Metabolic Changes (metabolic + change)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Action of Celecoxib on Hepatic Metabolic Changes Induced by the Walker-256 Tumour in Rats

Alexandra Acco
Celecoxib was administered daily (5,50 mg/kg body weight) beginning at the day in which the tumour cells were inocculated. At day 14, the liver was isolated and perfused in order to measure alanine transformation, glycolysis and arginine transformation. Maximal reduction of tumour growth (75%), accompanied by an almost normal weight gain, was attained with a celecoxib dose of 12.5 mg/kg. Diminution of glucose utilization (glycolysis) and inhibition of gluconeogenesis and ureogenesis from alanine caused by the tumor were totally reversed by celecoxib. Oxygen uptake by the liver was also normalized by the drug. Hepatic arginine transformation, which is normally enhanced in rats bearing the Walker-256 tumour, remained elevated in celecoxib-treated animals. It was concluded that preservation of gluconeogenesis and normalization of hepatic glucose utilization can explain, partly at least, the clinical improvement of cancer patients treated with the drug. The lack of action of celecoxib on arginine hydrolysis might indicate that reduction in polyamine synthesis is not a factor contributing to the diminished tumour growth. [source]

Prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected patients over time: the Swiss HIV Cohort Study

HIV MEDICINE, Issue 6 2006
TR Glass
Objective Metabolic changes caused by antiretroviral therapy (ART) may increase the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). We evaluated changes in the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) and 10-year risk of CHD in a large cohort of HIV-infected individuals. Methods All individuals from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS) who completed at least one CVRF questionnaire and for whom laboratory data were available for the period February 2000 to February 2006 were included in the analysis. The presence of a risk factor was determined using cut-offs based on the guidelines of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP ATP III), the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC7), the American Diabetes Association, and the Swiss Society for Cardiology. Results Overall, 8033 individuals completed at least one CVRF questionnaire. The most common CVRFs in the first completed questionnaire were smoking (57.0%), low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (37.2%), high triglycerides (35.7%), and high blood pressure (26.1%). In total, 2.7 and 13.8% of patients were categorized as being at high (>20%) and moderate (10,20%) 10-year risk for CHD, respectively. Over 6 years the percentage of smokers decreased from 61.4 to 47.6% and the percentage of individuals with total cholesterol >6.2 mmol/L decreased from 21.1 to 12.3%. The prevalence of CVRFs and CHD risk was higher in patients currently on ART than in either pretreated or ART-naive patients. Conclusion During the 6-year observation period, the prevalence of CVRFs remains high in the SHCS. Time trends indicate a decrease in the percentage of smokers and individuals with high cholesterol. [source]

Metabolic changes during the perinatal period in dairy sheep in relation to level of nutrition and breed.


Summary The effect of level of nutrition during pregnancy was investigated on various plasma parameters, on energy intake, body weight, energy balance and milk yield, after parturition in two Greek dairy breeds. Thirteen Chios (CH) and 17 Karagouniko (K) pregnant ewes were assigned to groups A and B, which received 110% of their energy requirements for maintenance plus pregnancy for two foetuses and 90% of their maintenance energy requirements, respectively. After parturition all ewes were fed ad libitum. Body weights of group A and K ewes were higher (p 0.05) compared with group B and CH ewes, during lactation, although daily energy intakes tended to be greater in group B than in A ewes, during the first 3 weeks and in CH than K ewes (p 0.05), after the second week post-partum. Total mean milk production was 114 ± 11 l and 82 ± 10 l for groups A and B (p 0.05) and 120 ± 12 l and 70 ± 7 l for CH and K ewes (p 0.001), respectively. Positive energy balance appeared after the day 15 and 7 of lactation, for groups A and B ewes and after the day 15 and 5 of lactation, for CH and K ewes, respectively. The group B and K ewes tended to have higher mean plasma glucose concentrations than group A and CH ewes, during early lactation. There were no significant differences in free fatty acids, ,-hydroxybutyric acid, insulin and T4 concentrations between A and B ewes. CH had higher free fatty acids (p 0.05) and ,-hydroxybutyric acid (p 0.05), and lower T4 (p 0.01) and insulin (p 0.05) concentrations than K ewes. It was concluded that under-nutrition during pregnancy results in low milk yields of ewes fed ad libitum in early lactation, due to the poor development of the udder during late gestation. [source]

Metabolic changes detected by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in vivo and in vitro in a murin model of Parkinson's disease, the MPTP-intoxicated mouse

Carine Chassain
Abstract Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive loss of the dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta, which project to the striatum. The aim of this study was to analyze in vivo and in vitro consequences of dopamine depletion on amount of metabolites in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease using proton 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). The study was performed on control mice (n = 7) and MPTP-intoxicated mice (n = 7). All the experiments were performed at 9.4 T. For in vivo MRS acquisitions, mice were anesthetized and carefully placed on an animal handling system with the head centered in birdcage coil used for both excitation and signal reception. Spectra were acquired in a voxel (8 ,L) centered in the striatum, applying a point-resolved spectroscopy sequence (TR = 4000 ms, TE = 8.8 ms). After in vivo MRS acquisitions, mice were killed; successful lesion verified by tyrosine hydroxylase immunolabeling on the substantia nigra pars compacta and in vitro MRS acquisitions performed on perchloric extracts of anterior part of mice brains. In vitro spectra were acquired using a standard one-pulse experiment. The absolute concentrations of metabolites were determined using jmrui (Lyon, France) from 1H spectra obtained in vivo on striatum and in vitro on perchloric extracts. Glutamate (Glu), glutamine (Gln), and GABA concentrations obtained in vivo were significantly increased in striatum of MPTP-lesioned mice (Glu: 15.5 ± 2.5 vs. 12.9 ± 1.0 mmol/L, p < 0.05; Gln: 2.3 ± 0.9 vs. 1.8 ± 0.6 mmol/L, p < 0.05; GABA: 2.3 ± 0.9 vs. 1.3 ± 0.6 mmol/L, p < 0.05). The in vitro results confirmed these results, Glu (10.9 ± 2.5 vs. 7.9 ± 1.7 ,mol/g, p < 0.05), Gln (6.8 ± 2.9 vs. 4.3 ± 1.0 ,mol/g, p < 0.05), and GABA (2.9 ± 0.9 vs. 1.5 ± 0.4 ,mol/g, p < 0.01). The present study strongly supports a hyperactivity of the glutamatergic cortico-striatal pathway hypothesis after dopaminergic denervation in association with an increase of striatal GABA levels. It further shows an increased of striatal Gln concentrations, perhaps as a strategy to protect neurons from Glu excitotoxic injury after striatal dopamine depletion. [source]

Metabolic changes in the liver graft monitored continuously with microdialysis during liver transplantation in a pig model

Grzegorz Nowak MD
Microdialysis provides the opportunity to continuously monitor metabolic changes in tissue. The aim of the study is to monitor metabolic changes in the liver graft over time during transplantation in a pig model. Fourteen littermate female pigs with a body weight of 30 to 34 kg were used for seven orthotopic liver transplantations. Intrahepatic implantation of a microdialysis catheter into the liver graft was performed in the donor. Microdialysis samples were collected at 20-minute intervals during the donor operation, cold preservation, and for 7 hours after reperfusion in the recipient. Glucose, lactate, pyruvate, and glycerol concentrations were measured. After cold perfusion, glucose, lactate, and glycerol levels increased, whereas pyruvate levels decreased rapidly. During cold storage, glucose and glycerol levels increased, whereas lactate levels remained stable and pyruvate levels were undetectable. During implantation of the liver graft, glucose, lactate, and glycerol levels showed an accelerated increase. After portal reperfusion, glucose, lactate, and glycerol levels continued to increase for another 40 to 60 minutes, after which they decreased and finally settled at normal levels. At this time, pyruvate levels increased, with a peak within 2 hours after reperfusion, and then decreased to normal levels. Calculated lactate-pyruvate ratio increased after cold perfusion and remained stable during cold storage. During rewarming, it showed an accelerated increase, but after reperfusion, it decreased rapidly. Rewarming and reperfusion are most harmful to the liver, reflected by an accelerated increase in glucose and glycerol levels and lactate-pyruvate ratio. High intrahepatic glucose levels during ischemia appear to be a liver-specific event, which may represent glycogen degradation in injured hepatocytes. [source]

Multiple spin-echo spectroscopic imaging for rapid quantitative assessment of N-acetylaspartate and lactate in acute stroke

Astrid Stengel
Abstract Monitoring the signal levels of lactate (Lac) and N-acetylaspartate (NAA) by chemical shift imaging can provide additional knowledge about tissue damage in acute stroke. Despite the need for this metabolic information, spectroscopic imaging (SI) has not been used routinely for acute stroke patients, mainly due to the long acquisition time required. The presented data demonstrate that the application of a fast multiple spin-echo (MSE) SI sequence can reduce the measurement time to 6 min (four spin echoes per echo train, 32 × 32 matrix). Quantification of Lac and NAA in terms of absolute concentrations (i.e., mmol/l) can be achieved by means of the phantom replacement approach, with correction terms for the longitudinal and transversal relaxation adapted to the multiple spin-echo sequence. In this pilot study of 10 stroke patients (symptom onset < 24 hr), metabolite concentrations obtained from MSE-SI add important information regarding tissue viability that is not provided by other sequences (e.g., diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI)). Metabolic changes extended beyond the borders of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) lesion in nine of the 10 patients, showing a rise in Lac concentrations up to 18 mmol/l, while NAA levels sometimes dropped below the detection level. Considerable differences among the patients in terms of the Lac concentrations and the size of the SI-ADC mismatch were observed. Magn Reson Med 52:228,238, 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Effects of stimulation frequency and pulse duration on fatigue and metabolic cost during a single bout of neuromuscular electrical stimulation

MUSCLE AND NERVE, Issue 5 2010
Julien Gondin PhD
Abstract We have investigated the effects of stimulation frequency and pulse duration on fatigue and energy metabolism in rat gastrocnemius muscle during a single bout of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES). Electrical pulses were delivered at 100 Hz (1-ms pulse duration) and 20 Hz (5-ms pulse duration) for the high (HF) and low (LF) frequency protocols, respectively. As a standardization procedure, the averaged stimulation intensity, the averaged total charge, the initial peak torque, the duty cycle, the contraction duration and the torque-time integral were similar in both protocols. Fatigue was assessed using two testing trains delivered at a frequency of 100 Hz and 20 Hz before and after each protocol. Metabolic changes were investigated in vivo using 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS) and in vitro in freeze-clamped muscles. Both LF and HF NMES protocols induced the same decrease in testing trains and metabolic changes. We conclude that, under carefully controlled and comparable conditions, the use of low stimulation frequency and long pulse duration do not minimize the occurrence of muscle fatigue or affect the corresponding stimulation-induced metabolic changes so that this combination of stimulation parameters would not be adequate in the context of rehabilitation. Muscle Nerve, 2010 [source]

Metabolic changes detected in vivo by 1H MRS in the MPTP-intoxicated mouse

Carine Chassain
Abstract We used in vivo proton (1H) Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) to measure the levels of the main excitatory amino acid, glutamate (Glu) and also glutamine (Gln) and GABA in the striatum and cerebral cortex in the MPTP-intoxicated mouse, a model of dopaminergic denervation, before and after dopamine (DA) replacement. The study was performed at 9.4T on control mice (n,=,8) and MPTP-intoxicated mice (n,=,8). In vivo spectra were acquired in a voxel (8,µL) centered in the striatum, and in the cortex (4.6,µL). Three days after basal MRS acquisitions new spectra were acquired in the striatum and cortex, after levodopa (200,,1). Glu, Gln and GABA concentrations obtained in the basal state were significantly increased in the striatum of MPTP-lesioned mice (Glu: 20.2,±,0.8 vs 11.4,±,0.9,mM, p,<,0.001; Gln: 5.4,±,1.6 vs 2.0,±,0.6,mM, p,<,0.05; GABA: 3.6,±,0.8 vs 1.6,±,0.2,mM, p,<,0.05). Levodopa lowered metabolites concentrations in the striatum of MPTP-lesioned mice (Glu: 20.2,±,0.8 vs 11.2,±,0.4,mM (+ Ldopa), p,<,0.001; Gln: 5.4,±,1.6 vs 1.6,±,0.4,mM (+ Ldopa), p,<,0.05; GABA: 3.6,±,0.8 vs 1.7,±,0.4,mM (+ Ldopa), p,<,0.01). Metabolite levels in the striatum of MPTP-intoxicated mice + levodopa were not significantly different from those in the striatum of controls. No change was found in the cortex after DA denervation and after DA replacement between the two animals groups. These results strongly support a predominant change in striatal Glu synaptic activity in the cortico-striatal pathway. Acute levodopa administration reverses the increase of metabolites in the striatum. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Metabolic differences between primary and recurrent human brain tumors: a 1H NMR spectroscopic investigation

Fritz-Georg Lehnhardt
Abstract High-resolution proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy was performed on tissue specimens from 33 patients with astrocytic tumors (22 astrocytomas, 11 glioblastomas) and 13 patients with meningiomas. For all patients, samples of primary tumors and their first recurrences were examined. Increased anaplasia, with respect to malignant transformation, resulting in a higher malignancy grade, was present in 11 recurrences of 22 astrocytoma patients. Spectroscopic features of tumor types, as determined on samples of the primary occurrences, were in good agreement with previous studies. Compared with the respective primary astrocytomas, characteristic features of glioblastomas were significantly increased concentrations of alanine (Ala) (p,=,0.005), increased metabolite ratios of glycine (Gly)/total creatine (tCr) (p,=,0.0001) and glutamate (Glu)/glutamine (Gln) (p,=,0.004). Meningiomas showed increased Ala (p,=,0.02) and metabolite ratios [Gly, total choline (tCho), Ala] over tCr (p,=,0.001) relative to astrocytomas, and N -acetylaspartate and myo-inositol were absent. Metabolic changes of an evolving tumor were observed in recurrent astrocytomas: owing to their consecutive assessments, more indicators of malignant degeneration were detected in astrocytoma recurrences (e.g. Gly, p,=,0.029; tCho, p,=,0.034; Glu, p,=,0.015; tCho/tCr, p,=,0.001) in contrast to the comparison of primary astrocytomas with primary glioblastomas. The present investigation demonstrated a correlation of the tCho-signal with tumor progression. Significantly elevated concentrations of Ala (p,=,0.037) and Glu (p,=,0.003) and metabolite ratio tCho/tCr (p,=,0.005) were even found in recurrent low-grade astrocytomas with unchanged histopathological grading (n,=,11). This may be related to an early stage of malignant transformation, not yet detectable morphologically, and emphasizes the high sensitivity of 1H NMR spectroscopy in elucidating characteristics of brain tumor metabolism. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Integrative functional genomics of salt acclimatization in the model legume Lotus japonicus

Diego H. Sanchez
Summary The model legume Lotus japonicus was subjected to non-lethal long-term salinity and profiled at the ionomic, transcriptomic and metabolomic levels. Two experimental designs with various stress doses were tested: a gradual step acclimatization and an initial acclimatization approach. Ionomic profiling by inductively coupled plasma/atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) revealed salt stress-induced reductions in potassium, phosphorus, sulphur, zinc and molybdenum. Microarray profiling using the Lotus Genechip® allowed the identification of 912 probesets that were differentially expressed under the acclimatization regimes. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry-based metabolite profiling identified 147 differentially accumulated soluble metabolites, indicating a change in metabolic phenotype upon salt acclimatization. Metabolic changes were characterized by a general increase in the steady-state levels of many amino acids, sugars and polyols, with a concurrent decrease in most organic acids. Transcript and metabolite changes exhibited a stress dose-dependent response within the range of NaCl concentrations used, although threshold and plateau behaviours were also observed. The combined observations suggest a successive and increasingly global requirement for the reprogramming of gene expression and metabolic pathways to maintain ionic and osmotic homeostasis. A simple qualitative model is proposed to explain the systems behaviour of plants during salt acclimatization. [source]

Age-related macular degeneration: hemodynamic changes

Purpose Metabolic changes of the RPE associated to the dysfunction of choriocapillaries(CC)/RPE complex may induces the AMD-related changes. Additional vascular changes in the choroid potentially have deleterious effects on the RPE. Methods Quantification of CC number and lumen diameters in cross sections and alkaline phosphatase (APase) flat-embedding technique, expressing high constitutive APase activity in choriocapillaris and choroidal veins on human RPE/Bruch's Membrane/CC complex, significantly contributed to the analysis of the choroidal vasculature. Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) data provided additional information on the assessment of hemodynamic changes in AMD. Results Choroidal vascular density reduction and significant vasoconstriction of the choriocapillaries, occurs during the evolution of AMD. In eyes with geographic atrophy, the RPE degenerates first while CC loss is secondary to RPE degeneration. In eyes with exudative AMD, degeneration of the CC layer occurs while RPE is still functional. LDF data indicated choroidal blood flow decrease according to age and the degree of severity of AMD; the decrease in flow preceding the formation of choroidal CNV, strongly suggest that these changes may have a role in the development of CNV. As a result of vascular dysfunction, the choroidal blood flow is dysregulated in patients with neovascular AMD. The choroidal watershed zone (WZ) courses through the fovea more often in patients suffering from AMD than in age-matched controls, particularly in the presence of CNV. Choroidal neovascularisation usually arises within these WZ. Conclusion The role of choroidal ischemia in the pathophysiology of AMD is supported by the observed choroidal microcirculation anatomical and fucntional abnormalities. [source]

Peroxisomal branched chain fatty acid ,-oxidation pathway is upregulated in prostate cancer

THE PROSTATE, Issue 4 2005
Shan Zha
Abstract Overexpression of ,-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR), an enzyme involved in branched chain fatty acid ,-oxidation, in prostate cancer has been reported. Here, we report that an enzyme downstream from AMACR in the peroxisomal branched chain fatty acid ,-oxidation pathway,D -bifunctional protein (DBP),is also upregulated in prostate cancer at both mRNA and protein levels, accompanied by increased enzymatic activity. Furthermore, our data suggest that pristanoyl-CoA oxidase (ACOX3), which is expressed at extremely low level in other human organs studied including the liver, might contribute significantly to peroxisomal branched chain fatty acid ,-oxidation in human prostate tissue and some prostate cancer cell lines. In contrast to these results for peroxisomal enzymes, no significant expression changes of mitochondrial fatty acid ,-oxidation enzymes were observed in prostate cancer tissues through comprehensive quantitative RT-PCR screening. These data for the first time provide evidence for the selective over-activation of peroxisomal branched chain fatty acid ,-oxidation in prostate cancer, emphasizing a new metabolic change during prostate oncogenesis. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion with short-acting insulin analogues or human regular insulin: efficacy, safety, quality of life, and cost-effectiveness

Régis Pierre Radermecker
Abstract Portable insulin infusion devices are effective and safe insulin delivery systems for managing diabetes mellitus, especially type 1 diabetes. Rapidly absorbed insulin analogues, such as insulin lispro or insulin aspart, may offer an advantage over regular human insulin for insulin pumps. Several open-label randomised crossover trials demonstrated that continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) with insulin lispro provided a better control of postprandial hyperglycaemia and a slightly but significantly lower glycated haemoglobin level, with lower daily insulin requirement and similar or even less hypoglycaemic episodes. A CSII study comparing insulin lispro and insulin aspart demonstrated similar results with the two analogues, and better results than those with regular insulin. Because these analogues have a quicker onset and a shorter duration of action than regular insulin, one might expect an earlier and greater metabolic deterioration in case of CSII interruption, but a more rapid correction of metabolic abnormalities after insulin boluses when reactivating the pump. These expectations were confirmed in randomised protocols comparing the metabolic changes occurring during and after CSII interruption of various durations when the pump infused either insulin lispro or regular insulin. The extra cost resulting from the use of CSII and insulin analogues in diabetes management should be compensated for by better metabolic control and quality of life. In conclusion, CSII delivering fast-acting insulin analogues may be considered as one of the best methods to replace insulin in a physiological manner by mimicking meal and basal insulin requirements, without higher risk of hypoglycaemia or ketoacidosis in well-educated diabetic patients. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Intermediate metabolism in normal pregnancy and in gestational diabetes

G. Di Cianni
Abstract Complex though integrated hormonal and metabolic changes characterize pregnancy. In the face of progressive decline in insulin action, glucose homeostasis is maintained through a compensatory increase in insulin secretion. This switches energy production from carbohydrates to lipids, making glucose readily available to the fetus. This precise and entangled hormonal and metabolic condition can, however, be disrupted and diabetic hyperglycemia can develop (gestational diabetes). The increase in plasma glucose level is believed to confer significant risk of complications to both the mother and the fetus and the newborn. Moreover, exposition of fetal tissues to the diabetic maternal environment can translate into an increased risk for development of diabetes and/or the metabolic syndrome in the adult life. In women with previous gestational diabetes, the risk of developing type 2 diabetes is greatly enhanced, to the point that GDM represents an early stage in the natural history of type 2 diabetes. In these women, accurate follow-up and prevention strategies are needed to reduce the subsequent development of overt diabetes. This paper will review current knowledge on the modifications occurring in normal pregnancy, while outlining the mechanisms. In this paper, we will review the changes of intermediary metabolism occurring during pregnancy. In particular, we will outline the mechanisms responsible for gestational diabetes; the link between these alterations and associated maternal and neonatal morbidity will be examined. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Insights into the acute cerebral metabolic changes associated with childhood diabetes

F. J. Cameron
Abstract Aims Type 1 diabetes is a prevalent chronic disease in childhood with the commonest single cause of death being cerebral oedema in the context of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). The nature of the alterations in cerebral metabolism that may result in vulnerability to neuronal injury remains unknown. The aim of this study was to analyse the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) brain data from eight children with diabetes following acute presentation with hyperglycaemia with or without ketoacidosis, to determine the nature and timing of any alterations in cerebral structure and metabolism. Methods This study used MRI and MRS to investigate regional cerebral abnormalities in a small series of diabetic patients with and without DKA. Changes were compared with the clinical and biochemical features of the patients studied. Results Our small series of patients all demonstrated abnormal signal changes in the frontal region on fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MR imaging, suggestive of oedema, and spectroscopic abnormalities of increased taurine, myoinositol and glucose levels. The MR abnormalities varied in severity but did not correlate with any clinical or biochemical parameters. Conclusions These changes indicate that many diabetic children, particularly at presentation, may have alterations in cerebral metabolism with implications for the pathogenesis and treatment of the cerebral complications of DKA. In addition, our findings suggest that increased taurine may be one of the important differentiating factors in the response of the brain of diabetic children to DKA that may reflect an increase in their vulnerability to cerebral oedema compared with diabetic adults. [source]

The metabolic syndrome: metabolic changes with vascular consequences

A. M. J. Wassink
Abstract Despite criticism regarding its clinical relevance, the concept of the metabolic syndrome improves our understanding of both the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and its associated metabolic changes and vascular consequences. Free fatty acids (FFA) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-,) play prominent roles in the development of insulin resistance by impairing the intracellular insulin signalling transduction pathway. Obesity is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and strongly related to insulin resistance. In case of obesity, FFAs and TNF-, are produced in abundance by adipocytes, whereas the production of adiponectin, an anti-inflammatory adipokine, is reduced. This imbalanced production of pro- and anti-inflammatory adipokines, as observed in adipocyte dysfunction, is thought to be the driving force behind insulin resistance. The role of several recently discovered adipokines such as resistin, visfatin and retinol-binding protein (RBP)-4 in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance is increasingly understood. Insulin resistance induces several metabolic changes, including hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia and hypertension, all leading to increased cardiovascular risk. In addition, the dysfunctional adipocyte, reflected largely by low adiponectin levels and a high TNF-, concentration, directly influences the vascular endothelium, causing endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Adipocyte dysfunction could therefore be regarded as the common antecedent of both insulin resistance and atherosclerosis and functions as the link between obesity and cardiovascular disease. Targeting the dysfunctional adipocyte may reduce the risk for both cardiovascular disease and the development of type 2 diabetes. Although lifestyle intervention remains the cornerstone of therapy in improving insulin sensitivity and its associated metabolic changes, medical treatment might prove to be important as well. [source]

Involvement of astroglial ceramide in palmitic acid-induced Alzheimer-like changes in primary neurons

Sachin Patil
Abstract A high-fat diet has been shown to significantly increase the risk of the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD), a neurodegenerative disease histochemically characterized by the accumulation of amyloid beta (A,) protein in senile plaques and hyperphosphorylated tau in neurofibrillary tangles. Previously, we have shown that saturated free fatty acids (FFAs), palmitic and stearic acids, caused increased amyloidogenesis and tau hyperphosphorylaion in primary rat cortical neurons. These FFA-induced effects observed in neurons were found to be mediated by astroglial FFA metabolism. Therefore, in the present study we investigated the basic mechanism relating astroglial FFA metabolism and AD-like changes observed in neurons. We found that palmitic acid significantly increased de-novo synthesis of ceramide in astroglia, which in turn was involved in inducing both increased production of the A, protein and hyperphosphorylation of the tau protein. Increased amyloidogenesis and hyperphoshorylation of tau lead to formation of the two most important pathophysiological characteristics associated with AD, A, or senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, respectively. In addition to these pathophysiological changes, AD is also characterized by certain metabolic changes; abnormal cerebral glucose metabolism is one of the distinct characteristics of AD. In this context, we found that palmitic acid significantly decreased the levels of astroglial glucose transporter (GLUT1) and down-regulated glucose uptake and lactate release by astroglia. Our present data establish an underlying mechanism by which saturated fatty acids induce AD-associated pathophysiological as well as metabolic changes, placing ,astroglial fatty acid metabolism' at the center of the pathogenic cascade in AD. [source]

Effects of Ischaemia on Subsequent Exercise-Induced Oxygen Uptake Kinetics in Healthy Adult Humans

Michael L. Walsh
Leg muscles were occluded (33 kPa) prior to exercise to determine whether the induced metabolic changes, and reactive hyperaemia upon occlusion release just prior to the exercise, would accelerate the subsequent oxygen consumption (V,O2) response. Eight subjects performed double bouts (6 min duration, 6 min rest in-between) of square wave leg cycle ergometry both below and above their lactate threshold (LT). Prior to exercise, large blood pressure cuffs were put around the upper thighs. Occlusion durations were 0 min (control), 5 min and 10 min. Ischaemia was terminated within 5 s prior to exercise onset. Heart rate, V,O2, ventilatory rate (V,E), electromyogram (EMG) and haemoglobin/myoglobin (Hb/Mb) saturation were recorded continuously. Single exponential modelling demonstrated that, compared to control (time constant = 53.9 ± 13.9 s), ischaemia quickened the V,O2 response (P < 0.05) for the first bout of exercise above LT (time constant = 48.3 ± 14.5 s) but not to any other exercise bout below or above LT. The 3-6 min integrated EMG (iEMG) slope was correlated to the 3-6 min V,O2 slope (r = 0.73). Hb/Mb saturation verified the ischaemia but did not show a consistent relation to the V,O2 time course. Reactive hyperaemia induced a faster V,O2 response for work rates above LT. The effect, while significant, was not large considering the expected favourable metabolic and circulatory changes induced by ischaemia. [source]

Complex phenotypes of a mutant inactivated for CymR, the global regulator of cysteine metabolism in Bacillus subtilis

Marie-Françoise Hullo
Abstract We characterized various phenotypes of a mutant inactivated for CymR, the master regulator of cysteine metabolism in Bacillus subtilis. The deletion of cymR resulted in impaired growth in the presence of cystine and increased sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide-, disulfide-, paraquat- and tellurite-induced stresses. Estimation of metabolite pools suggested that these phenotypes could be the result of profound metabolic changes in the ,cymR mutant including an increase of the intracellular cysteine pool and hydrogen sulfide formation, as well as a depletion of branched-chain amino acids. [source]

Association study between kynurenine 3-monooxygenase gene and schizophrenia in the Japanese population

N. Aoyama
Several lines of evidence suggest that metabolic changes in the kynurenic acid (KYNA) pathway are related to the etiology of schizophrenia. The inhibitor of kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) is known to increase KYNA levels, and the KMO gene is located in the chromosome region associated with schizophrenia, 1q42-q44. Single-marker and haplotype analyses for 6-tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of KMO were performed (cases = 465, controls = 440). Significant association of rs2275163 with schizophrenia was observed by single-marker comparisons (P = 0.032) and haplotype analysis including this SNP (P = 0.0049). Significant association of rs2275163 and haplotype was not replicated using a second, independent set of samples (cases = 480, controls = 448) (P = 0.706 and P = 0.689, respectively). These results suggest that the KMO is unlikely to be related to the development of schizophrenia in Japanese. [source]

Switch studies: a review

HIV MEDICINE, Issue 2 2002
RL Murphy
Many physicians and patients wish to switch from successful protease inhibitor (PI)-based regimens to alternative regimens, usually composed of a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) or abacavir plus two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). This reflects a desire to avoid or reverse the metabolic changes observed during long-term PI-based antiretroviral therapy; to alleviate PI-associated adverse effects; and to improve adherence by simplifying the regimen. Data from a number of randomized and cohort PI switch studies are reviewed. Overall, the results of these studies are mixed, perhaps because of limitations in study design, patient number and duration of follow-up. In most studies, the frequency of virological failure is reduced by switching to a NNRTI regimen. Switching to an abacavir-based regimen is associated with two-fold higher risk of virological failure if mutations in the reverse transcriptase gene pre-exist. Improvements in metabolic and lipid abnormalities have not been uniform but favourable lipid changes have been reported, particularly after switching to nevirapine. Resolution of lipodystrophy symptoms has not been demonstrated objectively, perhaps because of insufficient follow-up and/or the role of NRTIs in this syndrome. [source]

The prevalence of lipodystrophy in an ambulant HIV-infected population: it all depends on the definition

HIV MEDICINE, Issue 3 2001
VM Carter
Objectives This study's objective was to determine the prevalence of body shape changes and metabolic abnormalities in an ambulant population with HIV infection. Three different definitions of lipodystrophy were used to assess these changes. Patients' anthropometric measures and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans were compared in order to estimate fat distribution in this population. We sought to evaluate potential predictors for lipodystrophy according to each of the three definitions. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study in the outpatient clinic of a tertiary referral hospital in Melbourne, Australia. We enrolled a total of 167 HIV-infected ambulatory patients over 3 months in mid-1998. Data on 159 males, 149 of whom were receiving triple combination antiretroviral therapy, were evaluated. Anthropometric measures, clinical examination, self-report of body shape changes, biochemical measures and DEXA scan were used to assess lipodystrophy and risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Patients described body shape changes in the face, trunk, arms and legs. Laboratory parameters measured included fasting triglyceride (TG), cholesterol, high-density lipoproteins (HDL), glucose, insulin, CD4 cell count and plasma HIV RNA. Current and past antiretroviral therapies were ascertained. Results According to one proposed Australian national definition of lipodystrophy (LDNC), the prevalence of lipodystrophy in this population was 65%. This definition included an objective assessment with major and minor criteria. Patient-defined lipodystrophy (LDP), which involved a subjective assessment of thinning arms and legs and central adiposity, occurred in 19%. Patient-defined lipoatrophy (LAP), which involved a subjective assessment of thinning arms and legs without central adiposity, occurred in 21.3%. No change in body habitus was noted by 37% of the cohort. Hypercholesterolaemia was recorded in 44%, hypertriglyceridaemia in 52% and elevated insulin levels in 23%. Anthropometry was predictive of the per cent total body fat recorded by DEXA scan, but produced consistently lower values. In multivariate analysis, LDP and LAP were significantly associated with stavudine (d4T) use, while LAP was also associated with zidovudine (ZDV) treatment. There were no treatment associations with LDNC. Protease inhibitor (PI) exposure was associated with metabolic changes but not patient perceived body shape changes, while d4T and ZDV exposure was associated with increased triglycerides and reduced peripheral fat stores. Conclusions The prevalence of body shape changes in a single population varied depending on the definition applied. The LDNC definition overestimated body shape abnormalities in comparison with patient perception. LAP was associated with significantly lower fat stores measured by anthropometry and DEXA scan than those identified under the LDNC definition. In contrast to LDNC, LAP was associated with d4T exposure, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) and ZDV duration of use, but not PI use. Until a consensus definition for lipodystrophy is developed, including agreement on objective measurement and thresholds for abnormality, careful description of the individual components of the syndrome is required to enable cohort comparisons so that predictors of the syndrome can be assessed more accurately and outcome studies made feasible. [source]

Noninvasive dynamic imaging of seizures in epileptic patients

Louise Tyvaert
Abstract Epileptic seizures are due to abnormal synchronized neuronal discharges. Techniques measuring electrical changes are commonly used to analyze seizures. Neuronal activity can be also defined by concomitant hemodynamic and metabolic changes. Simultaneous electroencephalogram (EEG)-functional MRI (fMRI) measures noninvasively with a high-spatial resolution BOLD changes during seizures in the whole brain. Until now, only a static image representing the whole seizure was provided. We report in 10 focal epilepsy patients a new approach to dynamic imaging of seizures including the BOLD time course of seizures and the identification of brain structures involved in seizure onset and discharge propagation. The first activation was observed in agreement with the expected location of the focus based on clinical and EEG data (three intracranial recordings), thus providing validity to this approach. The BOLD signal preceded ictal EEG changes in two cases. EEG-fMRI may detect changes in smaller and deeper structures than scalp EEG, which can only record activity form superficial cortical areas. This method allowed us to demonstrate that seizure onset zone was limited to one structure, thus supporting the concept of epileptic focus, but that a complex neuronal network was involved during propagation. Deactivations were also found during seizures, usually appearing after the first activation in areas close or distant to the activated regions. Deactivations may correspond to actively inhibited regions or to functional disconnection from normally active regions. This new noninvasive approach should open the study of seizure generation and propagation mechanisms in the whole brain to groups of patients with focal epilepsies. Hum Brain Mapp, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Effect of bile on the lipid composition and surface properties of bifidobacteria

A. Gómez Zavaglia
Aim: The changes produced on the bacterial surface of Bifidobacteria cells when they are grown in bile were compared with those provoked by bile added to bacteria grown in the absence of bile. Methods and Results: The adhesive properties, the zeta potential and the lipid composition of Bifidobacterial strains, isolated from human faeces and grown in MRS medium, were determined. Bacteria grown in MRS with bile showed a loss of adherence and autoaggregation in correlation with a decrease in the surface hydrophobicity in comparison to those grown in MRS without bile, concomitant with the absence of two glycolipids, the increase of sugar content and minor changes in fatty acid composition. The surface changes caused by bile shock on bacteria grown in bile-free medium were much less pronounced and, in addition, no effect on the lipid composition was apparent. Conclusions: The comparison of the results indicates that bile action on surface properties is related to metabolic changes. Significance and Impact of the Study: Long-term exposure of bacteria to bile may cause metabolic changes affecting their adhesive properties irreversibly. This may be taken as a criterion to define the probiotic properties of different strains. [source]

Diabetes and mitochondrial bioenergetics: Alterations with age

Fernanda M. Ferreira
Abstract Several studies have been carried out to evaluate the alterations in mitochondrial functions of diabetic rats. However, some of the results reported are controversial, since experimental conditions, such as aging, and/or strain of animals used were different. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the metabolic changes in liver mitochondria, both in the presence of severe hyperglycaemia (STZ-treated rats) and mild hyperglycaemia (Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats). Moreover, metabolic alterations were evaluated both at initial and at advanced states of the disease. We observed that both models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes presented alterations on respiratory chain activity. Because of continual severe hyperglycaemia, 9 weeks after the induction of diabetes, the respiratory function declined in STZ-treated rats, as observed by membrane potential and respiratory ratios (RCR, P/O, and FCCP-stimulated respiration) assessment. In contrast, GK rats of 6 months age presented increased respiratory ratios. To localize which respiratory complexes are affected by diabetes, enzymatic respiratory chain activities were evaluated. We observed that succinate dehydrogenase and cytochrome c oxidase activities were significantly augmented both in STZ-treated rats and GK rats of 6 months age. Moreover, H+ -ATPase activity was also significantly increased in STZ-treated rats with 3 weeks of diabetes and in GK rats of 6 months age as compared to controls. Therefore, these results clearly suggest that both animal models of diabetes present some metabolic adjustments in order to circumvent the deleterious effects promoted by the high glucose levels typical of the disease. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 17:214,222, 2003; Published online in Wiley InterScience ( DOI 10.1002/jbt.10081 [source]

ApcMin/+ mouse model of colon cancer: Gene expression profiling in tumors

Daniel Leclerc
Abstract The ApcMin/+ mouse is a popular animal model for studies of human colon cancer, but the molecular changes associated with neoplasia in this system have only been partially characterized. Our aim was to identify novel genes involved in tumorigenesis in this model. RNA from intestinal adenomas and from pre-neoplastic small intestine were prepared from six ApcMin/+ mice. The tumor transcriptomes were analyzed with high-density oligonucleotide microarrays representing ,12,000 probe sets; we compared their profiles with those of matched pre-neoplastic intestine. Stringent analysis revealed reproducible changes for 98 probe sets representing 90 genes, including novel observations regarding 50 genes whose involvement in this mouse model has never been reported. In addition to the expected changes in growth regulatory genes, the altered gene products could be assigned to four functional groupings that should enhance tumorigenesis: metabolic changes that would result in a high rate of glycolysis, alterations in enzymes involved in reactive oxygen species or carcinogen metabolism, cytoskeletal elements, and proteins involved in tumor invasion or angiogenesis. A fifth group consisted of expression changes that might restrict tumor progression, suggesting that the adenomatous state reflects a balance of pro- and anti-tumorigenic factors. Since many of the altered genes had not previously been reported to be involved in any tumorigenic processes, our observations provide a host of new candidates for potential modulation to prevent or treat intestinal neoplasia. Supplementary material for this article can be found at © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Systemic inflammation in the brain-dead organ donor

Brain death itself impairs organ function in the potential donor, thereby limiting the number of suitable organs for transplantation. In addition, graft survival of kidneys obtained from brain-dead (BD) donors is inferior to that of kidneys obtained from living donors. Experimental studies confirm an inferior graft survival for the heart, liver and lungs from BD compared with living donors. The mechanism underlying the deteriorating effect of brain death on the organs has not yet been fully established. We know that brain death triggers massive circulatory, hormonal and metabolic changes. Moreover, the past 10 years have produced evidence that brain death is associated with a systemic inflammatory response. However, it remains uncertain whether the inflammation is induced by brain death itself or by events before and after becoming BD. The purpose of this study is to discuss the risk factors associated with brain death in general and the inflammatory response in the organs in particular. Special attention will be paid to the heart, lung, liver and kidney and evidence will be presented from clinical and experimental studies. [source]

Intracerebral monitoring in comatose patients treated with hypothermia after a cardiac arrest

Background: Induced mild hypothermia (32,34 °C) has proven to reduce ischemic brain injury and improve outcome after a cardiac arrest (CA). The aim of this investigation was to study the occurrence of increased intracranial pressure (ICP) and neurochemical metabolic changes indicating cerebral ischemia, after CA and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), when induced hypothermia was applied. Methods: ICP, brain chemistry and brain temperature were monitored during induced hypothermia and re-warming in four adult unconscious patients with restoration of spontaneous circulation after CA and CPR. Results: ICP was occasionally above 20 mmHg. Neurochemical changes indicating cerebral ischemia (increased lactate/pyruvate ratio) and excitoxicity (increased glutamate) were found after CA, and signs of ischemia were also observed during the re-warming phase. A biphasic increase in glycerol was seen, which may have been a result of both membrane degradation and overspill from the general circulation. Conclusions: Intracerebral microdialysis and ICP monitoring may be used in selected patients not requiring anticoagulants and PCI to obtain information regarding the common disturbances of intracranial dynamics after CA. The results of this study underline the importance of inducing hypothermia quickly after CA and emphasize the need for developing tools for guidance of the re-warming. [source]

MRI of late microstructural and metabolic alterations in radiation-induced brain injuries

Kevin C. Chan BEng
Abstract Purpose To evaluate the late effects of radiation-induced damages in the rat brain by means of in vivo multiparametric MRI. Materials and Methods The right hemibrains of seven Sprague-Dawley rats were irradiated with a highly collimated 6 MV photon beam at a single dose of approximately 28 Gy. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), proton MR spectroscopy (1H-MRS), T2-weighted imaging, and T1-weighted imaging were performed to the same animals 12 months after radiation treatment. Results Compared with the contralateral side, a significantly higher percentage decrease in fractional anisotropy was observed in the ipsilateral fimbria of hippocampus (29%) than the external capsule (8%) in DTI, indicating the selective vulnerability of fimbria to radiation treatment. Furthermore, in 1H-MRS, significantly higher choline, glutamate, lactate, and taurine peaks by 24%, 25%, 87%, and 58%, respectively, were observed relative to creatine in the ipsilateral brain. Postmortem histology confirmed these white matter degradations as well as glial fibrillary acidic protein and glutamine synthetase immunoreactivity increase in the ipsilateral brain. Conclusion The microstructural and metabolic changes in late radiation-induced brain injuries were documented in vivo. These multiparametric MRI measurements may help understand the white matter changes and neurotoxicity upon radiation treatment in a single setting. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2009;29:1013,1020. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Applications of neural network analyses to in vivo 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy of Parkinson disease patients

David Axelson PhD
Abstract Purpose To apply neural network analyses to in vivo magnetic resonance spectra of controls and Parkinson disease (PD) patients for the purpose of classification. Materials and Methods Ninety-seven in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectra of the basal ganglia were recorded from 31 patients with (PD) and 14 age-matched healthy volunteers on a 1.5-T imager. The PD patients were grouped as follows: probable PD (N = 15), possible PD (N = 11), and atypical PD (N = 5). Total acquisition times of approximately five minutes were achieved with a TE (echo time) of 135 msec, a TR (repetition time) of 2000 msec, and 128 scan averages. Neural network (back propagation, Kohonen, probabilistic, and radial basis function) and related (generative topographic mapping) data analyses were performed. Results Conventional data analysis showed no statistically significant differences in metabolite ratios based on measuring signal intensities. The trained networks could distinguish control from PD with considerable accuracy (true positive fraction 0.971, true negative fraction 0.933). When four classes were defined, approximately 88% of the predictions were correct. The multivariate analysis indicated metabolic changes in the basal ganglia in PD. Conclusion A variety of neural network and related approaches can be successfully applied to both qualitative visualization and classification of in vivo spectra of PD patients. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2002;16:13,20. © 2002 Wiley -Liss, Inc. [source]