Metabolic Behavior (metabolic + behavior)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Hemodynamic profile and tissular oxygenation in orthotopic liver transplantation: Influence of hepatic artery or portal vein revascularization of the graft

Carlos Moreno
We performed a prospective, randomized study of adult patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation, comparing hemodynamic and tissular oxygenation during reperfusion of the graft. In 30 patients, revascularization was started through the hepatic artery (i.e., initial arterial revascularization) and 10 minutes later the portal vein was unclamped; in 30 others, revascularization was started through the portal vein (i.e., initial portal revascularization) and 10 minutes later the hepatic artery was unclamped. The primary endpoints of the study were mean systemic arterial pressure and the gastric-end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) difference. The secondary endpoints were other hemodynamic and metabolic data. The pattern of the hemodynamic parameters and tissue oxygenation values during the dissection and anhepatic stages were similar in both groups At the first unclamping, initial portal revascularization produced higher values of mean pulmonary pressure (25 7 mm of Hg vs. 17 4 mm of Hg; P < 0.05) and wedge and central venous pressures. At the second unclamping, initial portal revascularization produced higher values of cardiac output and mean arterial pressure (87 15 mm of Hg vs. 79 15 mm of Hg; P < 0.05) and pulmonary blood pressure. Postreperfusion syndrome was present in 13 patients (42.5%) in the arterial group and in 11 patients (36%) in the portal group. During revascularization, the values of gastric and arterial pH decreased in both groups and recovered at the end of the procedure, but were more accentuated in the initial arterial revascularization group. In conclusion, we found that initial arterial revascularization of the graft increases pulmonary pressure less markedly, so it may be indicated for those patients with poor pulmonary and cardiac reserve. Nevertheless, for the remaining patients, initial portal revascularization offers more favorable hemodynamic and metabolic behavior, less inotropic drug use, and earlier normalization of lactate and pH values. Liver Transpl, 2006. 2006 AASLD. [source]

Stoichiometric model and metabolic flux analysis for Leptospirillum ferrooxidans

M.P. Merino
Abstract A metabolic model for Leptospirillum ferrooxidans was developed based on the genomic information of an analogous iron oxidizing bacteria and on the pathways of ferrous iron oxidation, nitrogen and CO2 assimilation based on experimental evidence for L. ferrooxidans found in the literature. From this metabolic reconstruction, a stoichiometric model was built, which includes 86 reactions describing the main catabolic and anabolic aspects of its metabolism. The model obtained has 2 degrees of freedom, so two external fluxes were estimated to achieve a determined and observable system. By using the external oxygen consumption rate and the generation flux biomass as input data, a metabolic flux map with a distribution of internal fluxes was obtained. The results obtained were verified with experimental data from the literature, achieving a very good prediction of the metabolic behavior of this bacterium at steady state. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2010;107:696,706. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Retroviral vector production under serum deprivation: The role of lipids

A.F. Rodrigues
Abstract The use of retroviral vectors for gene therapy applications demands high titer preparations and stringent quality standards. However, the manufacturing of these vectors still represents a highly challenging task due to the low productivity of the cell lines and reduced stability of the vector infectivity, particularly under serum-free conditions. With the objective of understanding the major limitations of retroviral vector production under serum deprivation, a thorough study of viral production kinetics, vector characterization and cell growth and metabolic behavior was conducted, for 293 FLEX 18 and Te Fly Ga 18 producer cell lines using different serum concentrations. The reduction of serum supplementation in the culture medium resulted in pronounced decreases in cell productivity of infectious vector, up to ninefold in 293 FLEX 18 cells and sevenfold in Te Fly Ga 18 cells. Total particles productivity was maintained, as assessed by measuring viral RNA; therefore, the decrease in infectious vector production could be attributed to higher defective particles output. The absence of the serum lipid fraction was found to be the major cause for this decrease in cell viral productivity. The use of delipidated serum confirmed the requirement of serum lipids, particularly cholesterol, as its supplementation not only allowed the total recovery of viral titers as well as additional production increments in both cell lines when comparing with the standard 10% (v/v) FBS supplementation. This work identified lower production ratios of infectious particles/total particles as the main restraint of retroviral vector production under serum deprivation; this is of the utmost importance concerning the clinical efficacy of the viral preparations. Lipids were confirmed as the key serum component correlated with the production of infective retroviral vectors and this knowledge can be used to efficiently design medium supplementation strategies for serum-free production. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2009; 104: 1171,1181. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Active and inactive metabolic pathways in tumor spheroids: Determination by GC,MS

Michael G. Hunnewell
Abstract Active metabolic pathways in three-dimensional cancer-cell cultures are potential chemotherapeutic targets that would be effective throughout tumors. Chaotic vasculature creates cellular regions in tumors with distinct metabolic behavior that are only present in aggregate cell masses. To quantify cancer cell metabolism, transformed mouse fibroblasts were grown as spheroids and fed isotopically labeled culture medium. Metabolite uptake and production rates were measured as functions of time. Gas chromatography,mass spectrometry was used to quantify the extent of labeling on amino acids present in cytoplasmic extracts. The labeling pattern identified several active and inactive metabolic pathways: Glutaminolysis was found to be active, and malic enzyme and gluconeogenesis were inactive. Transformed cells in spheroids were also found to actively synthesize serine, cysteine, alanine, aspartate, glutamate, and proline; and not synthesize glutamine. The activities of these pathways suggest that cancer cells consume glutamine for biosynthesis and not to provide cellular energy. Determining active metabolic pathways indicates how cells direct carbon flow and may lead to the discovery of novel molecular targets for anticancer therapy. 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2010 [source]

Structure,Activity Relationships of SSAO/VAP-1 Arylalkylamine-Based Substrates

CHEMMEDCHEM, Issue 4 2009
Francesc Yraola Dr.
Abstract SSAO/VAP-1 substrates may be valuable for the treatment or prevention of diabetes mellitus, as they show insulin-mimetic properties. This review highlights the importance of studying the relevant steric and electronic features in the development of new ligands with better SSAO/VAP-1 recognition, enhanced selectivity over other amine oxidases, and improved metabolic behavior. Semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase/vascular adhesion protein-1 (SSAO/VAP-1) substrates show insulin-mimetic effects and are therefore potentially valuable molecules for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Herein we review several structural and electronic aspects of SSAO arylalkylamine-based substrates. Two main modifications directly affect amine oxidase (AO) activity: 1),variation in ring substitution modulates the biological activity of the arylalkylamine ligand by converting a substrate into a substrate-like inhibitor, and 2),variation in the number of methylene units between the aromatic ring and the ammonium groups of the arylalkylamine substrates dramatically alters the oxidation rate between species. Furthermore, we review relevant information about mammalian SSAO/VAP-1 substrate selectivity and specificity over monoamine oxidases (MAOs). [source]

Reduction of a set of elementary modes using yield analysis

Hyun-Seob Song
Abstract This article proposes a new concept termed "yield analysis" (YA) as a method of extracting a subset of elementary modes (EMs) essential for describing metabolic behaviors. YA can be defined as the analysis of metabolic pathways in yield space where the solution space is a bounded convex hull. Two important issues arising in the analysis and modeling of a metabolic network are handled. First, from a practical sense, the minimal generating set spanning the yield space is recalculated. This refined generating set excludes all the trivial modes with negligible contribution to convex hull in yield space. Second, we revisit the problem of decomposing the measured fluxes among the EMs. A consistent way of choosing the unique, minimal active modes among a number of possible candidates is discussed and compared with two other existing methods, that is, those of Schwartz and Kanehisa (Schwartz and Kanehisa, 2005. Bioinformatics 21: 204,205) and of Provost et al. (Provost et al., 2007. Proceedings of the 10th IFAC Symposium on Computer Application in Biotechnology, 321,326). The proposed idea is tested in a case study of a metabolic network of recombinant yeasts fermenting both glucose and xylose. Due to the nature of the network with multiple substrates, the flux space is split into three independent yield spaces to each of which the two-staged reduction procedure is applied. Through a priori reduction without any experimental input, the 369 EMs in total was reduced to 35 modes, which correspond to about 91% reduction. Then, three and four modes were finally chosen among the reduced set as the smallest active sets for the cases with a single substrate of glucose and xylose, respectively. It should be noted that the refined minimal generating set obtained from a priori reduction still provides a practically complete description of all possible states in the subspace of yields, while the active set covers only a specific set of experimental data. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2009;102: 554,568. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]