drought. 2Our objective was to determine if the growth of genotypes of Lolium perenne L. was improved by endophytes during recovery from drought. 3Thirteen infected genotypes were cloned into ramets. Half were treated with a systemic fungicide to eliminate the endophyte (E,); half were untreated and retained high endophyte levels (E+). In a glasshouse, half of all E, and E+ ramets were watered regularly, whilst half were exposed to a 2 week drought on two occasions, each followed by a 3 week recovery period. 4After the first drought and recovery period, endophytes significantly reduced tiller production in the drought-stressed group. 5After the second drought and recovery period, effects of drought on live leaf area and dry mass were highly dependent on host genotype, but not endophytes. The mean tiller mass of E+ ramets after drought was significantly less than that of watered E+ ramets, but this was not true in E, ramets. For six genotypes there was greater mass allocation to storage in the tiller bases of E, ramets after drought. 6This perennial ryegrass population showed marked genotypic variation in the ability to recover from drought stress, but endophytes played little or no role in this ability. For some host genotypes there may be a metabolic cost of harbouring endophytes during environmentally stressful conditions. [source]


The intertarsal joint of the ostrich (Struthio camelus): Anatomical examination and function of passive structures in locomotion

JOURNAL OF ANATOMY, Issue 6 2009
Nina U. Schaller
Abstract The ostrich (Struthio camelus) is the largest extant biped. Being flightless, it exhibits advanced cursorial abilities primarily evident in its characteristic speed and endurance. In addition to the active musculoskeletal complex, its powerful pelvic limbs incorporate passive structures wherein ligaments interact with joint surfaces, cartilage and other connective tissue in their course of motion. This arrangement may enable energy conservation by providing joint stabilisation, optimised limb segment orientation and automated positioning of ground contact elements independently of direct muscle control. The intertarsal joint is of particular interest considering its position near the mid-point of the extended limb and its exposure to high load during stance with significant inertial forces during swing phase. Functional-anatomical analysis of the dissected isolated joint describes the interaction of ligaments with intertarsal joint contours through the full motion cycle. Manual manipulation identified a passive engage-disengage mechanism (EDM) that establishes joint extension, provides bi-directional resistance prior to a transition point located at 115 and contributes to rapid intertarsal flexion at toe off and full extension prior to touch down. This effect was subsequently quantified by measurement of intertarsal joint moments in prepared anatomical specimens in a neutral horizontal position and axially-loaded vertical position. Correlation with kinematic analyses of walking and running ostriches confirms the contribution of the EDM in vivo. We hypothesise that the passive EDM operates in tandem with a stringently coupled multi-jointed muscle-tendon system to conserve the metabolic cost of locomotion in the ostrich, suggesting that a complete understanding of terrestrial locomotion across extinct and extant taxa must include functional consideration of the ligamentous system. [source]


Effects of stimulation frequency and pulse duration on fatigue and metabolic cost during a single bout of neuromuscular electrical stimulation

MUSCLE AND NERVE, Issue 5 2010
Julien Gondin PhD
Abstract We have investigated the effects of stimulation frequency and pulse duration on fatigue and energy metabolism in rat gastrocnemius muscle during a single bout of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES). Electrical pulses were delivered at 100 Hz (1-ms pulse duration) and 20 Hz (5-ms pulse duration) for the high (HF) and low (LF) frequency protocols, respectively. As a standardization procedure, the averaged stimulation intensity, the averaged total charge, the initial peak torque, the duty cycle, the contraction duration and the torque-time integral were similar in both protocols. Fatigue was assessed using two testing trains delivered at a frequency of 100 Hz and 20 Hz before and after each protocol. Metabolic changes were investigated in vivo using 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS) and in vitro in freeze-clamped muscles. Both LF and HF NMES protocols induced the same decrease in testing trains and metabolic changes. We conclude that, under carefully controlled and comparable conditions, the use of low stimulation frequency and long pulse duration do not minimize the occurrence of muscle fatigue or affect the corresponding stimulation-induced metabolic changes so that this combination of stimulation parameters would not be adequate in the context of rehabilitation. Muscle Nerve, 2010 [source]


Relative contributions of nine genes in the pathway of histidine biosynthesis to the control of free histidine concentrations in Arabidopsis thaliana

PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY JOURNAL, Issue 6 2009
Jonathan D. Rees
Summary Despite the functional importance of histidine (His) as an essential amino acid in proteins and as a metal-coordinating ligand, comparatively little is known about the regulation of its biosynthesis in plants and the potential for metabolic engineering of this pathway. To investigate the contribution of different steps in the pathway to overall control of His biosynthesis, nine His biosynthetic genes were individually over-expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana to determine their effects on free amino acid pools. Constitutive, CaMV 35S -driven over-expression of the cDNAs encoding either isoform of ATP-phosphoribosyltransferase (ATP-PRT), the first enzyme in the pathway, was sufficient to increase the pool of free His by up to 42-fold in shoot tissue of Arabidopsis, with negligible effect on any other amino acid. In contrast, over-expression of cDNAs for seven other enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway had no effect on His content, suggesting that control of the pool of free His resides largely with ATP-PRT activity. Over-expression of ATP-PRT and increased His content had a negative pleiotropic effect on plant biomass production in 35S:PRT1 lines, but this effect was not observed in 35S:PRT2 lines. In the presence of 100 M Ni, which was inhibitory to wild-type plants, a strong positive correlation was observed between free His content and biomass production, indicating that the metabolic cost of His overproduction was outweighed by the benefit of increased tolerance to Ni. His-overproducing plants also displayed somewhat elevated tolerance to Co and Zn, but not to Cd or Cu, indicating chemical selectivity in intracellular metal binding by His. [source]


The influence of ultraviolet radiation on growth, photosynthesis and phenolic levels of green and red lettuce: potential for exploiting effects of ultraviolet radiation in a production system

ANNALS OF APPLIED BIOLOGY, Issue 3 2010
E. Tsormpatsidis
Studies have shown that natural ultraviolet (UV) radiation increases secondary products such as phenolics but can significantly inhibit biomass accumulation in lettuce plants. In the work presented here, the effect of UV radiation on phenolic concentration and biomass accumulation was assessed in relation to photosynthetic performance in red and green lettuce types. Lettuce plants in polythene clad tunnels were exposed to either ambient (UV transparent film) or UV-free conditions (UV blocking film). The study tested whether growth reduction in lettuce plants exposed to natural UV radiation is because of inhibition of photosynthesis by direct damage to the photosynthetic apparatus or by internal shading by anthocyanins. Ambient levels of UV radiation did not limit the efficiency of photosynthesis suggesting that phenolic compounds may effectively protect the photosynthetic apparatus. Growth inhibition does, however, occur in red lettuce and could be explained by the high metabolic cost of phenolic compounds for UV protection. From a commercial perspective, UV transparent and UV blocking films offer opportunities because, in combination, they could increase plant quality as well as productivity. Growing plants continuously under a UV blocking film, and then 6 days before the final harvest transferring them to a UV transparent film, showed that high yields and high phytochemical content can be achieved complementarily. [source]


A spatially explicit, individual-based model to assess the role of estuarine nurseries in the early life history of North Sea herring, Clupea harengus

FISHERIES OCEANOGRAPHY, Issue 1 2005
JOACHIM MAES
Abstract Herring (Clupea harengus) enter and remain within North Sea estuaries during well-defined periods of their early life history. The costs and benefits of the migrations between offshore spawning grounds and upper, low-salinity zones of estuarine nurseries are identified using a dynamic state-variable model, in which the fitness of an individual is maximized by selecting the most profitable habitat. Spatio-temporal gradients in temperature, turbidity, food availability and predation risk simulate the environment. We modeled predation as a function of temperature, the optical properties of the ambient water, the time allocation of feeding and the abundance of whiting (Merlangius merlangus). Growth and metabolic costs were assessed using a bioenergetic model. Model runs using real input data for the Scheldt estuary (Belgium, The Netherlands) and the southern North Sea show that estuarine residence results in fitter individuals through a considerable increase in survival probability of age-0 fish. Young herring pay for their migration into safer estuarine water by foregoing growth opportunities at sea. We suggest that temperature and, in particular, the time lag between estuarine and seawater temperatures, acts as a basic cue for herring to navigate in the heterogeneous space between the offshore spawning grounds at sea and the oligohaline nursery zone in estuaries. [source]


Elevated metabolic costs while resting on water in a surface feeder: the Black-legged Kittiwake Rissa tridactyla

IBIS, Issue 1 2007
ELIZABETH M. HUMPHREYS
Measurements of the energy costs of individual behaviours provide insights into how animals trade-off resource allocation and energy acquisition decisions. The energetic costs while resting on water are poorly known for seabirds but could comprise a substantial proportion of their daily energy expenditure. We measured the cost of resting on water in Black-legged Kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla, a species which does not fly during the night and for which estimating energy expenditure while resting on the water is therefore important. Their resting metabolic rate on water at 12.5 C was at least 40% higher compared with resting at the same temperature in air. This indicates that, at comparable temperatures, metabolic costs are elevated for birds resting at sea compared with on land. We argue that Kittiwakes meet much of this extra thermoregulatory demand by dedicated metabolic activity. During the winter months, their costs are likely to be even higher owing to lower sea temperatures. Accordingly, we suggest that migration to milder latitudes, following breeding, will provide enhanced benefits, particularly to seabirds such as Kittiwakes which rest on the sea surface during darkness. [source]


Characterizing the nutritional strategy of incubating king eiders Somateria spectabilis in northern Alaska

JOURNAL OF AVIAN BIOLOGY, Issue 6 2008
Rebecca L. Bentzen
We measured plasma concentrations of variables associated with lipid metabolism (free fatty acids, glycerol, triglyceride, and ,-hydroxybutyrate), protein metabolism (uric acid), and baseline corticosterone to characterize the nutritional state of incubating king eiders Somateria spectabilis and relate this to incubation constancy at two sites, Kuparuk and Teshekpuk, in northern Alaska. King eiders at both sites appeared to employ a partial-income incubation strategy, relying on both endogenous and exogenous energy resources. Females maintained high invariant levels of free fatty acids, ,-hydroxybutyrate, and glycerol throughout incubation, indicating that fat reserves were a major energy source, and not completely depleted during incubation. Similarly, uric acid did not increase, suggesting effective protein sparing or protein ingestion and adequate lipid reserves throughout incubation. Baseline corticosterone and triglyceride levels increased during incubation, indicative of an increase in foraging during late stages of incubation. Incubating females at Kuparuk had higher triglyceride concentrations but also had higher ,-hydroxybutyrate concentrations than females at Teshekpuk. This dichotomy may reflect a short-term signal of feeding overlaying the longer-term signal of reliance on endogenous lipid reserves due to higher food intake yet higher metabolic costs at Kuparuk because of its colder environment. Incubation constancy was not correlated with plasma concentrations of lipid or protein metabolites. [source]


Metabolic correlates of leg length in breeding arctic shorebirds: the cost of getting high

JOURNAL OF BIOGEOGRAPHY, Issue 3 2005
Ralph V. Cartar
Abstract Aim, We test the hypothesis that tarsus length in all shorebirds breeding in the Canadian arctic shows an evolutionary response to average metabolic stress encountered across the breeding range, such that birds nesting in metabolically stressful environments have relatively shorter legs. Longer-legged birds living in colder environments will experience greater metabolic costs because their torsos are elevated farther away from the ground's wind-dampening boundary layer. Methods, We use weather data (temperature, wind speed, global solar radiation) from 27 arctic weather stations measured over 37 years, and a previously published model of heat transfer, to characterize the metabolic harshness over the breeding season of the ranges of each of the 17 shorebirds of the family Charadriidae nesting in the Canadian arctic. Results, After controlling for the lengths of two other body extremities (wing and bill), there was a significant negative relationship between tarsus length and mean metabolic harshness. This result was obtained whether species were treated as independent data points, or in a comparative analysis using standardized independent contrasts. Main conclusions, We support a unique extension of Allen's rule: body-supporting appendages of homeotherms may be shorter in colder environments so as to take advantage of a boundary layer effect, thereby reducing metabolic costs. [source]


Lateral plate asymmetry, diet and parasitism in threespine stickleback

JOURNAL OF EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY, Issue 4 2001
T. E. Reimchen
Individuals with random left,right departures from bilateral symmetry are predicted to exhibit fitness reduction including increased parasitism. In an insular lake population of stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) from the Queen Charlotte Islands, Western Canada, phenotypes with high or low number of lateral bony plates exhibited increased plate asymmetry relative to modal phenotypes. Asymmetric lateral plate phenotypes had increased prevalence and to a lesser extent intensity of parasitism relative to symmetric individuals, suggesting that differences in genetic resistance to pathogens contributed to unequal parasitism. The effect occurred mainly in the larger adults and during the warmest season, which may be due to the high metabolic costs incurred during the summer breeding season. Dietary differences between symmetric and asymmetric phenotypes were also detected and could contribute to unequal infection rates by mediating exposure to infected prey items. Our study, which is one of the first long-term field assessments of asymmetry and parasitism, yields results that are consistent with studies linking asymmetry to reduced fitness and indicate that lateral plate asymmetry can be an indicator of poor individual quality, despite its apparent directionality. [source]


Thermal tolerance and metabolic physiology among redband trout populations in south-eastern Oregon

JOURNAL OF FISH BIOLOGY, Issue 2 2004
K. J. Rodnick
Streamside measurements of critical thermal maxima (Tcrit), swimming performance (Ucrit), and routine (Rr) and maximum (Rmax) metabolic rates were performed on three populations of genetically distinct redband trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in the high-desert region of south-eastern Oregon. The Tcrit values (294 01 C) for small (40,140 g) redband trout from the three streams, and large (400,1400 g) redband trout at Bridge Creek were not different, and were comparable to published values for other salmonids. At high water temperatures (24,28 C), large fish incurred higher metabolic costs and were more thermally sensitive than small fish. Ucrit(36 01 LF s,1), Rr(200 13 mg O2 kg,0830 h,1) and metabolic power (533 22 mg O2 kg,0882 h,1) were not significantly different between populations of small redband trout at 24 C. Rmax and metabolic power, however, were higher than previous measurements for rainbow trout at these temperatures. Fish from Bridge Creek had a 30% lower minimum total cost of transport (Cmin), exhibited a lower refusal rate, and had smaller hearts than fish at 12-mile or Rock Creeks. In contrast, no differences in Ucrit or metabolism were observed between the two size classes of redband trout, although Cmin was significantly lower for large fish at all swimming speeds. Biochemical analyses revealed that fish from 12-mile Creek, which had the highest refusal rate (36%), were moderately hyperkalemic and had substantially lower circulating levels of free fatty acids, triglycerides and albumin. Aerobic and anaerobic enzyme activities in axial white muscle, however, were not different between populations, and morphological features were similar. Results of this study: 1) suggest that the physiological mechanisms that determine Tcrit in salmonids are highly conserved; 2) show that adult (large) redband trout are more susceptible to the negative affects of elevated temperatures than small redband trout; 3) demonstrate that swimming efficiency can vary considerably between redband trout populations; 4) suggest that metabolic energy stores correlate positively with swimming behaviour of redband trout at high water temperatures; 5) question the use of Tcrit for assessing physiological function and defining thermal habitat requirements of stream-dwelling salmonids like the redband trout. [source]


Molecular ecology of global change

MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 19 2007
THORSTEN B. H. REUSCH
Abstract Global environmental change is altering the selection regime for all biota. The key selective factors are altered mean, variance and seasonality of climatic variables and increase in CO2 concentration itself. We review recent studies that document rapid evolution to global climate change at the phenotypic and genetic level, as a response to shifts in these factors. Among the traits that have changed are photoperiod responses, stress tolerance and traits associated with enhanced dispersal. The genetic basis of two traits with a critical role under climate change, stress tolerance and photoperiod behaviour, is beginning to be understood for model organisms, providing a starting point for candidate gene approaches in targeted nonmodel species. Most studies that have documented evolutionary change are correlative, while selection experiments that manipulate relevant variables are rare. The latter are particularly valuable for prediction because they provide insight into heritable change to simulated future conditions. An important gap is that experimental selection regimes have mostly been testing one variable at a time, while synergistic interactions are likely under global change. The expanding toolbox available to molecular ecologists holds great promise for identifying the genetic basis of many more traits relevant to fitness under global change. Such knowledge, in turn, will significantly advance predictions on global change effects because presence and polymorphism of critical genes can be directly assessed. Moreover, knowledge of the genetic architecture of trait correlations will provide the necessary framework for understanding limits to phenotypic evolution; in particular as lack of critical gene polymorphism or entire pathways, metabolic costs of tolerance and linkage or pleiotropy causing negative trait correlations. Synergism among stressor impacts on organismal function may be causally related to conflict among transcriptomic syndromes specific to stressor types. Because adaptation to changing environment is always contingent upon the spatial distribution of genetic variation, high-resolution estimates of gene flow and hybridization should be used to inform predictions of evolutionary rates. [source]


Direct Male Care and Hominin Evolution: Why Male,Child Interaction Is More Than a Nice Social Idea

AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST, Issue 1 2010
Lee T. Gettler
ABSTRACT, Early members of the genus Homo experienced heightened absolute metabolic costs, partially owing to increases in body size. However, as is characteristic of modern humans, they also likely began reproducing with shortened interbirth intervals. Male investment in offspring may help explain how this life history shift occurred. Evolutionary models of hominin male investment in offspring have traditionally focused on provisioning of females and young, yet the extent to which direct male care of offspring was evolutionarily important, from an energetic perspective, is largely unaddressed. I propose an evolutionary model of direct male care, demonstrating that males could have helped reduce the energetic burden of caregiving placed on mothers by carrying young. In doing so, males would have assisted females in achieving and maintaining an energetic condition sufficient for reproduction, thereby hastening the advent of shortened interbirth intervals that played a formative role in the success of our genus. [source]


Metabolic costs of force generation for constant-frequency and catchlike-inducing electrical stimulation in human tibialis anterior muscle

MUSCLE AND NERVE, Issue 3 2002
Aivaras Ratkevicius PhD
Abstract Metabolic costs of force generation were compared for constant-frequency and catchlike-inducing electrical stimulation. Repetitive catchlike-inducing trains consisted of 2 interpulse intervals (IPIs) at 12.5 ms, 1 IPI at 25 ms, and 5 IPIs at 50 ms. Constant-frequency trains consisted of 8 IPIs at 37.5 ms. One train was delivered to the peroneal nerve every 2.5 s for 36 times under ischemic conditions. Anaerobic adenosine triphosphate (ATP) turnover was determined using 31-phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (P-MRS) of the human tibialis anterior muscle. Compared with constant-frequency trains, catchlike-inducing trains produced a faster force generation and were more effective in maintaining the force,time integral as well as peak force. However, ATP costs of force generation were similar for the catchlike-inducing and constant-frequency stimulation (6.7 1.1 and 6.6 1.0 ,mol ATP/kg wet weight/Ns, respectively, P = 0.601). This suggests that the positive effects of catchlike-inducing stimulation on force maintenance are mediated by potentiated Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum rather than by lower metabolic costs of muscle force generation. Our findings also suggest that catchlike-inducing stimulation produces larger forces in fatigued muscle than constant-frequency trains and thus may be beneficial for muscle training or rehabilitation when muscle loading needs to be maintained in repetitive contractions. 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Muscle Nerve 25: 000,000, 2002 [source]


Seasonal and reproductive variation in body condition in captive female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata)

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PRIMATOLOGY, Issue 4 2010
Ccile Garcia
Abstract The geographic distribution of Japanese macaques includes populations with the most northern range of any primate species. Not surprisingly, females of this species are characterized by physiological adaptations and unique fat deposition mechanisms that facilitate their survival through the sometimes-harsh seasonal conditions of temperate climates, as well as sustaining the metabolic costs of mating, pregnancy, and lactation. Here, we explore the relationship between nutritional status, seasonality, and reproductive status using anthropometric and leptin measures from 14 captive female Japanese macaques. No seasonal patterns were found in the levels of leptin, but there were differences between seasons in anthropometric measures, specifically between the beginning and the end of the mating season. Females gained weight and accumulated energy reserves in fall to prepare for mating activity, and to survive the severe conditions of winter, which is also the period of gestation if pregnancy occurs. Lactating females had larger total skinfolds relative to nonlactating individuals, and females with older babies at the beginning of the mating season had larger abdominal skinfolds than did those with younger babies. There was a relationship between the likelihood of conception and nutritional status, with females that conceived during one mating season being in better condition at the end of their previous mating season. Together, these results suggest that, even in captive settings, seasonal breeding has a cost on the energetic demands of mating, and that higher condition (i.e. fatter) females could afford the demands of lactation and reproduced more rapidly. Am. J. Primatol. 72:277,286, 2010. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Cooperation and cheating in microbial exoenzyme production , Theoretical analysis for biotechnological applications

BIOTECHNOLOGY JOURNAL, Issue 7 2010
Stefan Schuster
Abstract The engineering of microorganisms to produce a variety of extracellular enzymes (exoenzymes), for example for producing renewable fuels and in biodegradation of xenobiotics, has recently attracted increasing interest. Productivity is often reduced by "cheater" mutants, which are deficient in exoenzyme production and benefit from the product provided by the "cooperating" cells. We present a game-theoretical model to analyze population structure and exoenzyme productivity in terms of biotechnologically relevant parameters. For any given population density, three distinct regimes are predicted: when the metabolic effort for exoenzyme production and secretion is low, all cells cooperate; at intermediate metabolic costs, cooperators and cheaters coexist; while at high costs, all cells use the cheating strategy. These regimes correspond to the harmony game, snowdrift game, and Prisoner's Dilemma, respectively. Thus, our results indicate that microbial strains engineered for exoenzyme production will not, under appropriate conditions, be outcompeted by cheater mutants. We also analyze the dependence of the population structure on cell density. At low costs, the fraction of cooperating cells increases with decreasing cell density and reaches unity at a critical threshold. Our model provides an estimate of the cell density maximizing exoenzyme production. [source]