Mental

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Mental

  • poor mental

  • Terms modified by Mental

  • mental ability
  • mental activity
  • mental adjustment
  • mental age
  • mental arithmetic
  • mental arithmetic task
  • mental capacity
  • mental capacity act
  • mental causation
  • mental component
  • mental component score
  • mental component summary
  • mental component summary score
  • mental condition
  • mental confusion
  • mental content
  • mental deterioration
  • mental development
  • mental development index
  • mental developmental index
  • mental disabilities
  • mental disease
  • mental disorder
  • mental disorders
  • mental distress
  • mental effort
  • mental experience
  • mental foramen
  • mental function
  • mental functioning
  • mental health
  • mental health act
  • mental health appointment
  • mental health care
  • mental health center
  • mental health centre
  • mental health challenge
  • mental health clinic
  • mental health clinician
  • mental health community
  • mental health concern
  • mental health condition
  • mental health consequence
  • mental health consumer
  • mental health diagnosis
  • mental health difficulty
  • mental health disorder
  • mental health disorders
  • mental health education
  • mental health effects
  • mental health facility
  • mental health field
  • mental health functioning
  • mental health intervention
  • mental health inventory
  • mental health issues
  • mental health law
  • mental health legislation
  • mental health measure
  • mental health need
  • mental health nurse
  • mental health nursing
  • mental health nursing care
  • mental health nursing education
  • mental health nursing practice
  • mental health nursing role
  • mental health outcome
  • mental health patient
  • mental health policy
  • mental health practice
  • mental health practitioner
  • mental health problem
  • mental health professional
  • mental health program
  • mental health promotion
  • mental health provider
  • mental health recovery
  • mental health research
  • mental health score
  • mental health service
  • mental health service delivery
  • mental health service use
  • mental health service user
  • mental health service utilization
  • mental health services
  • mental health services research
  • mental health setting
  • mental health specialist
  • mental health staff
  • mental health status
  • mental health subscale
  • mental health survey
  • mental health symptom
  • mental health system
  • mental health team
  • mental health training
  • mental health treatment
  • mental health trust
  • mental health unit
  • mental health work
  • mental health worker
  • mental health workforce
  • mental healthcare
  • mental hospital
  • mental hygiene
  • mental ill health
  • mental illness
  • mental illness diagnosis
  • mental image
  • mental imagery
  • mental impairment
  • mental life
  • mental model
  • mental models
  • mental nerve
  • mental performance
  • mental problem
  • mental process
  • mental quality
  • mental representation
  • mental retardation
  • mental retardation protein
  • mental retardation syndrome
  • mental rotation
  • mental rotation task
  • mental scale
  • mental set
  • mental simulation
  • mental states
  • mental status
  • mental status questionnaire
  • mental stress
  • mental symptom
  • mental test
  • mental well-being
  • mental world

  • Selected Abstracts


    Side-effects of antipsychotic medication and health-related quality of life in schizophrenia

    ACTA PSYCHIATRICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 2009
    P. E. Bebbington
    Objective:, This analysis used data from the large (n = 1208) European Schizophrenia Cohort to examine the association between subjective side-effects of antipsychotic medication and the Mental and Physical Composite Scores (MCS; PCS) of the SF-36 scale. Method:, Relationships between the subjective evaluation of side-effects identified from the Subjective Side-Effects Scale and the adjusted mean score on the PCS and MCS were examined. Where appropriate, these associations of subjective side-effects were compared with those of the same side-effects measured objectively. Results:, In this study, subjective side-effects of antipsychotic medication were linked either to both the PCS and the MCS or, in a few instances, to neither. Subjective evaluations of sexual side-effects were associated only with the MCS, those of sialorrhoea only with the PCS. Objective ratings of extrapyramidal side-effects were related neither to PCS nor to MCS. Conclusion:, These data suggest that side-effects, whether subjective or objective, may need to be considered individually in relation to their impact on quality of life. [source]


    Mental and Behavioral Dysfunction in Movement Disorders

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY, Issue 4 2003
    K. A. Jellinger
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Deficient Knowledge Nursing Diagnosis: Identifying the Learning Needs of Patients With Cardiac Disease

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF NURSING TERMINOLOGIES AND CLASSIFICATION, Issue 3 2010
    Luzia Elaine Galdeano PhD
    Assistência ao paciente; avaliação de processos; conhecimento; doença das coronárias; enfermagem OBJECTIVES., To identify the learning needs of patients with cardiac disease and the aspects of the disease and anesthetic and surgical procedures about which Brazilian patients have the greatest gaps in knowledge. METHODS., Eighty preoperative patients answered a General Evaluation Questionnaire, a Questionnaire to Evaluate Patient Knowledge, and the Mini-Mental State Exam. FINDINGS., Fifty-nine patients had learning needs. More than 50% of the patients were mistaken or unable to answer questions about the disease, and the goals of and type of surgery to be performed and anesthesia to be used. CONCLUSIONS., Most patients had poor performance on the questionnaire that assessed their knowledge about coronary artery disease and its treatment. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS., This study can contribute to health professionals' assessment of patients' knowledge. OBJETIVOS., Identificar as necessidades de aprendizagem de pacientes com doença cardíaca e os aspectos da doença arterial coronariana e da revascularização do miocárdio do nos quais os pacientes brasileiros apresentam conhecimento deficiente. MÉTODO., Oitenta pacientes responderam o Questionário para avaliação geral, o Questionário para avaliar o conhecimento e o Mini-Exame do Estado Mental. RESULTADOS., Cinqüenta e nove pacientes apresentaram necessidade de aprendizagem. Mais de 50% dos pacientes erraram ou não souberam responder as questões referentes ao nome da doença, aos sinais e sintomas de complicação da doença, aos objetivos e tipo de cirurgia e anestesia. CONCLUSÃO., Muitos pacientes não apresentaram bom desempenho no questionário para medir conhecimento em relação à Doença Arterial Coronária e seu tratamento. IMPLICAÇÕES PRÁTICAS., Este estudo poderá contribuir para a avaliação do conhecimento dos pacientes por profissionais da saúde. [source]


    Effect of an early intervention programme on low birthweight infants with cerebral injuries

    JOURNAL OF PAEDIATRICS AND CHILD HEALTH, Issue 12 2004
    S Ohgi
    Objective: To determine the effect of an early intervention programme (EIP) on low birthweight infants with cerebral injuries. Methods: Subjects were 23 high-risk low birthweight infants (periventricular leukomalacia 15, intraventricular haemorrhage 5, both 3) receiving care in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at Nagasaki University Hospital. Subjects were randomly assigned to the EIP group (n = 12) or the control group (n = 11). Participants in the EIP group received a Neonatal Behavioral Assessment scale (NBAS)-based intervention combined with developmental support designed to enhance the infants' development and the quality of the parent,infant relationship. The control group received routine medical nursing care without the EIP. The EIP began prior to discharge from the NICU and lasted until 6 months of corrected age. All children were examined on the NBAS preintervention and again at 44 weeks postconceptional age. Maternal anxiety status (STAI) and maternal feelings of confidence in dealing with her baby (LCC) were measured pre and postintervention. Mental and motor development was assessed postintervention using the Bayley Scale of Infant Development. Results: Orientation and State Regulation of infant behavioural profiles, the STAI and LCC scores significantly improved in the EIP group (mean difference (95% CI): Orientation 0.7 (0.4, 1.1), State Regulation 0.9 (0.3, 1.5), STAI ,5.5 (, 9.1, ,1.9, LCC 5.3 (4.2, 6.5)), but not in the control group. Bayley mental developmental index (MDI) score in the EIP group was higher than in the control group, but there was no significant difference between the two groups (mean difference (95% CI): MDI 8.5 (, 0.8, 17.8), PDI 6.7 (, 1.9, 15.4)). Conclusion: The EIP has beneficial effects on neonatal neurobehavioural development and maternal mental health of low birthweight infants with cerebral injuries. This evidence suggests that short-term changes in maternal mental health and infant neurobehaviour promoted by an EIP may serve to initiate a positive interaction between parents and infants. [source]


    Influence of a Drinking Quantity and Frequency Measure on the Prevalence and Demographic Correlates of DSM-IV Alcohol Dependence

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 5 2009
    Katherine M. Keyes
    Background:, Recent research suggests that adding a quantity/frequency alcohol consumption measure to diagnoses of alcohol use disorders may improve construct validity of the diagnoses for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental and Behavior Disorders (DSM-V). This study explores the epidemiological impact of including weekly at-risk drinking (WAD) in the DMS-IV diagnostic definition of alcohol dependence via 3 hypothetical reformulations of the current criteria. Methods:, The sample was the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a nationally representative sample with 43,093 adults aged >18 in the U.S interviewed with the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule IV. The current (DSM-IV) definition of alcohol dependence was compared with 4 hypothetical alcohol dependence reformulations that included WAD: (1) WAD added as an eighth criteria; (2) WAD required for a diagnosis; (3) adding abuse and dependence criteria together, and including WAD with a 3 of 12 symptom threshold; (4) adding abuse and dependence criteria together, and including WAD with a 5 of 12 symptom threshold. Results:, The inclusion of at-risk drinking as an eighth criterion of alcohol dependence has a minimal impact on the sociodemographic correlates of alcohol dependence but substantially increases the prevalence of dependence (from 3.8% to 5.0%). At-risk drinking as a required criterion or as part of a diagnosis that combines abuse with dependence criteria with a higher threshold (5+ criteria) decreases prevalence and has a larger impact on sociodemographic correlates. Blacks, Hispanics, and women are less likely to be included in diagnostic reformulations that include WAD, whereas individuals with low-income and education are more likely to remain diagnosed. Conclusions:, Including WAD as either a requirement of diagnosis or as an additional criterion would have a large impact on the prevalence of alcohol dependence in the general population. The inclusion of a quantity/frequency requirement may eliminate false positives from studies of alcohol disorder etiology and improve phenotype definition for genetic association studies by reducing heterogeneity in the diagnosis, but may also reduce eligibility for treatment services among women and racial/ethnic minorities compared. [source]


    Systematic review: impact of constipation on quality of life in adults and children

    ALIMENTARY PHARMACOLOGY & THERAPEUTICS, Issue 9 2010
    J. BELSEY
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther,31, 938,949 Summary Background, Comparison of quality of life (QoL) across disease areas requires the use of appropriate tools. Although many studies have investigated QoL in constipation, most used disease-specific tools that are inappropriate for cross-comparisons. Aims, To identify studies of QoL in constipation and to compare these results with other chronic conditions. Methods, A comprehensive literature search identified studies in constipation that used a generic QoL tool. Results were statistically pooled where possible and compared with published results using the same tools in other chronic conditions. Results, A total of 13 qualifying studies were identified, 10 in adults and three in children. Results from eight studies using the SF-36/12 tools were pooled; the remaining five were narratively reported. Mental and physical components of QoL scores were consistently impaired in both adult and child populations, with the greatest impact being seen in secondary care studies. Mental health effects predominated over physical domains. The magnitude of impact was comparable with that seen in patients with allergies, musculoskeletal conditions and inflammatory bowel disease. Conclusions, The impact of constipation on QoL is significant and comparable with other common chronic conditions. Improving management may prove to be an effective way of improving QoL for a substantial number of patients. [source]


    Mental distress in patients with functional or organic dyspepsia: a comparative study with a sample of the general population

    ALIMENTARY PHARMACOLOGY & THERAPEUTICS, Issue 3 2005
    M. Pajala
    Summary Background :,It has been argued that patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders have mental disorders more often than healthy controls and patients with organic disease. Most studies surveying psychological factors at the population level have relied on symptom questionnaires to diagnose functional dyspepsia. However, the symptom patterns alone are unable to adequately discriminate organic from functional dyspepsia. Aim :,To evaluate the frequency of mental distress in primary care patients with organic or functional dyspepsia and compare the findings with a sample of the Finnish general population. Methods :,Four-hundred consecutive, unselected dyspeptic patients were referred for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and other diagnostic examinations. All patients compiled a self-administered questionnaire including the 12-item General Health Questionnaire to detect cases of recent mental disorders. Results :,The prevalence of mental distress among patients with functional and organic dyspepsia was 38 and 36.4% respectively. The sex- and age-adjusted risk of having mental distress was nearly fourfold higher among patients with dyspepsia than in the general population. Conclusion :,Mental distress is common among patients with functional or organic dyspepsia. Nevertheless, there is no difference between patients with functional or organic dyspepsia in the prevalence or risk of mental distress. [source]


    The Impact of Hurricane Katrina on the Mental and Physical Health of Low-Income Parents in New Orleans

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ORTHOPSYCHIATRY, Issue 2 2010
    Jean Rhodes
    The purpose of this study was to document changes in mental and physical health among 392 low-income parents exposed to Hurricane Katrina and to explore how hurricane-related stressors and loss relate to post-Katrina well-being. The prevalence of probable serious mental illness doubled, and nearly half of the respondents exhibited probable posttraumatic stress disorder. Higher levels of hurricane-related loss and stressors were generally associated with worse health outcomes, controlling for baseline sociodemographic and health measures. Higher baseline resources predicted fewer hurricane-associated stressors, but the consequences of stressors and loss were similar regardless of baseline resources. Adverse health consequences of Hurricane Katrina persisted for a year or more and were most severe for those experiencing the most stressors and loss. Long-term health and mental health services are needed for low-income disaster survivors, especially those who experience disaster-related stressors and loss. [source]


    Does Externalism Entail the Anomalism of the Mental?

    THE PHILOSOPHICAL QUARTERLY, Issue 211 2003
    Nicholas Shea
    In ,Mental Events' Donald Davidson argued for the anomalism of the mental on the basis of the operation of incompatible constitutive principles in the mental and physical domains. Many years later, he has suggested that externalism provides further support for the anomalism of the mental. I examine the basis for that claim. The answer to the question in the title will be a qualified ,Yes'. That is an important result in the metaphysics of mind and an interesting consequence of externalism. [source]


    Validation of the Depression and Somatic Symptoms Scale by comparison with the Short Form 36 scale among psychiatric outpatients with major depressive disorder

    DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY, Issue 6 2009
    Ching-I Hung M.D.
    Abstract Background: The Depression and Somatic Symptoms Scale (DSSS) is a self-administered scale developed for monitoring both depression and somatic symptoms. The aims of this study were to establish the criterion-related validity of the DSSS by testing the correlation between the DSSS and the Short Form 36 (SF-36) scale and to compare the ability of the DSSS and two other scales in predicting the outcome of the SF-36. Methods: The study enrolled 135 outpatients with a major depressive episode, 95 of whom received treatment for 1 month. Four scales were administered and evaluated: the DSSS, the SF-36, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Pearson correlation was used to test correlations among scales. Multiple linear regressions were used to find the scales most effective in predicting the SF-36. Results: The three scales were significantly correlated with most of the SF-36 subscales. The depression and somatic subscales of the DSSS significantly correlated with the mental and physical subscales of the SF-36, respectively. The DSSS and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were better able to predict physical and mental subscales of the SF-36, respectively. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale had a good ability to predict functional impairment. Conclusions: Psychometric scales with appropriate somatic symptoms might be more compatible with both physical and mental dimensions of the SF-36. DSSS proved to be a valid scale for monitoring both depression and somatic symptoms in patients with depression. Future studies should test whether the DSSS is better at predicting the treatment and prognosis of depression than conventional scales for depression. Depression and Anxiety, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Prenatal stress causes dendritic atrophy of pyramidal neurons in hippocampal CA3 region by glutamate in offspring rats

    DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROBIOLOGY, Issue 2 2010
    Ning Jia
    Abstract A substantial number of human epidemiological data, as well as experimental studies, suggest that adverse maternal stress during gestation is involved in abnormal behavior, mental, and cognition disorder in offspring. To explore the effect of prenatal stress (PS) on hippocampal neurons, in this study, we observed the dendritic field of pyramidal neurons in hippocampal CA3, examined the concentration of glutamate (Glu), and detected the expression of synaptotagmin-1 (Syt-1) and N -methyl- D -aspartate receptor 1 (NR1) in hippocampus of juvenile female offspring rats. Pregnant rats were divided into two groups: control group (CON) and PS group. Female offspring rats used were 30-day old. The total length of the apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons in hippocampal CA3 of offspring was significantly shorter in PS than that in CON (p < 0.01). The number of branch points of the apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons in hippocampal CA3 of offspring was significantly less in PS (p < 0.01). PS offspring had a higher concentration of hippocampal Glu compared with CON (p < 0.05). PS offspring displayed increased expression of Syt-1 and decreased NR1 in hippocampus compared with CON (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01, respectively). The expression of NR1 in different hippocampus subfields of offspring was significantly decreased in PS than that in CON (p < 0.05-0.01). This study shows that PS increases the Glu in hippocampus and causes apical dendritic atrophy of pyramidal neurons of hippocampal CA3 in offspring rats. The decline of NR1 in hippocampus may be an adaptive response to the increased Glu. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol, 2010 [source]


    Psychobiological models of adolescent risk: Implications for prevention and intervention

    DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOBIOLOGY, Issue 3 2010
    Susan D. Calkins
    Abstract The papers in this special section address the phenomena of observed increases in risky behavior during the adolescent period of development. Authors provide well-documented evidence that adolescents are at greater risk for a range of psychological and behavioral problems during this period than at any other time in development. The papers share a developmental and psychobiological perspective on this period, noting that biological, social, and contextual factors interact to produce heightened risk for problematic behavior during this period. This perspective suggests several points of entry for intervention and prevention efforts aimed at reducing both mental and behavioral health problems. Gaps in current research efforts are noted, as is the need for more research focusing on mechanisms of change prior to and during adolescence. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 52: 213,215, 2010 [source]


    The impairments caused by social phobia in the general population: implications for intervention,

    ACTA PSYCHIATRICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 2003
    R. C. KesslerArticle first published online: 29 AUG 200
    Objective: Although social phobia is common, treatment remains low. In order to gauge public health implications of this low treatment, information is needed on the impairments caused by social phobia. Method: A computer literature review searched for the terms ,social anxiety disorder' and ,social phobia' in the MEDLINE and PsycLIT databases. New analyses were carried out in the US National Comorbidity Survey. Results: The literature shows that social phobia has serious effects on role functioning and quality of life. These effects are least severe for pure non-generalized social phobia and most severe for comorbid generalized social phobia with avoidant personality disorder. The most direct impairments involve social interactions and information processing errors in these interactions. Indirect effects are even more important. Three indirect effects are highlighted: effects on secondary mental (e.g. depression), substance (e.g. alcoholism) and physical (e.g. cardiovascular disease) disorders; effects on normative role transitions (e.g. educational attainment); and effects on help-seeking. Conclusion: Given the early age of onset and impacts on secondary disorders and early adult life course transitions, the greatest public health impact of increasing treatment of social phobia is likely to be achieved by developing programs targeted at early identification and treatment through schools. [source]


    What Does the Conservation of Energy Have to Do with Physicalism?

    DIALECTICA, Issue 4 2006
    Barbara Montero
    The conservation of energy law, a law of physics that states that the total energy of any closed system is always conserved, is a bedrock principle that has achieved both broad theoretical and experimental support. Yet if interactive dualism is correct, it is thought that the mind can affect physical objects in violation of the conservation of energy. Thus, some claim, the conservation of energy grounds an argument for physicalism. Although critics of the argument focus on the implausibility of causation requiring the transference of energy, I argue that even if causation requires the transference of energy, once we accept the other required premises of the argument that lie behind any supposed argument from the conservation of energy the law of the conservation of energy is revealed as irrelevant to the question of whether the mental is physical. [source]


    Mental health and alcohol, drugs and tobacco: a review of the comorbidity between mental disorders and the use of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs

    DRUG AND ALCOHOL REVIEW, Issue 6 2006
    EVA JANE-LLOPIS
    Abstract This paper reviews some major epidemiological studies undertaken in high-income countries during the last 15 years which have reported the prevalence of mental disorders and substance use disorders and their relationship. Comorbidity between mental and substance use disorders is highly prevalent across countries. In general, people with a substance use disorder had higher comorbid rates of mental disorders than vice versa, and people with illicit drug disorders had the highest rates of comorbid mental disorders. There is a strong direct association between the magnitude of comorbidity and the severity of substance use disorders. While causal pathways differ across substances and disorders, there is evidence that alcohol is a casual factor for depression, in some European countries up to 10% of male depression. Policies that reduce the use of substances are likely to reduce the prevalence of mental disorders. Treatment should be available in an integrated fashion for both mental and substance use disorders. There is a need to expand the evidence base on comorbidity, particularly in low-income countries. [source]


    The characteristics of heroin users entering treatment: findings from the Australian Treatment Outcome Study (ATOS)

    DRUG AND ALCOHOL REVIEW, Issue 5 2005
    JOANNE ROSS
    Abstract The current study aimed to describe the characteristics (demographics, drug use, mental and physical health) of entrants to treatment for heroin dependence in three treatment modalities; and to compare these characteristics with heroin users not in or seeking treatment. Participants were 825 current heroin users recruited from Sydney, Adelaide and Melbourne: 277 entering methadone/buprenorphine maintenance treatment (MT), 288 entering detoxification (DTX), 180 entering drug-free residential rehabilitation (RR) and 80 not in treatment (NT). Treatment entrants were generally long-term heroin users with previous treatment experience. The majority of the sample (55%) were criminally active in the month preceding interview. Injection-related health problems (74%) and a history of heroin overdose (58%) were commonly reported. There were high degrees of psychiatric co-morbidity, with 49% reporting severe psychological distress, 28% having current major depression, 37% having attempted suicide and 42% having a lifetime history of post-traumatic stress disorder. Personality disorders were also prevalent, with 72% meeting criteria for antisocial personality disorder and 47% screening positive for borderline personality disorder. Striking similarities were noted between the non-treatment and treatment groups in length of heroin use career, drug use and treatment histories. [source]


    Mental disorders as risk factors for substance use, abuse and dependence: results from the 10-year follow-up of the National Comorbidity Survey

    ADDICTION, Issue 6 2010
    Joel Swendsen
    ABSTRACT Aims The comorbidity of mental disorders and substance dependence is well documented, but prospective investigations in community samples are rare. This investigation examines the role of primary mental disorders as risk factors for the later onset of nicotine, alcohol and illicit drug use, abuse and dependence with abuse. Design The National Comorbidity Survey (NCS) was a nationally representative survey of mental and substance disorders in the United States carried out in 1990,92. The NCS-2 re-interviewed a probability subsample of NCS respondents in 2001,03, a decade after the baseline survey. Participants A total of 5001 NCS respondents were re-interviewed in the NCS-2 (87.6% of baseline sample). Results Aggregate analyses demonstrated significant prospective risks posed by baseline mental disorders for the onset of nicotine, alcohol and illicit drug dependence with abuse over the follow-up period. Particularly strong and consistent associations were observed for behavioral disorders and previous substance use conditions, as well as for certain mood and anxiety disorders. Conditional analyses demonstrated that many observed associations were limited to specific categories of use, abuse or dependence, including several mental disorders that were non-significant predictors in the aggregate analyses. Conclusions Many mental disorders are associated with an increased risk of later substance use conditions, but important differences in these associations are observed across the categories of use, abuse and dependence with abuse. These prospective findings have implications for the precision of prevention and treatment strategies targeting substance use disorders. [source]


    Outcome of long-term heroin-assisted treatment offered to chronic, treatment-resistant heroin addicts in the Netherlands

    ADDICTION, Issue 2 2010
    Peter Blanken
    ABSTRACT Aims To describe 4-year treatment retention and treatment response among chronic, treatment-resistant heroin-dependent patients offered long-term heroin-assisted treatment (HAT) in the Netherlands. Design Observational cohort study. Setting and intervention Out-patient treatment in specialized heroin treatment centres in six cities in the Netherlands, with methadone plus injectable or inhalable heroin offered 7 days per week, three times per day. Prescription of methadone plus heroin was supplemented with individually tailored psychosocial and medical support. Participants Heroin-dependent patients who had responded positively to HAT in two randomized controlled trials and were eligible for long-term heroin-assisted treatment (n = 149). Measurements Primary outcome measures were treatment retention after 4 years and treatment response on a dichotomous, multi-domain response index, comprising physical, mental and social health and illicit substance use. Findings Four-year retention was 55.7% [95% confidence interval (CI): 47.6,63.8%]. Treatment Response was significantly better for patients continuing 4 years of HAT compared to patients who discontinued treatment: 90.4% versus 21.2% [difference 69.2%; odds ratio (OR) = 48.4, 95% CI: 17.6,159.1]. Continued HAT treatment was also associated with an increasing proportion of patients without health problems and who had stopped illicit drug and excessive alcohol use: from 12% after the first year to 25% after 4 years of HAT. Conclusions Long-term HAT is an effective treatment for chronic heroin addicts who have failed to benefit from methadone maintenance treatment. Four years of HAT is associated with stable physical, mental and social health and with absence of illicit heroin use and substantial reductions in cocaine use. HAT should be continued as long as there is no compelling reason to stop treatment. [source]


    Socio-demographic risk factors for alcohol and drug dependence: the 10-year follow-up of the national comorbidity survey

    ADDICTION, Issue 8 2009
    Joel Swendsen
    ABSTRACT Aims Continued progress in etiological research and prevention science requires more precise information concerning the specific stages at which socio-demographic variables are implicated most strongly in transition from initial substance use to dependence. The present study examines prospective associations between socio-demographic variables and the subsequent onset of alcohol and drug dependence using data from the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS) and the NCS Follow-up survey (NCS-2). Design The NCS was a nationally representative survey of the prevalence and correlates of DSM-III-R mental and substance disorders in the United States carried out in 1990,2002. The NCS-2 re-interviewed a probability subsample of NCS respondents a decade after the baseline survey. Baseline NCS socio-demographic characteristics and substance use history were examined as predictors of the first onset of DSM-IV alcohol and drug dependence in the NCS-2. Participants A total of 5001 NCS respondents were re-interviewed in the NCS-2 (87.6% of baseline sample). Findings Aggregate analyses demonstrated significant associations between some baseline socio-demographic variables (young age, low education, non-white ethnicity, occupational status) but not others (sex, number of children, residential area) and the subsequent onset of DSM-IV alcohol or drug dependence. However, conditional models showed that these risk factors were limited to specific stages of baseline use. Moreover, many socio-demographic variables that were not significant in the aggregate analyses were significant predictors of dependence when examined by stage of use. Conclusions The findings underscore the potential for socio-demographic risk factors to have highly specific associations with different stages of the substance use trajectory. [source]


    Occurrence of seizures in association with work-related stress in young male army recruits

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 8 2008
    Shlomo Moshe
    Summary Purpose: To examine the risk of undergoing an epileptic seizure as a function of differing levels of occupational stress (physical and mental) in new military recruits with no previous history of epilepsy or with epilepsy in remission for over 2 years. Methods: The medical records of over 300,000 18-year-old men recruited to the Israeli army between mid-eighties and mid-nineties were used to assemble a cohort, which was followed for a period of 30 months. The severity of epilepsy at recruitment was determined according to four categories, 0 (no history of seizures) and 1,3 (history of seizures with different relapse-free periods, with or without treatment). The soldiers were subdivided according to their occupational categories to: combat units (CU), maintenance units (MU), and administrative units (AU). Results: The annual incidence rates per 100,000 in category 0 were 317, 298, and 401 in AU, MU, and CU, respectively. The incidence of seizures in category 0 was higher (relative risk [RR]= 1.29, CI = 1.03,1.62) in CU compared to AU and MU. No differences were found for seizure recurrence among various occupational groups. Conclusion: The increased risk of seizures in CU compared to AU and MU may indicate contribution of service conditions in CU, like physical and mental stress. The equivalent rates of seizure relapse, regardless of the type of occupation, suggests the need for minimal occupational restrictions for epilepsy patients who have been free of seizures for long periods. [source]


    Italian validation of INQoL, a quality of life questionnaire for adults with muscle diseases

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY, Issue 9 2010
    V. A. Sansone
    Background and purpose:, A quality of life (QoL) questionnaire for neuromuscular diseases was recently constructed and validated in the United Kingdom in a sample of adult patients with a variety of muscle disorders. Preliminary results suggested it could be a more relevant and practical measure of QoL in muscle diseases than generic health measures of QoL. The purpose of our work was: (i) To validate INQoL in Italy on a larger sample of adult patients with muscle diseases (ii) to compare INQoL to SF-36. Methods:, We have translated into Italian and applied language adaptations to the original UK INQoL version. We studied 1092 patients with different muscle disorders and performed (i) test,retest reliability (n = 80); (ii) psychometric (n = 345), known-group (n = 1092), external criterion (n = 70), and concurrent validity with SF-36 (n = 183). Results:, We have translated and formally validated the Italian version of INQoL confirming and extending results obtained in the United Kingdom. In addition to good results in terms of reliability, known-group and criterion validity, a comparison with the SF-36 scales showed a stronger association between INQoL total index and SF-36 physical (r = ,0.72) than mental (r = ,0.38) summary health indexes. When considering comparable domains of INQoL and SF-36 with respect to an objective measure of muscle strength assessment (MMRC), regression analysis showed a stronger correlation using INQoL rather than SF-36 scores. Conclusions:, INQoL is recommended to assess QoL in muscle diseases because of its ability to capture physical limitations that are specifically relevant to the muscle condition. [source]


    A sympathetic view of the sympathetic nervous system and human blood pressure regulation

    EXPERIMENTAL PHYSIOLOGY, Issue 6 2008
    Michael J. Joyner
    New ideas about the relative importance of the autonomic nervous system (and especially its sympathetic arm) in long-term blood pressure regulation are emerging. It is well known that mean arterial blood pressure is normally regulated in a fairly narrow range at rest and that blood pressure is also able to rise and fall ,appropriately' to meet the demands of various forms of mental, emotional and physical stress. By contrast, blood pressure varies widely when the autonomic nervous system is absent or when key mechanisms that govern it are destroyed. However, 24 h mean arterial pressure is still surprisingly normal under these conditions. Thus, the dominant idea has been that the kidney is the main long-term regulator of blood pressure and the autonomic nervous system is important in short-term regulation. However, this ,renocentric' scheme can be challenged by observations in humans showing that there is a high degree of individual variability in elements of the autonomic nervous system. Along these lines, the level of sympathetic outflow, the adrenergic responsiveness of blood vessels and individual haemodynamic patterns appear to exist in a complex, but appropriate, balance in normotension. Furthermore, evidence from animals and humans has now clearly shown that the sympathetic nervous system can play an important role in longer term blood pressure regulation in both normotension and hypertension. Finally, humans with high baseline sympathetic traffic might be at increased risk for hypertension if the ,balance' among factors deteriorates or is lost. In this context, the goal of this review is to encourage a comprehensive rethinking of the complexities related to long-term blood pressure regulation in humans and promote finer appreciation of physiological relationships among the autonomic nervous system, vascular function, ageing, metabolism and blood pressure. [source]


    Human-Animal Bonds I: The Relational Significance of Companion Animals

    FAMILY PROCESS, Issue 4 2009
    FROMA WALSH PH.D.
    The importance of human-animal bonds has been documented throughout history, across cultures, and in recent research. However, attachments with companion animals have been undervalued and even pathologized in the field of mental health. This article briefly surveys the evolution of human-animal bonds, reviews research on their health and mental health benefits, and examines their profound relational significance across the life course. Finally, the emerging field of animal-assisted interventions is described, noting applications in hospital and eldercare settings, and in innovative school, prison, farm, and community programs. The aim of this overview paper is to stimulate more attention to these vital bonds in systems-oriented theory, practice, and research. A companion paper in this issue focuses on the role of pets and relational dynamics in family systems and family therapy (Walsh, 2009a). RESUMEN Vínculos entre animales y humanos I: La importancia de los animales de compañía en las relaciones La importancia de los vínculos entre animales y humanos se ha documentado a lo largo de la historia, en distintas culturas, y en investigaciones recientes. Sin embargo, en el campo de la salud mental, el apego a los animales de compañía se ha subestimado e incluso patologizado. En este artículo se estudia brevemente la evolución de los vínculos entre humanos y animales, se analizan las investigaciones acerca de sus beneficios para la salud física y mental, y se examina su profunda importancia para las relaciones en el transcurso de la vida. Finalmente, se describe el campo emergente de las intervenciones asistidas por animales, observando aplicaciones en hospitales y en centros de asistencia para personas mayores así como en programas de escuelas innovadoras, en programas de cárceles, de granjas y comunitarios. El objetivo de este artículo general es estimular más atención a estos vínculos fundamentales en la teoría, la práctica y la investigación orientadas a los sistemas. Hay un artículo complementario en este número que se centra en el rol de las mascotas y la dinámica relacional en los sistemas familiares y la terapia familiar (Walsh, 2009a). Palabras clave: vínculos entre animales y humanos; beneficios para la salud física y mental; vínculos con animales de compañía, mascotas; intervenciones asistidas por animales; aplicaciones en programas terapéuticos [source]


    Masturbation and Discourse on Female Sexual Practices in Early Modern Japan

    GENDER & HISTORY, Issue 1 2009
    Anne Walthall
    Much of the discourse on female sexual practices in early modern Japan centred on masturbation, usually with a dildo, deemed necessary for a woman's mental and physical health when the male member was unavailable. References to female same-sex relations suggest that they too made sense in situations where men were absent. Some sex manuals treated female sexual arousal within the context of conjugal relations, while a text written for wives in polygamous marriages places female sexual practice at the service of male interests. The texts analysed here show not only that early modern Japanese held different attitudes toward sex than their western counterparts, but also that they could hold multiple attitudes at the same time. [source]


    User-Centred Time Geography for Location-Based Services

    GEOGRAFISKA ANNALER SERIES B: HUMAN GEOGRAPHY, Issue 4 2004
    Martin Raubal
    Abstract Location-based services assist people in their decision-making during the performance of tasks in space. They do not consider the user's individual preferences, time constraints and possible subtasks to be performed. In order to account for these important aspects, a user-centred spatio-temporal theory of location-based services is required. We propose such a theory by combining classical time geography with an extended theory of affordances. It assumes that affordances belong to three realms: physical, social-institutional, and mental. In addition to covering the capability, coupling and authority constraints from time geography, this allows for a user-centred perspective because affordances describe action possibilities with regard to a specific person. Furthermore, the integration of mental affordances offers the possibility to account for cognitive time constraints due to the duration of decision-making processes. This new theory for location-based services is closer to the individual user and more plausible with respect to their daily lives. A business traveller scenario is used as a case study to demonstrate this. [source]


    The relationships between oral status, physical and mental health, nutritional status and diet type in elderly Japanese women with dementia

    GERODONTOLOGY, Issue 4 2008
    Shinsuke Sadamori
    Objectives:, To suggest methods for maintaining an adequate nutritional status for elderly patients with dementia by evaluating the relationships between oral status, physical and mental health, and feeding conditions. Background:, Feeding difficulties in dementia patients are related to food intake, and failure to eat may be associated with weight loss in long-term care facilities. The relationship between compromised oral function and diet is still unclear. Materials and methods:, A cross-sectional study of 94 elderly women with dementia (mean age 89.6 ± 5.6 years) from a nursing home was undertaken to investigate their oral, physical and mental and nutritional status. Results:, There were significant differences in serum albumin (p = 0.0284), N-ADL (p = 0.0005), NM scale (p = 0.0004) and HDS-R (p = 0.0004) between denture wearers and non-denture wearers. However, there were no significant differences in body mass index between denture wearers and non-denture wearers. Conclusion:, A suitable type of diet and assistance with feeding could maintain the nutritional status of elderly patients with dementia if they are still feeding themselves. The nutritional support team will benefit from the participation of a dentist. [source]


    Quality-of-Life Differences Between Patients With Episodic and Transformed Migraine

    HEADACHE, Issue 6 2001
    Dennis M. Meletiche PharmD
    Objective.,To determine whether there are any differences in health-related quality of life between patients with migraine and those with transformed migraine. Background.,There are no published reports comparing the health-related quality of life between patients with migraine and patients with transformed migraine. Methods.,We conducted a retrospective analysis examining the health-related quality of life of patients with transformed migraine and migraine seen at a specialty headache clinic. Data collected included the Short Form-36 (SF-36) and the Migraine Disability Assessment questionnaires as well as demographic information. Both of these forms are part of the initial evaluation at the headache clinic. A t test with Bonferroni correction was used to test for significant differences in the SF-36 domains between the groups. Results.,Data were collected for 90 patients, 46 with transformed migraine and 44 with migraine. There were no significant differences between groups with respect to sex, race, or age. Over the last 90 days prior to their first visit, patients with transformed migraine reported having a headache an average of 69 days compared with patients with migraine who averaged 18 days with headache (P<.05). Compared with patients with migraine, patients with transformed migraine had statistically (P<.05) and clinically significant (difference >5 points) lower mean scores on seven of the eight SF-36 domains and both the mental and physical summary scores of the SF-36. Conclusions.,The results of this study suggest that patients with transformed migraine have a lower health-related quality of life than patients with migraine. These findings indicate that the headache chronicity associated with transformed migraine has a significant influence on quality of life. The results highlight the importance of effective management of headaches to avoid the progression of migraine to the more disabling transformed migraine. [source]


    Reasons for visiting Polish primary care practices by patients aged 18,44 years: the largest emigrating age group

    HEALTH & SOCIAL CARE IN THE COMMUNITY, Issue 3 2009
    Magdalena Ignaszak-Szczepaniak MD PhD
    Abstract Over 3% of the entire Polish population migrate for a job within the European Union, most are aged 18,44 years. The main destinations are Germany, the United Kingdom and Ireland. Immigration is connected with the use of many public services, including healthcare services. Assuming Polish immigrants require medical consultations in the countries they reside in, the authors have analysed the reasons for patients' visits to general practitioners (GPs) in Poland in order to predict possible reasons why Polish patients living abroad may make appointments with GPs in other countries. Data from 22 769 visits to GP practices between June 2005 and May 2006 by Polish patients aged 18,44 years were collected electronically. Age was categorised into three groups (18,24, 25,34 and 35,44 years) and the reason for the visit was categorised according to the ICD 10 coding system. Among the 12 535 patients registered with GPs, 73.1% of women and 68.6% of men required consultations during the year the study was conducted. The highest percentage of visits was recorded for women aged 35,44 years, while men of the same age were the least likely to visit a GP. The mean number of visits per patient ranged from 1.89 for men aged 25,34 years to 3.11 for women aged 35,44 years. The means were similar for 18- to 24-year-old men and women. Women aged 35,44 years had a higher mean number of visits compared with women aged 18,24 years, whereas the opposite was true for men. The analysis of reasons for visits within the age groups indicated that the percentage of appointments for respiratory problems and general and unspecified problems dropped by more than half from the 18,24-year-olds to the 35,44-years-olds, while visits for musculosceletal, cardiovascular, and mental and behavioural problems increased by a factor of four. The presented results intend to enable healthcare services meet Polish immigrants' healthcare needs. [source]


    A health inequalities perspective on violence against women

    HEALTH & SOCIAL CARE IN THE COMMUNITY, Issue 2 2007
    Cathy Humphreys PhD BSocWk
    Abstract The present paper argues that the physical and mental health consequences of gender-based violence constitute a major public health problem in the UK and a source of significant health inequality. The concept of violence against women is explored alongside brief examples of the mental and physical health impact of this violence. While the impact on women's health is relatively uncontested, the extent to which social divisions such as poverty, class and minority ethnic status create specific vulnerabilities to violence are more controversial. A widely held view within the movement to support survivors within the UK has been that violence against women cuts across class and ethnicity, and is found in all communities and classes. A more nuanced discussion of the way in which poverty and ethnic background may create particular vulnerabilities is explored. Disentangling cause and consequence, and also the barriers to help-seeking for minority ethnic women are discussed. The role of social workers in addressing the way in which violence against women is both ubiquitous but marginal in their caseloads is discussed, and appropriate interventions to respond to health inequality issues are proposed. [source]


    Comparison of Web-Based versus Paper-and-Pencil Self-Administered Questionnaire: Effects on Health Indicators in Dutch Adolescents

    HEALTH SERVICES RESEARCH, Issue 5p1 2008
    Petra M. Van De Looij-Jansen
    Objective. The aim of this study is to investigate differences in responses related to (mental) health and behavior between two methods of data collection: web-based (web) and paper-and-pencil (p&p). Study Design. Within each participating school all third-grade classes (mainly 14,15-year-old pupils) were randomly assigned to either the Internet condition (n=271) or the paper-and-pencil condition (n=261). Principal Findings. Significant but small differences were found for the strengths and difficulties subscales "emotional symptoms" (p&p>web) and "prosocial behavior" (p&p>web), and carrying a weapon (web>p&p). Perceived level of privacy and confidentiality did not differ between the two modes. Conclusions. The findings suggest that in a controlled school setting, web-based administration of health indicators yields almost the same results as paper-and-pencil administration. To generalize these findings, we recommend repeated studies in other populations and settings. [source]