Memory Disorders (memory + disorders)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Memory disorders in psychiatric practice.

Jerman E. Berios, John R. Hodges (eds).
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

EFNS guidelines on cognitive rehabilitation: report of an EFNS task force

Members of the Task Force on Cognitive Rehabilitation
Disorders of language, spatial perception, attention, memory, calculation and praxis are a frequent consequence of acquired brain damage [in particular, stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI)] and a major determinant of disability. The rehabilitation of aphasia and, more recently, of other cognitive disorders is an important area of neurological rehabilitation. We report here a review of the available evidence about effectiveness of cognitive rehabilitation. Given the limited number and generally low quality of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in this area of therapeutic intervention, the Task Force considered, besides the available Cochrane reviews, evidence of lower classes which was critically analysed until a consensus was reached. In particular, we considered evidence from small group or single cases studies including an appropriate statistical evaluation of effect sizes. The general conclusion is that there is evidence to award a grade A, B or C recommendation to some forms of cognitive rehabilitation in patients with neuropsychological deficits in the post-acute stage after a focal brain lesion (stroke, TBI). These include aphasia therapy, rehabilitation of unilateral spatial neglect (ULN), attentional training in the post-acute stage after TBI, the use of electronic memory aids in memory disorders, and the treatment of apraxia with compensatory strategies. There is clearly a need for adequately designed studies in this area, which should take into account specific problems such as patient heterogeneity and treatment standardization. [source]

Clinical utility of computed tomography in the assessment of dementia: a memory clinic study

Kelly A. Condefer
Abstract Objective To define the influence of computed tomography (CT) on clinical decision-making in the outpatient evaluation of dementia. Design A case series in which two physicians reviewed standardised data extracted from clinical records, first blind to CT results, and then with CT results. Clinical decisions made with and without the input of CT were compared. The study was based in an outpatient referral centre for the assessment of memory disorders and dementia. The study involved 146 participants who were diagnosed with dementia after their first clinic visit, had Mini Mental State Examination scores >12, were aged >65 years, and had no history of neurologic disease. Results CT impacted on diagnosis in an average of 12% (2), and on treatment plan in 11% (2) of cases. Physicians predicted a priori which cases CT may influence with an average sensitivity of 28% (2), and specificity of 78.5% (1.5). There was no statistically significant relationship between diagnostically uncertain cases and helpful CT scans [average ,2,=,1.121 (1.116), p,=,ns]. Blind to CT physicians appropriately identified cerebrovascular disease with an average sensitivity of 63% (3), and specificity of 93.5% (3.5). Conclusions In the outpatient setting, CT may be expected to impact on diagnosis and treatment of dementia in 10% to 15% of cases. Memory clinic physicians recognise and treat cerebrovascular risk factors with reasonable sensitivity and specificity without the input of CT. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Urban-Rural Differences in a Memory Disorders Clinical Population

Sarah B. Wackerbarth PhD
OBJECTIVES: To compare patient characteristics and family perceptions of patient function at one urban and one rural memory disorders clinic. DESIGN: Secondary, cross-sectional data analyses of an extant clinical database. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: First time visits (n = 956) at two memory disorders clinics. MEASUREMENTS: Patient and family-member demographics and assessment results for the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), activities of daily living (ADLs), the Memory Change and Personality Change components of the Blessed Dementia Rating Scale, and the Revised Memory and Behavior Problems Checklist. RESULTS: In both clinics, patients and family members were more likely female. The typical urban clinic patient was significantly more likely to be living in a facility and more educated than the typical rural patient. Urban and rural patients did not show significant differences in age- and education-adjusted MMSE scores or raw ADL/IADL ratings, but the urban family members reported more memory problems, twice as many personality changes, more-frequent behavior problems, and more adverse reactions to problems. CONCLUSION: Physicians who practice in both urban and rural areas can anticipate differences between patients, and their families, who seek a diagnosis of memory disorders. Our most important finding is that despite similarities in reported functional abilities, urban families appear to be more sensitive to and more distressed by patients' cognitive and behavioral symptoms than rural families. These differences may reflect different underlying needs, and should be explored in further research. [source]

Genuine Episodic Memory Deficits and Executive Dysfunctions in Alcoholic Subjects Early in Abstinence

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 7 2007
Anne Lise Pitel
Background: Chronic alcoholism is known to impair episodic memory function, but the specific nature of this impairment is still unclear. Moreover, it has never been established whether episodic memory deficit in alcoholism is an intrinsic memory deficit or whether it has an executive origin. Thus, the objectives are to specify which episodic memory processes are impaired early in abstinence from alcohol and to determine whether they should be regarded as genuine memory deficits or rather as the indirect consequences of executive impairments. Methods: Forty recently detoxified alcoholic inpatients at alcohol entry treatment and 55 group-matched controls underwent a neuropsychological assessment of episodic memory and executive functions. The episodic memory evaluation consisted of 3 tasks complementing each other designed to measure the different episodic memory components (learning, storage, encoding and retrieval, contextual memory, and autonoetic consciousness) and 5 executive tasks testing capacities of organization, inhibition, flexibility, updating, and integration. Results: Compared with control subjects, alcoholic patients presented impaired learning abilities, encoding processes, retrieval processes, contextual memory and autonoetic consciousness. However, there was no difference between the 2 groups regarding the storage capacities assessed by the rate of forgetting. Concerning executive functions, alcoholic subjects displayed deficits in each executive task used. Nevertheless, stepwise regression analyses showed that only performances on fluency tasks were significantly predictive of some of the episodic memory disorders (learning abilities for 40%, encoding processes for 20%, temporal memory for 21%, and state of consciousness associated with memories for 26%) in the alcoholic group. Discussion: At alcohol treatment entry, alcoholic patients present genuine episodic memory deficits that cannot be regarded solely as the consequences of executive dysfunctions. These results are in accordance with neuroimaging findings showing hippocampal atrophy. Moreover, given the involvement of episodic memory and executive functions in alcohol treatment, these data could have clinical implications. [source]

Protein Kinase C Activators as Synaptogenic and Memory Therapeutics

Miao-Kun Sun
Abstract The last decade has witnessed a rapid progress in understanding of the molecular cascades that may underlie memory and memory disorders. Among the critical players, activity of protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms is essential for many types of learning and memory and their dysfunction, and is critical in memory disorders. PKC inhibition and functional deficits lead to an impairment of various types of learning and memory, consistent with the observations that neurotoxic amyloid inhibits PKC activity and that transgenic animal models with PKC, deficit exhibit impaired capacity in cognition. In addition, PKC isozymes play a regulatory role in amyloid production and accumulation. Restoration of the impaired PKC signal pathway pharmacologically results in an enhanced memory capacity and synaptic remodeling / repair and synaptogenesis, and, therefore, represents a potentially important strategy for the treatment of memory disorders, including Alzheimer's dementia. The PKC activators, especially those that are isozyme-specific, are a new class of drug candidates that may be developed as future memory therapeutics. [source]

Promotion of axonal maturation and prevention of memory loss in mice by extracts of Astragalus mongholicus

C Tohda
Background and purpose: Neurons with atrophic neurites may remain alive and therefore may have the potential to regenerate even when neuronal death has occurred in some parts of the brain. This study aimed to explore effects of drugs that can facilitate the regeneration of neurites and the reconstruction of synapses even in severely damaged neurons. Experimental approach: We investigated the effects of extracts of Astragalus mongholicus on the cognitive defect in mice caused by injection with the amyloid peptide A,(25-35). We also examined the effect of the extract on the regeneration of neurites and the reconstruction of synapses in cultured neurons damaged by A,(25-35). Key results: A. mongholicus extract (1 g kg,1 day,1 for 15 days, p.o.) reversed A,(25-35)-induced memory loss and prevented the loss of axons and synapses in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus in mice. Treatment with A,(25-35) (10 ,M) induced axonal atrophy and synaptic loss in cultured rat cortical neurons. Subsequent treatment with A. mongholicus extract (100 ,g/ml) resulted in significant axonal regeneration, reconstruction of neuronal synapses, and prevention of A,(25-35)-induced neuronal death. Similar extracts of A. membranaceus had no effect on axonal atrophy, synaptic loss, or neuronal death. The major known components of the extracts (astragalosides I, II, and IV) reduced neurodegeneration, but the activity of the extracts did not correlate with their content of these three astragalosides. Conclusion and implications: A. mongholicus is an important candidate for the treatment of memory disorders and the main active constituents may not be the known astragalosides. British Journal of Pharmacology (2006) 149, 532,541. doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0706865 [source]