Metabolic Capabilities (metabolic + capability)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Dynamics of genome evolution in facultative symbionts of aphids

Patrick H. Degnan
Summary Aphids are sap-feeding insects that host a range of bacterial endosymbionts including the obligate, nutritional mutualist Buchnera plus several bacteria that are not required for host survival. Among the latter, ,Candidatus Regiella insecticola' and ,Candidatus Hamiltonella defensa' are found in pea aphids and other hosts and have been shown to protect aphids from natural enemies. We have sequenced almost the entire genome of R. insecticola (2.07 Mbp) and compared it with the recently published genome of H. defensa (2.11 Mbp). Despite being sister species the two genomes are highly rearranged and the genomes only have ,55% of genes in common. The functions encoded by the shared genes imply that the bacteria have similar metabolic capabilities, including only two essential amino acid biosynthetic pathways and active uptake mechanisms for the remaining eight, and similar capacities for host cell toxicity and invasion (type 3 secretion systems and RTX toxins). These observations, combined with high sequence divergence of orthologues, strongly suggest an ancient divergence after establishment of a symbiotic lifestyle. The divergence in gene sets and in genome architecture implies a history of rampant recombination and gene inactivation and the ongoing integration of mobile DNA (insertion sequence elements, prophage and plasmids). [source]

Earliest fossil record of bacterial,cyanobacterial mat consortia: the early Silurian Passage Creek biota (440 Ma, Virginia, USA)

GEOBIOLOGY, Issue 2 2008
ABSTRACT Cyanobacteria in terrestrial and aquatic habitats are frequently associated with heterotrophic bacteria, and such associations are most often metabolically interactive. Functionally, the members of such bacterial,cyanobacterial consortia benefit from diverse metabolic capabilities of their associates, thus exceeding the sum of their parts. Such associations may have been just as ubiquitous in the past, but the fossil record has not produced any direct evidence for such associations to date. In this paper, we document fossil bacteria associated with a macrophytic cyanobacterial mat in the early Silurian (Llandovery) Massanutten Sandstone of Virginia, USA. Both the bacterial and the cyanobacterial cells are preserved by mineral replacement (pyrite subsequently replaced by iron oxyhydroxides) within an amorphous carbonaceous matrix which represents the common exopolysaccharide investment of the cyanobacterial colony. The bacteria are rod-shaped, over 370 nm long and 100 nm in diameter, and occur both as isolated cells and as short filaments. This occurrence represents the oldest fossil evidence for bacterial,cyanobacterial associations, documenting that such consortia were present 440 Ma ago, and revealing the potential for them to be recognized deeper in the fossil record. [source]

Proteomics of human umbilical vein endothelial cells applied to etoposide-induced apoptosis

Arnaud Bruneel Dr.
Abstract We have undertaken to continue the proteomic study of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) using the combination of 2-DE, automated trypsin digestion, and PMF analysis after MALDI-TOF MS and peptide sequencing using nano LC-ESI-MS/MS. The overall functional characterization of the 162 identified proteins from primary cultures of HUVECs confirms the metabolic capabilities of endothelium and illustrates various cellular functions more related to cell motility and angiogenesis, protein folding, anti-oxidant defenses, signal transduction, proteasome pathway and resistance to apoptosis. In comparison with controls cells, the differential proteomic analysis of HUVECs treated by the pro-apoptotic topoisomerase inhibitor etoposide further revealed the variation of eight proteins, namely, GRP78, GRP94, valosin-containing protein, proteinase inhibitor 9, cofilin, 37-kDa laminin receptor protein, bovine apolipoprotein, and tropomyosin. These data suggest that etoposide-induced apoptosis of human vascular endothelial cells results from the intricate involvement of multiple apoptosis processes including at least the mitochondrial and the ER stress pathways. The presented 2-D pattern and protein database, as well as the data related to apoptosis of HUVECs, are available at [source]

Systematizing the generation of missing metabolic knowledge

Jeffrey D. Orth
Abstract Genome-scale metabolic network reconstructions are built from all of the known metabolic reactions and genes in a target organism. However, since our knowledge of any organism is incomplete, these network reconstructions contain gaps. Reactions may be missing, resulting in dead-ends in pathways, while unknown gene products may catalyze known reactions. New computational methods that analyze data, such as growth phenotypes or gene essentiality, in the context of genome-scale metabolic networks, have been developed to predict these missing reactions or genes likely to fill these knowledge gaps. A growing number of experimental studies are appearing that address these computational predictions, leading to discovery of new metabolic capabilities in the target organism. Gap-filling methods can thus be used to improve metabolic network models while simultaneously leading to discovery of new metabolic gene functions. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2010;107: 403,412. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Robustness Analysis of the Escherichiacoli Metabolic Network

Jeremy S. Edwards
Genomic, biochemical, and strain-specific data can be assembled to define an in silico representation of the metabolic network for a select group of single cellular organisms. Flux-balance analysis and phenotypic phase planes derived therefrom have been developed and applied to analyze the metabolic capabilities and characteristics of Escherichia coli K-12. These analyses have shown the existence of seven essential reactions in the central metabolic pathways (glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, tricarboxylic acid cycle) for the growth in glucose minimal media. The corresponding seven gene products can be grouped into three categories: (1) pentose phosphate pathway genes, (2) three-carbon glycolytic genes, and (3) tricarboxylic acid cycle genes. Here we develop a procedure that calculates the sensitivity of optimal cellular growth to altered flux levels of these essential gene products. The results indicate that the E. coli metabolic network is robust with respect to the flux levels of these enzymes. The metabolic flux in the transketolase and the tricarboxylic acid cycle reactions can be reduced to 15% and 19%, respectively, of the optimal value without significantly influencing the optimal growth flux. The metabolic network also exhibited robustness with respect to the ribose-5-phosphate isomerase, and the ribose-5-phosephate isomerase flux was reduced to 28% of the optimal value without significantly effecting the optimal growth flux. The metabolic network exhibited limited robustness to the three-carbon glycolytic fluxes both increased and decreased. The development presented another dimension to the use of FBA to study the capabilities of metabolic networks. [source]