Metabolic Control (metabolic + control)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Metabolic Control

  • good metabolic control
  • poor metabolic control

  • Terms modified by Metabolic Control

  • metabolic control analysis

  • Selected Abstracts

    The Effect of Metformin in Overweight Patients with Type 1 Diabetes and Poor Metabolic Control

    Iben Brock Jacobsen
    Double-blinded intervention with 2000 mg metformin or placebo daily in 24 type 1 diabetic patients as adjunct to intensive insulin therapy. Primary endpoint was HbA1c, while secondary endpoints were body weight, frequency of hypoglycaemia, blood pressure, lipids, insulin dosage and self-monitored blood glucose profiles were measured. After 24 weeks, no difference in HbA1c was seen between the metformin and placebo groups (,0.5 ± 0.3 vs. ,0.2 ± 0.2%, P = 0.26. , mean ± S.E.M). Mean diurnal blood glucose profiles showed no statistical significant difference between the groups. The total daily insulin dose (IU) was significantly reduced in the metformin group compared to placebo after 24 weeks (,5.9 ± 2.2 vs. 2.9 ± 1.7, P = 0.004. , mean ± S.E.M). An increase in the frequency of hypoglycaemia was seen in the metformin group (0.7 ± 0.9 vs. 0.3 ± 0.5 events patient,1 week,1, P = 0.005), and a reduction in body weight was found using metformin compared to placebo (,3.0 ± 1.0 vs. 0.8 ± 1.1, P = 0.02. , mean ± S.E.M). Lipids and blood pressure did not differ significantly after intervention. Metformin, as adjunct to intensive insulin therapy, was associated with a reduction in the total daily insulin dose and a significant weight loss in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. [source]

    Influence of Glucose Control and Improvement of Insulin Resistance on Microvascular Blood Flow and Endothelial Function in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

    MICROCIRCULATION, Issue 7 2005
    ABSTRACT Objective: The study was performed to investigate the effect of improving metabolic control with pioglitazone in comparison to glimepiride on microvascular function in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. Methods: A total of 179 patients were recruited and randomly assigned to one treatment group. Metabolic control (HbA1c), insulin resistance (HOMA index), and microvascular function (laser Doppler fluxmetry) were observed at baseline and after 3 and 6 months. Results: HbA1c improved in both treatment arms (pioglitazone: 7.52 ± 0.85% to 6.71 ± 0.89%, p < .0001; glimepiride: 7.44 ± 0.89% to 6.83 ± 0.85%, p < .0001). Insulin-resistance decreased significantly in the pioglitazone group (6.15 ± 4.05 to 3.85 ± 1.92, p < .0001) and remained unchanged in the glimepiride group. The microvascular response to heat significantly improved in both treatment groups (pioglitazone 48.5 [15.2; 91.8] to 88.8 [57.6; 124.1] arbitrary units [AU], p < .0001; glimepiride 53.7 [14.1; 91.9] to 87.9 [52.9, 131.0] AU, p < .0001, median [lower and upper quartile]). Endothelial function as measured with the acetylcholine response improved in the pioglitazone group (38.5 [22.2; 68.0] to 60.2 [36.9; 82.8], p = .0427) and remained unchanged in the glimepiride group. Conclusions: Improving metabolic control has beneficial effects in microvascular function in type 2 diabetic patients. Treatment of type 2 diabetic patients with pioglitazone exerts additional effects on endothelial function beyond metabolic control. [source]

    Disturbed eating behaviors in Taiwanese adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a comparative study

    PEDIATRIC DIABETES, Issue 1 2009
    Yu-Yun Alice Hsu
    Objectives:, This study aimed to (i) compare disturbed eating behaviors in adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) with a matched group of adolescents in Taiwan and (ii) examine the relationships of disturbed eating behaviors to body mass index (BMI) and metabolic control among adolescents with T1D. Methods:, A cross-sectional study was conducted in southern Taiwan. Seventy-one adolescents with T1D (aged 10,22 yr; 41 females and 29 males) were matched to a group of non-diabetic adolescents. Adolescents completed two self-reported measures of eating behavior, the Bulimic Investigatory Test, Edinburgh and the Eating Attitude Test-26. Metabolic control was assessed by glycosylated hemoglobin A1c levels. Results:, Both adolescent females and males with T1D had more symptoms of bulimia and bulimic behaviors than their non-diabetic peers. There were no group differences in the proportion of subthreshold eating disorders. BMI and metabolic control were significant factors predicting disturbed eating behaviors. Conclusions:, Both adolescent females and males with T1D exhibited a higher level of disturbed eating behaviors than their non-diabetic adolescent counterparts. Preventive programs that address disturbed eating behaviors should be provided for adolescents with T1D, particularly for adolescents with a high BMI and poor metabolic control. [source]

    Short-term effects of coping skills training in school-age children with type 1 diabetes

    PEDIATRIC DIABETES, Issue 3pt2 2008
    Jodie M Ambrosino
    Objective:, Little is known about the use of psychosocial interventions in children younger than adolescence with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and their parents. We report preliminary short-term outcomes of a randomized controlled trial of coping skills training (CST) compared with group education (GE) in school-aged children with T1D and their parents. Methods:, One hundred and eleven children (range = 8,12 yr) with T1D for at least 6 months (3.71 ± 2.91 yr) were randomized to CST (55.6% female (F); 81.5% white (W)) or GE (69.7% F; 90.9% W). Children and parents (n = 87) who completed the intervention, baseline, 1- and 3-month data are included. Children completed measures of self-efficacy, coping, and quality of life; parents completed measures of family functioning (adaptability and cohesion), diabetes-related conflict, parent depression, and parent coping. Metabolic control was assessed with glycosylated hemoglobin A1c. Mixed-model repeated measures anova was used to analyze the data. Results:, CST and GE group composition was generally comparable. Children had good psychosocial adaptation and metabolic status. CST parents reported significantly more improvement in family adaptability compared with GE parents, and a trend was seen indicating that CST children showed greater improvement in life satisfaction than GE children. Effect sizes for this short-term follow-up period were small, but group participants were receptive to the intervention and reported positive gains. Conclusions:, In these preliminary results, CST and GE were more similar than different across multiple measure of psychosocial adaptation, although CST showed promising statistical trends for more adaptive family functioning and greater life satisfaction. Longer term follow-up is underway. [source]

    LKB1 and AMP-activated protein kinase control of mTOR signalling and growth

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 1 2009
    R. J. Shaw
    Abstract The AMP-activated serine/threonine protein kinase (AMPK) is a sensor of cellular energy status found in all eukaryotes that is activated under conditions of low intracellular ATP following stresses such as nutrient deprivation or hypoxia. In the past 5 years, work from a large number of laboratories has revealed that one of the major downstream signalling pathways regulated by AMPK is the mammalian target-of-rapamycin [mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway]. Interestingly, like AMPK, the mTOR serine/threonine kinase plays key roles not only in growth control and cell proliferation but also in metabolism. Recent work has revealed that across eukaryotes mTOR orthologues are found in two biochemically distinct complexes and only one of those complexes (mTORC1 in mammals) is acutely sensitive to rapamycin and regulated by nutrients and AMPK. Many details of the molecular mechanism by which AMPK inhibits mTORC1 signalling have also been decoded in the past 5 years. AMPK directly phosphorylates at least two proteins to induce rapid suppression of mTORC1 activity, the TSC2 tumour suppressor and the critical mTORC1 binding subunit raptor. Here we explore the molecular connections between AMPK and mTOR signalling pathways and examine the physiological processes in which AMPK regulation of mTOR is critical for growth or metabolic control. The functional conservation of AMPK and TOR in all eukaryotes, and the sequence conservation around the AMPK phosphorylation sites in raptor across all eukaryotes examined suggest that this represents a fundamental cell growth module connecting nutrient status to the cell growth machinery. These findings have broad implications for the control of cell growth by nutrients in a number of cellular and organismal contexts. [source]

    Benefits of moderate weight loss in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Ken Fujioka
    Weight loss is a primary goal of therapy in overweight patients with type 2 diabetes. This review examines whether positive patient outcomes are observed even after relatively small amounts of weight loss, that is, weight loss being more easily attainable in practice. Clinical studies demonstrate that therapeutic benefit rises with increasing weight loss, but that losses as low as 0.45,4 kg (1,9 lb) have positive effects on metabolic control, cardiovascular risk factors and mortality rates. Even the intention to lose weight, without significant success, can improve outcomes in patients with diabetes, presumably because of the healthy behaviours associated with the attempt. The current data support a continued focus on weight loss, including moderate weight loss, as a key component of good care for overweight patients with type 2 diabetes. [source]

    Long-acting insulin analogues vs.

    NPH human insulin in type 1 diabetes.
    Aim:, Basal insulin in type 1 diabetes can be provided using either NPH (Neutral Protamine Hagedorn) human insulin or long-acting insulin analogues, which are supposed to warrant a better metabolic control with reduced hypoglycaemic risk. Aim of this meta-analysis is the assessment of differences with respect to HbA1c (Glycated hemoglobin), incidence of hypoglycaemia, and weight gain, between NPH human insulin and each long-acting analogue. Methods:, Of 285 randomized controlled trials with a duration > 12 weeks comparing long-acting insulin analogues (detemir or glargine) with NPH insulin in type 1 diabetic patients identified through Medline search and searches on, 20 met eligibility criteria (enrolling 3693 and 2485 in the long-acting analogues and NPH group respectively). Data on HbA1c and body mass index at endpoint, and incidence of any, nocturnal and severe hypoglycaemia, were extracted and meta-analysed. Results:, Long-acting analogues had a small, but significant effect on HbA1c [-0.07 (,0.13; ,0.01)%; p = 0.026], in comparison with NPH human insulin. When analysing the effect of long-acting analogues on body weight, detemir was associated with a significantly smaller weight gain than human insulin [by 0.26 (0.06;0.47) kg/m2; p = 0.012]. Long-acting analogues were associated with a reduced risk for nocturnal and severe hypoglycaemia [OR (Odd Ratio, 95% Confidence Intervals) 0.69 (0.55; 0.86), and OR 0.73 (0.60; 0.89) respectively; all p < 0.01]. Conclusions:, The switch from NPH to long-acting analogues as basal insulin replacement in type 1 diabetic patients had a small effect on HbA1c, and also reduced the risk of nocturnal and severe hypoglycaemia. [source]

    Premixed insulin treatment for type 2 diabetes: analogue or human?

    Alan J. Garber
    The progressive nature of type 2 diabetes makes insulin initiation a necessary therapeutic step for many patients. Premixed insulin formulations containing both basal and prandial insulin (so called biphasic insulin) are often prescribed because they are superior to long- or intermediate-acting insulin in obtaining good metabolic control. In addition, they are considered as an attractive alternative to classical basal-bolus therapy as fewer daily injections are required. Premixed insulin formulations include conventional (e.g. biphasic human insulin 70/30, or 30/70 in European countries, BHI 30) and newer premixed human analogues (e.g. biphasic insulin aspart 70/30, or 30/70 in Europe, BIAsp 30; insulin lispro mix 75/25,Mix 75/25, or Mix 25/75 in Europe). Like conventional premixed human insulin, premixed insulin analogues contain a fixed proportion of soluble, rapid-acting insulin analogue, with protaminated analogue comprising the remainder. Unlike conventional premixes, analogue premixes have more physiological pharmacokinetic and therapeutically more desirable pharmacodynamic profiles than premixed human insulin. Consequently, postprandial glycaemic control is better with premixed insulin analogues than with premixed human insulin. In nontreat-to-target registration trials, the lowering of haemoglobin A1c with premixed insulin analogues was not inferior to that seen with premixed human insulin. Minor hypoglycaemia was similar for premixed analogue and premixed human insulins, while major hypoglycaemia appears to be rare with either formulation. The occurrence of adverse events, other than hypoglycaemia, was also similar between various premix insulins. The premixed insulin analogues, BIAsp 30 and Mix 75/25, like the fast-acting analogues from which they are derived, also allow flexible injection timing, relative to meal timing, thus improving adherence, compliance and quality of life compared with premixed human insulin. Overall, the evidence suggests that premixed insulin analogues are cost effective and have useful advantages over premixed human insulin for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. [source]

    Inhaled insulin as adjunctive therapy in subjects with type 2 diabetes failing oral agents: a controlled proof-of-concept study

    M. Hausmann
    Aim:, This controlled proof-of-concept study investigated inhaled insulin (INH) as adjunctive therapy to existing oral antidiabetic agents in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Methods:, Twenty-four subjects with type 2 diabetes [19 men and 5 women, 56.1 ± 6.6 years, body mass index 32.7 ± 4.2 kg/m2, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) 8.4 ± 0.8% (mean ± s.d.)] inadequately controlled by metformin and/or sulfonylureas were randomized to receive additional therapy with either INH administered preprandially using a metered-dose inhaler (MDI), or insulin glargine (GLA) injected subcutaneously at bedtime for 4 weeks. Both inhaled and injected insulin doses were titrated to predefined blood glucose (BG) targets. Results:, INH and GLA improved metabolic control to a similar extent. Mean daily BG decreased by 2.8 mmol/l in the INH group (p < 0.001) and by 2.4 mmol/l in the GLA group (p < 0.001). Accordingly, fasting BG (,2.7 vs. ,3.6 mmol/l for INH vs. GLA), preprandial- and 2-h postprandial BG, HbA1c (,1.23 vs. ,1.05%), body weight (,1.9 vs. ,2.3 kg) and serum fructosamine were similarly and significantly reduced in both groups (p < 0.05). Triglycerides decreased significantly with INH (,1.15 ,mol/l; p < 0.001) but not with GLA [,0.52 ,mol/l; not significant (NS)]. Incidence rates of adverse events did not differ significantly, and there were no indications of respiratory tract irritation. Conclusions:, In subjects with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled by oral agents, preprandial administration of INH delivered by a MDI provided a comparable metabolic control to bedtime GLA and did not show any safety concerns during a 4-week treatment. These results warrant a more extensive investigation of preprandial treatment with INH in longer term studies. [source]

    Metabolic memory in diabetes,focus on insulin

    Derek LeRoith
    Abstract Large-scale clinical trials have demonstrated that metabolic control achieved early in the course of diabetes substantially reduces development and progression of diabetes and the associated microvascular complications. Additionally, prospective observational studies have demonstrated that atherogenic and inflammatory mediators are elevated even prior to the onset of diabetes and significantly contribute to subsequent development of macrovascular complications. Collectively, these data suggest that metabolic memories are stored early in the course of diabetes. We believe that insulin suppresses inflammation and also suppresses glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity (and the consequences thereof, such as the formation of advanced glycation end products and epigenetic phenomena), and thus has a pivotal and beneficial role. Comprehensive metabolic control, especially when instituted early, may alter the natural history of diabetic complications by affecting this metabolic memory. Thus, our overall goal is to understand in more detail the molecular mechanisms involved in these changes, thereby affording us opportunities to reduce the long-term effects of diabetes. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Diabetes mellitus and alcohol

    Albert van de Wiel
    Abstract Alcohol influences glucose metabolism in several ways in diabetic patients as well as in non-diabetic patients. Since alcohol inhibits both gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis, its acute intake without food may provoke hypoglycaemia, especially in cases of depleted glycogen stores and in combination with sulphonylurea. Consumed with a meal including carbohydrates, it is the preferred fuel, which may initially lead to somewhat higher blood glucose levels and hence an insulin response in type 2 diabetic patients. Depending on the nature of the carbohydrates in the meal, this may be followed by reactive hypoglycaemia. Moderate consumption of alcohol is associated with a reduced risk of atherosclerotic disorders. Diabetic patients benefit from this favourable effect as much as non-diabetic patients. Apart from effects on lipid metabolism, haemostatic balance and blood pressure, alcohol improves insulin sensitivity. This improvement of insulin sensitivity may also be responsible for the lower incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus reported to be associated with light-to-moderate drinking. In case of moderate and sensible use, risks of disturbances in glycaemic control, weight and blood pressure are limited. Excessive intake of alcohol, however, may not only cause loss of metabolic control, but also annihilate the favourable effects on the cardiovascular system. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion with short-acting insulin analogues or human regular insulin: efficacy, safety, quality of life, and cost-effectiveness

    Régis Pierre Radermecker
    Abstract Portable insulin infusion devices are effective and safe insulin delivery systems for managing diabetes mellitus, especially type 1 diabetes. Rapidly absorbed insulin analogues, such as insulin lispro or insulin aspart, may offer an advantage over regular human insulin for insulin pumps. Several open-label randomised crossover trials demonstrated that continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) with insulin lispro provided a better control of postprandial hyperglycaemia and a slightly but significantly lower glycated haemoglobin level, with lower daily insulin requirement and similar or even less hypoglycaemic episodes. A CSII study comparing insulin lispro and insulin aspart demonstrated similar results with the two analogues, and better results than those with regular insulin. Because these analogues have a quicker onset and a shorter duration of action than regular insulin, one might expect an earlier and greater metabolic deterioration in case of CSII interruption, but a more rapid correction of metabolic abnormalities after insulin boluses when reactivating the pump. These expectations were confirmed in randomised protocols comparing the metabolic changes occurring during and after CSII interruption of various durations when the pump infused either insulin lispro or regular insulin. The extra cost resulting from the use of CSII and insulin analogues in diabetes management should be compensated for by better metabolic control and quality of life. In conclusion, CSII delivering fast-acting insulin analogues may be considered as one of the best methods to replace insulin in a physiological manner by mimicking meal and basal insulin requirements, without higher risk of hypoglycaemia or ketoacidosis in well-educated diabetic patients. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Treatment of diabetic nephropathy in its early stages

    Giacomo Deferrari
    Abstract Diabetic nephropathy is one of the most frequent causes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and, in recent years, the number of diabetic patients entering renal replacement therapy has dramatically increased. The magnitude of the problem has led to numerous efforts to identify preventive and therapeutic strategies. In normoalbuminuric patients, optimal glycemic control (HbA1c lower than 7.5%) plays a fundamental role in the primary prevention of ESRD [weighted mean relative risk reduction (RRR) ,37% for metabolic control versus trivial renoprotection for intensive anti-hypertensive therapy or ACE-inhibitors (ACE-I)]. In the microalbuminuric stage, strict glycemic control probably reduces the incidence of overt nephropathy (weighted mean RRR ,50%), while blood pressure levels below 130/80 mmHg are recommended according to the average blood pressure levels obtained in various studies. In normotensive patients, ACE-I markedly reduce the development of overt nephropathy almost regardless of blood pressure levels; in hypertensive patients, ACE-I are less clearly active (weighted mean RRR ,23% versus other drugs), whereas angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARB) appear strikingly renoprotective. Once overt proteinuria appears, it is uncertain whether glycemic control affects the progression of nephropathy. In type 1 diabetes, various anti-hypertensive treatments, mainly ACE-I, are effective in slowing down the progression of nephropathy; in type 2 diabetes, two recent studies demonstrate that ARB are superior to conventional therapy or calcium channel blockers (CCB). In clinical practice, pharmacological tools are not always used to the best benefit of the patients. Therefore, clinicians and patients need to be educated regarding the renoprotection of drugs inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and the overwhelming importance of achieving target blood pressure. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Insulin therapy in Europe

    Werner A. Scherbaum
    Abstract The prevalence of type 1 diabetes is rising in all European countries, particularly in Scandinavia and the UK. Insulin therapy in Europe is strongly influenced by the results of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) and the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS), both of which showed the importance of tight metabolic control in patients with diabetes. The importance of tight glycemic control is also emphasized in the Saint Vincent Declaration, which established 5-year goals for antidiabetic therapy in Europe. Insulin therapy in Europe has been significantly improved over the past 10,years, owing to a number of developments. These include increased use of intensive insulin therapy in patients with type 1 diabetes; the development of new insulin analogs, including insulin glargine for injection therapy and short-acting agents that are particularly suitable for use in pumpsand the establishment of comprehensive and standardized treatment goals and guidelines. Nevertheless, important obstacles must still be overcome to optimize therapy for patients with diabetes and reduce the long-term complications of this disease. These obstacles include low public awareness of diabetes and its symptoms, training of physicians as well as patients that is often insufficient to ensure adherence to professional guidelines for diabetes care, and limitations in communication among professional care providers. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The mode of action of thiazolidinediones,

    Hans Hauner
    Abstract The thiazolidinediones (TZDs) or ,glitazones' are a new class of oral antidiabetic drugs that improve metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes through the improvement of insulin sensitivity. TZDs exert their antidiabetic effects through a mechanism that involves activation of the gamma isoform of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR,), a nuclear receptor. TZD-induced activation of PPAR, alters the transcription of several genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism and energy balance, including those that code for lipoprotein lipase, fatty acid transporter protein, adipocyte fatty acid binding protein, fatty acyl-CoA synthase, malic enzyme, glucokinase and the GLUT4 glucose transporter. TZDs reduce insulin resistance in adipose tissue, muscle and the liver. However, PPAR, is predominantly expressed in adipose tissue. It is possible that the effect of TZDs on insulin resistance in muscle and liver is promoted via endocrine signalling from adipocytes. Potential signalling factors include free fatty acids (FFA) (well-known mediators of insulin resistance linked to obesity) or adipocyte-derived tumour necrosis factor-, (TNF-,), which is overexpressed in obesity and insulin resistance. Although there are still many unknowns about the mechanism of action of TZDs in type 2 diabetes, it is clear that these agents have the potential to benefit the full ,insulin resistance syndrome' associated with the disease. Therefore, TZDs may also have potential benefits on the secondary complications of type 2 diabetes, such as cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Ramadan Education and Awareness in Diabetes (READ) programme for Muslims with Type 2 diabetes who fast during Ramadan

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 3 2010
    V. Bravis
    Diabet. Med. 27, 327,331 (2010) Abstract Background and Aims, During Ramadan, Muslims fast from dawn to dusk for one lunar month. The majority of Muslim diabetic patients are unaware of complications such as hypoglycaemia during fasting. The safety of fasting has not been assessed in the UK Muslim population with diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of Ramadan-focused education on weight and hypoglycaemic episodes during Ramadan in a Type 2 diabetic Muslim population taking oral glucose-lowering agents. Methods, We retrospectively analysed two groups. Group A attended a structured education programme about physical activity, meal planning, glucose monitoring, hypoglycaemia, dosage and timing of medications. Group B did not. Hypoglycaemia was defined as home blood glucose < 3.5 mmol/l. Results, There was a mean weight loss of 0.7 kg after Ramadan in group A, compared with a 0.6-kg mean weight gain in group B (P < 0.001). The weight changes observed were independent of the class of glucose-lowering agents used. There was a significant decrease in the total number of hypoglycaemic events in group A, from nine to five, compared with an increase in group B from nine to 36 (P < 0.001). The majority were in patients treated with short-acting sulphonylureas (group A,100%, group B,94%). At 12 months after attending the programme, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) reduction were sustained in group A. Conclusions, Ramadan-focused education in diabetes can empower patients to change their lifestyle during Ramadan. It minimizes the risk of hypoglycaemic events and prevents weight gain during this festive period for Muslims, which potentially benefits metabolic control. [source]

    Insulin resistance is an independent correlate of increased urine albumin excretion: a cross-sectional study in Iranian Type 2 diabetic patients

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 2 2009
    A. Esteghamati
    Abstract Aims, To assess the association of insulin resistance with increased urinary albumin excretion (UAE) in a cohort of Iranian Type 2 diabetic patients. Methods, Three hundred and sixty-one men and 472 women with Type 2 diabetes were enrolled from three different outpatient clinics (Tehran, Iran) during the period 2005,2008. Patients with obstructive uropathy, severe heart failure, liver disease, cancer, autoimmune disease and macroalbuminuria were not included. Microalbuminuria (MA; defined as UAE , 30 mg/day) was found in 242 (29.1%) patients; 591 (70.9%) subjects had normoalbuminuria (UAE < 30 mg/day). Insulin resistance was assessed using homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Results, HOMA-IR index values were higher in subjects with MA than those with normoalbuminuria (P < 0.00001). Adjusted values (for age, sex and duration of diabetes) of UAE and HOMA-IR were 11.81 ± 7.51 (mg/day) and 3.30 ± 2.21 in normoalbuminuric and 75.36 ± 55.57 (mg/day) and 4.98 ± 3.22 in the MA group, respectively (P < 0.00001 for all). Multiple regression analysis showed that UAE was predicted by HOMA-IR, independently of age, duration of diagnosed diabetes, triglycerides, waist circumference, metabolic control, blood pressure and related treatments (P < 0.00001). When patients were categorized into quartiles of HOMA-IR, those of the fourth quartile (i.e. the most insulin resistant) were at a higher risk of increased UAE than other quartiles [odds ratio (OR) 3.7 (95% confidence intervals 2.7,6.2)]. Conclusions, In Iranian Type 2 diabetic patients, albuminuria was strongly associated with insulin resistance. HOMA-IR is an independent predictor of UAE. [source]

    The social and economic consequences of childhood-onset Type 1 diabetes mellitus across the lifecourse: a systematic review

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 8 2006
    B. Milton
    Abstract Background The incidence of childhood-onset (Type 1) diabetes is high, and increasing, particularly among the very young. The aim of this review was to determine the longer-term social consequences of having diabetes as a child and to determine whether adverse consequences are more severe for disadvantaged children. Methods Results from published and unpublished studies were synthesized narratively to examine the impact of diabetes on education, employment and income in adulthood. The question of whether the impact differed for different social groups was also examined. Results Case-control studies found that children with diabetes missed more school than healthy children. Most studies of attainment found no differences between children with diabetes and non-diabetic control subjects or the local population, although poor metabolic control, early-onset, longer illness duration and serious hypoglycaemic events were associated with underachievement. People with childhood-onset diabetes may experience disadvantage in employment, and have a lower income in adulthood, although diabetic complications appear to be the most important determinant of social consequences in later life. Conclusions Many children with diabetes,especially late-onset,perform equally well at school despite increased rates of absence, but it is not yet clear whether specific subgroups are at greater risk of educational underperformance. People with childhood-onset diabetes, however, do appear to experience some disadvantage in adult employment. Qualitative research and cohort studies are needed to fill key gaps in the existing evidence base. Future research must also examine the impact of diabetes-related risk factors on socio-economic consequences. [source]

    School attendance in children with Type 1 diabetes

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 4 2005
    L. A. Glaab
    Abstract Aims To determine whether children with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) miss more school than their non-DM siblings and peers and to identify factors associated with school absenteeism in children with DM. Methods School absenteeism data for the 2000,01 school year were obtained for 78 children with DM, 38 non-DM siblings and 118 269 age-matched peers in Toronto, Ontario. Questionnaires and hospital records were utilized to evaluate child-, family- and diabetes-related factors associated with school absenteeism in children with DM. Results Children with DM missed only slightly, albeit significantly more school than both their non-DM siblings (mean ±sd: 10.9 ± 8.9 vs. 8.1 ± 8.1 days, P < 0.001) and peers (median: 8.8 vs. 5.5 days, P = 0.0005). A multiple regression analysis indicated that school absenteeism in children with DM was associated with their parents' attitudes towards school attendance (P = 0.002), poorer metabolic control (P = 0.006), shorter disease duration (P = 0.006) and a lack of aggressive behaviour (P = 0.02). Conclusions With current management strategies, near normal school attendance is a reasonable goal for all children with DM and should be strongly encouraged by parents, educators and health care professionals. [source]

    The implementation of nutritional advice for people with diabetes

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 10 2003
    Nutrition Subcommittee of the Diabetes Care Advisory Committee of Diabetes UK
    Abstract These consensus-based recommendations emphasize the practical implementation of nutritional advice for people with diabetes, and describe the provision of services required to provide the information. Important changes from previous recommendations include greater flexibility in the proportions of energy derived from carbohydrate and monounsaturated fat, further liberalization in the consumption of sucrose, more active promotion of foods with a low glycaemic index, and greater emphasis on the provision of nutritional advice in the context of wider lifestyle changes, particularly physical activity. Monounsaturated fats are now promoted as the main source of dietary fat because of their lower susceptibility to lipid peroxidation and consequent lower atherogenic potential. Consumption of sucrose for patients who are not overweight can be increased up to 10% of daily energy derived from carbohydrate provided that this is eaten in the context of a healthy diet and distributed throughout the day. Evidence is presented for the effectiveness of advice provided by trained dieticians. The increasing evidence for the importance of good metabolic control and the growing requirement for measures to prevent Type 2 diabetes in an increasingly obese population will require major expansion of dietetic services if the standards in National Service Frameworks are to be successfully implemented. [source]

    Factors predictive of nephropathy in DCCT Type 1 diabetic patients with good or poor metabolic control

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 7 2003
    L. Zhang
    Abstract Aims The study aim was to assess the time-related risk of developing diabetic nephropathy [albumin excretion rate (AER) , 40 mg/24 h] from baseline covariates in Type 1 diabetic patients with either good or poor metabolic control (MC). Methods Based on material from the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial study (n = 1441), patients were considered as under good or poor MC if their HbA1c mean level up to last visit fell in the lowest (, 6.9%) or highest (, 9.5%) quintile of the overall HbA1c distribution, respectively. Prevalence cases of nephropathy were excluded from the study. Survival analysis and Cox regression were applied to the data. Results Among patients with good MC (n = 277), 15% had developed nephropathy at the end of the study. Conversely, among patients with poor MC (n = 268), the proportion without the complication was 52%. When adjusting for MC, time to diabetic nephropathy was related to age (P < 0.0001), AER (P < 0.001), duration of diabetes (P < 0.005), body mass index (BMI) (P < 0.005), all at baseline, and to gender (P < 0.01). Patients with upper normal range AER levels, longer duration of diabetes and lower BMI were at higher risk, regardless of MC. The adverse effect of younger age on diabetic nephropathy was more marked in good than in poor MC. Although women tended to develop the complication more often under good MC, they appeared to be better protected under poor MC. Conclusions This study confirms occurrence of diabetic nephropathy under good MC and non-occurrence of the complication despite poor MC. It also demonstrates that some baseline covariates can affect, in a differential manner, time to diabetic nephropathy depending on MC. Diabet. Med. 20, 580,585 (2003) [source]

    Decreased red blood cell aggregation subsequent to improved glycaemic control in Type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 4 2003
    B. Chong-Martinez
    Abstract Aims Reports of rheological changes following intensification of metabolic control are limited and not concordant. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that intensification of management of Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) with diet, exercise and insulin improves haemorheological behaviour by reducing red blood cell (RBC) aggregation. Methods Blood was sampled from 55 subjects before and following 14 ± 3 weeks of intensified management. RBC aggregation was measured in vitro for cells in plasma or in an aggregating 70 kD dextran solution. Plasma viscosity and whole blood viscosity were also measured. Results During treatment, fasting glucose fell 27%, HbA1c fell 21%, and serum triglycerides and total cholesterol fell 28% and 12%, respectively (P < 0.0001 for each). The extent and strength of RBC aggregation in plasma fell by 10,13% (P < 0.002). Similar decreases of RBC aggregation were seen for cells suspended in dextran (P < 0.002). Plasma viscosity decreased by 3% (P < 0.02) and high shear blood viscosity by 6,7% (P < 0.0001). Changes of RBC aggregation in plasma and in dextran were significantly correlated, supporting a cellular rather than a plasmatic origin for these changes. However, there were no significant correlations between RBC aggregation changes and changes of fasting glucose, HbA1c, serum triglycerides, serum cholesterol, or plasma fibrinogen. Conclusions Intensified metabolic control results in a reduction of RBC aggregation that appears to be intrinsic to RBC. Since increased RBC aggregation can impair microcirculatory flow, it is possible that haemorheological factors may contribute to the reduction of microvascular complications resulting from improved metabolic control in T2DM. [source]

    Rheological determinants of red blood cell aggregation in diabetic patients in relation to their metabolic control

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 2 2002
    K. Elishkevitz
    Abstract Aims To determine whether increased red blood cell adhesiveness/aggregation in diabetic patients is related to the extent of their metabolic control. Methods We measured erythrocyte adhesiveness/aggregation in a group of 85 adult patients with diabetes mellitus by using citrated venous whole blood and a simple slide test. The erythrocyte adhesiveness/aggregation was determined by measuring the size of the spaces that are formed between the aggregated erythrocytes. We divided the patients into those with either low or high erythrocyte adhesiveness/aggregation values. Results The erythrocyte adhesiveness/aggregation values of the two groups differed significantly in terms of their fibrinogen concentration, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, high sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP), total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations. There was no difference between the two groups regarding the concentrations of HbA1c. Logistic regression was applied to construct a model to predict the belonging of a patient in the low or high erythrocyte adhesiveness/aggregation group. A linear regression was applied to construct a model to predict the erythrocyte adhesiveness/aggregation values. Both models turned out to include gender, age, fibrinogen, triglyceride, retinopathy, coronary artery disease and age and gender interaction. Neither HbA1c nor CRP entered the models. Conclusions The degree of erythrocyte adhesiveness/aggregation and several variables of the acute-phase response in patients with diabetes mellitus are not directly related to the degree of metabolic control as evaluated by means of HbA1c concentration. Diabetic patients might benefit from rheological or anti-inflammatory interventions regardless of their metabolic control. [source]

    Glucose counterregulation in Type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 7 2001
    B. E. De Galan
    Abstract Glucose counterregulatory failure and hypoglycaemia unawareness frequently complicate treatment of Type 1 diabetes mellitus, especially when aiming for intensive metabolic control. Since tight metabolic control reduces microvascular long-term complications in Type 2 diabetes mellitus, the integrity of glucose counterregulation in Type 2 diabetic patients is important. Using a Medline search, we identified 12 studies in which counterregulatory responses to insulin-induced hypoglycaemia were compared between Type 2 diabetic patients and appropriate controls. A review of these studies showed that some patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus develop mild counterregulatory dysfunction and reduced awareness of insulin-induced hypoglycaemia. Some studies suggested an association between counterregulatory impairment and intensity of metabolic control. We speculate that the relatively low frequency of (severe) hypoglycaemic events in Type 2 diabetes may explain why glucose counterregulation remains unaffected in most patients. We hypothesize that residual ,-cell reserve and insulin resistance provide protection against severe hypoglycaemia and limit impaired counterregulation. Diabet. Med. 18, 519,527 (2001) [source]

    Preserving , Cells in Type 1 Diabetes mellitus: the role of immunological tolerance

    Stanley R. Pillemer
    Abstract Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is characterized by an autoimmune attack on beta cells of the islets of Langerhans. This immunological attack is mediated by effector T-lymphocytes and results in the destruction of the , cells. One approach to abrogating the immunological attack is to use immunosuppressive treatments. Such treatments tend to broadly suppress the immune system. A better approach is to develop treatments that induce tolerance. Autoimmune diseases are associated with the presence of inadequate numbers of functionally active regulatory T cells (Tregs). Tregs can induce a state of immunological tolerance and suppress the inflammation and destruction of target tissues. Teplizumab, also known as hOKT3,1 (Ala-Ala), is a humanized monoclonal antibody that induces Tregs. In clinical trials, treatment with this antibody preserved insulin production and improved metabolic control during the first year of T1DM. A pivotal multinational trial is in progress to determine the efficacy and safety of teplizumab in the treatment of new onset T1DM. Drug Dev Res 69:153,157, 2008. ©2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Outcome research in diabetes: from theory to practice.

    Results of the QuED study
    Abstract Despite the fact that several pharmacological and educational interventions have been proven to improve diabetes outcomes in the context of randomized clinical trials, the transferability of these results to clinical practice can encounter obstacles represented by physicians' knowledge and beliefs, structural and organizational constraints, and patients' clinical and socio-economical characteristics. Outcomes research represents a fundamental tool to investigate the extent to which trials results can be reproduced under routine clinical conditions, to evaluate clinical behavior in areas of uncertainty, and to ascertain which features of diabetes care are more important to improve clinical outcomes and quality of life. This report will discuss some of the results of the QuED (Quality of Care and Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes) study, to exemplify the yield of an outcomes research approach to a complex, chronic disease. The QuED Study is a nation-wide initiative aimed at assessing the relationship between the quality of care delivered to subjects with type 2 diabetes and outcomes. The study involved 101 outpatient diabetes clinics and 103 General Practitioners (GPs) in Italy. Overall, 3,437 patients have been enrolled and followed up for 5 years at 6-month intervals. Quality of life was evaluated through questionnaires filled in by the patients at 6-month intervals for 3 years. A physicians' survey was also conducted to investigate physician's beliefs regarding metabolic control, blood pressure, and lipid control. Given the multiplicity of the sources of information, the study allowed for matching physicians' beliefs and practices with intermediate and long-term clinical and humanistic outcomes. Drug Dev. Res. 67:280,286, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Treatment satisfaction with insulin glargine in patients with diabetes mellitus in a university hospital clinic in Sweden

    M Annersten Gershater RN, MNSc Research Nurse
    Abstract Background: Few studies evaluate patients' perspectives when a new drug is intro-duced to treat chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus. The clinical role of a new insulin treatment, in terms of the relationship between higher cost and better treat-ment outcomes (as defined from the patient perspective) has been discussed. We sought to explore patient satisfaction with a new insulin treatment (insulin glargine). At its launch in 2002/3 it was purported to provide constant, peakless insulin release following once- or twice-daily administration, thus leading to fewer hypoglycaemic episodes while providing metabolic control equivalent to that achieved with NPH human basal insulin. Aims: To investigate the indications used for prescription of a new drug and its clinical effects on glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, perceived hypoglycaemic events and patient satisfaction. Methods: The Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (Status Version, DTSQ-s), which measures satisfaction with treatment regimen, and perceived frequency of hyperglycaemia and hypoglycemia, was circulated to all living patients who had ever started treatment with insulin glargine at the Department of Endocrinology at Malmö University Hospital. Medical records of 913 patients were assessed for HbA1c levels at 0 and 12 months after starting insulin glargine therapy. Results: Completed questionnaires were returned by 615 of 960 patients (64%) who had ever started insulin glargine. The main indications for starting treatment were physicians' or nurses' initiatives, desire for fewer fluctuations and improved metabolic control. HbA1c levels fell by 0.41% for patients with type 1 diabetes and by 0.68% for those with type 2 diabetes. The mean DTSQ-s score was 28.45 for satisfaction, whereas the mean perceived hypoglycaemic/hyperglycaemic events score was 3. Conclusion: Treatment satisfaction was very high and perceived frequency of hypoglycaemia/hyperglycaemia was very low. The indications for treatment of insulin glargine are being followed in accordance with national recommendations. Copyright © 2009 FEND [source]

    Experiences with a group intervention for adolescents with type 1 diabetes and their parents

    RN Løding RN Registered Nurse
    Abstract Background: Increased adolescent-parent engagement in diabetes-related tasks appears to decrease diabetes-related family conflict. Group intervention may be a good approach when caring for adolescents with chronic conditions, including diabetes. Aim: This article aims to describe how group intervention may be useful in the treatment of adolescents with type 1 diabetes. When these children enter puberty and become adolescents, it can become difficult. In many cases, family-related conflict has a negative impact on an adolescent's blood sugar levels and self-care behaviour. Method: 19 adolescents (age 13,17 years) and their parents participated in group intervention. Families were recruited from outpatient clinics in two centres in Middle-Norway. Separate groups met once a month for 1 year. All adolescents and parents completed a battery of self-report measures. In addition, HbA1c values were obtained five times from the adolescents' medical records. Results: In terms of metabolic control there was a significant decrease in HbA1c values in the girls studied. In adolescents of both sexes, the process of deterioration was stopped. Conclusion: The development of efficient interventions for this group of patients is highly needed. Our intervention was peer-oriented and psycho-educative. Although the sample size in this study was small, one may still consider that group intervention may improve parent-adolescent relationships. Results from the study also demonstrate that group intervention may improve metabolic control in girls, without deterioration in health-related quality-of-life. Copyright © 2008 FEND [source]

    Influence of needle size on metabolic control and patient acceptance

    G Kreugel RN, MSc Clinical Nurse Specialist in Diabetes
    Abstract Aim: To investigate whether the length of the needle used for intermittent subcutaneous insulin administration affects metabolic control, injection-related side effects and patient preference. Method: In a crossover study, 68 patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, body mass index , 18 kg/m2, were randomised into two groups; 52 patients completed the trial. Patients in group A used a 5 mm needle for their insulin injections over a period of 13 weeks, then switched to a longer needle (8 or 12 mm). Patients in group B used the needles in reverse order. Patients were re-assessed at 26 weeks. Primary endpoints were insulin doses, and frequency and severity of hypoglycaemic events. Secondary endpoints were patient preference and frequency of injection-related bruising, bleeding, insulin leakage and pain. Results: A total of 52 patients completed the study. No change in the mean glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) level was found in group B (baseline, 7.41%; 13 weeks, 7.38%; 26 weeks, 7.34%), whereas a small but significant rise in mean HbA1c level was observed in group A after returning to the longer needle (baseline, 7.67%; 13 weeks, 7.65%; 26 weeks, 7.87%: p<0.05). There were no significant changes in the amount of insulin injected, frequency or severity of hypoglycaemic events or insulin leakage in either group. The 5 mm needle was associated with a significant decrease in bleeding, bruising and pain (p<0.05). Most patients (86%) showed a preference for the 5 mm needle (p<0.05).Conclusion: For insulin injection, a 5 mm needle length is associated with unchanged HbA1c levels, unchanged frequency or severity of hypoglycaemic events and less discomfort for patients compared with 8 or 12 mm needles. The use of 5 mm needles is as safe as 8 or 12 mm needles. Further research is advisable involving thin and obese patients using 5 mm needles, in order for shorter needles to be recommended as standard practice. Copyright © 2007 FEND [source]

    Perception and integration of people living with type 1 diabetes , an empirical study

    M Due-christensen RN Diabetes Nurse
    Abstract Background: The chronic complications of type 1 diabetes impose a heavy physical, psychological and social burden on people living with the condition. Improved metabolic control reduces the risk of developing chronic complications and could lead to improved well-being for people with diabetes. Aims: The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of adults with type 1 diabetes who have improved their metabolic control with respect to acceptance, knowledge, social support and their relationships with healthcare providers. Methods: The study included ten people with type 1 diabetes who had achieved and maintained a reduction of 1.5% in their HbA1C during a one-year period. A phenomenological qualitative semi-structured interview was used in the collection of information from the participants. The interviews were analysed using the method of meaning condensation; these were interpreted from a perspective of integration. Results: The study shows differences among people living with diabetes regarding their perceptions of living with the condition. The people have at least three different strategies of integrating diabetes, based on their perception. Conclusions: Integration is a life-long process and in this process, the person with diabetes has to learn to integrate diabetes into both behavioural and psychosocial aspects of life. [source]