Medicine Guidelines (medicine + guideline)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Medicine Guidelines

  • emergency medicine guideline

  • Selected Abstracts

    Optimizing triage consistency in Australian emergency departments: The Emergency Triage Education Kit

    Marie Frances Gerdtz
    Abstract Objective: The Emergency Triage Education Kit was designed to optimize consistency of triage using the Australasian Triage Scale. The present study was conducted to determine the interrater reliability of a set of scenarios for inclusion in the programme. Methods: A postal survey of 237 paper-based triage scenarios was utilized. A quota sample of triage nurses (n = 42) rated each scenario using the Australasian Triage Scale. The scenarios were analysed for concordance and agreement. The criterion for inclusion of the scenarios in the programme was , , 0.6. Results: Data were collected during 2 April to 14 May 2007. Agreement for the set was , = 0.412 (95% CI 0.410,0.415). Of the initial set: 92/237 (38.8%, 95% CI 32.6,45.3) showed concordance ,70% to the modal triage category (, = 0.632, 95% CI 0.629,0.636) and 155/237 (65.4%, 95% CI 59.3,71.5) showed concordance ,60% to the modal triage category (, = 0.507, 95% CI 0.504,0.510). Scenarios involving mental health and pregnancy presentations showed lower levels of agreement (, = 0.243, 95% CI 0.237,0.249; , = 0.319, 95% CI 0.310,0.328). Conclusion: All scenarios that showed good levels of agreement have been included in the Emergency Triage Education Kit and are recommended for testing purposes; those that showed moderate agreement have been incorporated for teaching purposes. Both scenario sets are accompanied by explanatory notes that link the decision outcome to the Australasian College for Emergency Medicine Guidelines on the Implementation of the Australasian Triage Scale. Future analysis of the scenarios is required to identify how task-related factors influence consistency of triage. [source]

    Ultrasound Training for Emergency Physicians, A Prospective Study

    Diku P. Mandavia MD
    Abstract. Objectives: Bedside ultrasound examination by emergency physicians (EPs) is being integrated into clinical emergency practice, yet minimum training requirements have not been well defined or evaluated. This study evaluated the accuracy of EP ultrasonography following a 16-hour introductory ultrasound course. Methods: In phase I of the study, a condensed 16-hour emergency ultrasound curriculum based on Society for Academic Emergency Medicine guidelines was administered to emergency medicine houseofficers, attending staff, medical students, and physician assistants over two days. Lectures with syllabus material were used to cover the following ultrasound topics in eight hours: basic physics, pelvis, right upper quadrant, renal, aorta, trauma, and echo-cardiography. In addition, each student received eight hours of hands-on ultrasound instruction over the two-day period. All participants in this curriculum received a standardized pretest and posttest that included 24 emergency ultrasound images for interpretation. These images included positive, negative, and nondiagnostic scans in each of the above clinical categories. In phase II of the study, ultrasound examinations performed by postgraduate-year-2 (PGY2) houseofficers over a ten-month period were examined and the standardized test was readministered. Results: In phase I, a total of 80 health professionals underwent standardized training and testing. The mean SD pretest score was 15.6 4.2, 95% CI = 14.7 to 16.5 (65% of a maximum score of 24), and the mean SD posttest score was 20.2 1.6, 95% CI = 19.8 to 20.6 (84%) (p < 0.05). In phase II, a total of 1,138 examinations were performed by 18 PGY2 houseofficers. Sensitivity was 92.4% (95% CI = 89% to 95%), specificity was 96.1% (95% CI = 94% to 98%), and overall accuracy was 94.6% (95% CI = 93% to 96%). The follow-up ultrasound written test showed continued good performance (20.7 1.2, 95% CI = 20.0 to 21.4). Conclusions: Emergency physicians can be taught focused ultrasonography with a high degree of accuracy, and a 16-hour course serves as a good introductory foundation. [source]

    A systematic review of intervention studies about anxiety in caregivers of people with dementia

    Claudia Cooper
    Abstract Background There is considerable literature on managing depression, burden and psychological morbidity in caregivers of people with dementia (CG). Anxiety has been a relatively neglected outcome measure but may require specific interventions. Objective To synthesise evidence regarding interventions that reduce anxiety in CGs. Methods Twenty-four studies met our inclusion criteria. We rated the methodology of studies, and awarded grades of recommendation (GR) for each type of intervention according to Centre for Evidence Based Medicine guidelines, from A (highest level of evidence) to D. Results Anxiety level was the primary outcome measure in only one study and no studies were predicated on a power calculation for anxiety level. There was little evidence of efficacy for any intervention. The only RCT to report significantly reduced anxiety involved a CBT and relaxation-based intervention specifically devised to treat anxiety, and there was preliminary evidence (no randomised controlled trials) that caregiver groups involving yoga and relaxation without CBT were effective. There was grade B evidence that behavioural management, exercise therapies and respite were ineffective. Limitations Many interventions were heterogeneous, so there is some overlap between groups. Lack of evidence of efficacy is not evidence of lack of efficacy. Conclusions CBT and other therapies developed primarily to target depression did not effectively treat anxiety. Good RCTs are needed to specifically target anxiety which might include relaxation techniques. Some of the interventions focussed on reducing contact with the care recipients but caregivers may want to cope with caring and preliminary evidence suggests strategies to help CGs manage caring demands may be more effective. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Obesity and Physical Activity in College Women: Implications for Clinical Practice

    APRN-BC, Jacquelyn M. Clement PhD
    Purpose To investigate the relationships between levels of physical activity, health attitudes and behaviors, and specific health indicators in women attending college. Data Sources A convenience sample of 116 college women, ages 18 to 24 years, participated in this research study at a moderate-sized midwestern university. The data were obtained through self-administered questionnaire; trained technicians collected physiological measurements. Conclusions The young women in this study had, on average, normal body mass indexes (BMIs) and reported activity levels consistent with or greater than the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/American College of Sports Medicine guidelines. Items used to assign participants into the appropriate stage of the transtheoretical model of change were correlated with participants' perceived personal physical activity levels. Similarly, the participants, whose scores fell in the higher stages of the transtheoretical model, reported greater levels of physical activity; consumption of more fruits, vegetables, and water; and less consumption of high-fat/high-calorie foods. Implications for Practice The years between ages 18 and 24 are a critical time in the lives of young women. During this period, they develop physical activity and nutrition habits that will affect their health across the life span. Because of the sometimes insidious development of major health problems, young women's current health status may not accurately reflect the possible longterm results of negative health habits. Nurse practitioners (NPs) have many opportunities to identify and address major factors that, if unattended, may threaten the life-long health status of women. Health teaching in the areas of physical activity and dietary habits may be useful even in young women who appear to be healthy, are of normal weight, and are physically active.Poor dietary habits, if unattended, may eventually contribute to the development of obesity and related illnesses. [source]

    Recent advances in the neurophysiology of chronic pain

    Kylie Baker
    Abstract The chronic pain syndrome patient has become the ,leper' of emergency medicine. There are no emergency medicine guidelines and minimal research into managing this challenging group of patients. Objective:, To summarize the recent advances in laboratory research into the development of chronic pain that have relevance to emergency management. When the level of supporting evidence is low, it is imperative that emergency physicians understand the physiology that underpins those expert opinions upon which they base their treatment strategies. Methods:, Literature was searched via Medline, Cochrane, Cinahl, and PsycINFO from 1996 to 2004, under ,chronic pain and emergency management'. Medline from 1996 was searched for ,chronic pain and prevention', ,chronic pain and emergency' and ,chronic pain'. Bibliographies were manually searched for older keynote articles. Results:, Advances in understanding the biochemical changes of chronic pain are paralleled by lesser known advances in delineation of the corticol processing. Conclusions:, Drug manipulation causes complex action and reaction in chronic pain. Emergency physicians must also optimize cognitive and behavioural aspects of treatment to successfully manage this systemic disease. [source]

    Achieving long-term compliance with colonoscopic surveillance guidelines for patients at increased risk of colorectal cancer in Australia

    P. A. Bampton
    Summary We have previously demonstrated that we could improve colonoscopic surveillance practice for patients at increased risk of colorectal cancer by the adoption of guidelines, facilitated by a nurse co-ordinator. This study was to determine whether we could sustain this improvement over a longer period (4 years). All colonoscopic surveillance decisions made by the co-ordinated colorectal screening programme of our hospital between 2000 and April 2004 were reviewed. Reasons for variance were recorded, and surveillance decisions made in the last 4 months of the study time were compared with decisions made 4 years previously, both before and after the introduction of the co-ordinated programme. Between 2000 and 2004, 1794 surveillance decisions were made with variance occurring in 100. In the last 4 months of the period of study, 98% of decisions matched guidelines, suggesting that the improvement made following the adoption of the guidelines (45,96% p < 0.05) could be maintained. Reasons for variance from guidelines included a belief that the particular clinical scenario was not covered in the guidelines, disagreement with the guidelines or patient anxiety. Adherence to evidence based medicine guidelines for colonoscopy surveillance can be maintained over time at a high level. A number of clinical scenarios are not covered adequately by the existing guidelines and continue to generate disagreement amongst clinicians. [source]

    O knowledge, where art thou?

    Evidence, suspected appendicitis
    Abstract Background, Much effort goes into developing and publishing guidelines which physicians fail to implement. We feel that major discrepancies still exist between theory and reality and that the translational approach to this aspect of medical care has not yet established itself. We therefore decided to investigate in an exemplary audit how liberally inappropriate imaging is used in our emergency department (ED) to rule out acute appendicitis. Material and methods, Our electronic medical record ED database ,Qualicare' ( was searched using the ,appendicitis' sub data base. The frequency and accuracy of abdominal imaging was determined in patients with clinically suspected appendicitis on admission over a 5-year period at a university hospital emergency unit. Results, In total, 272 (41.2%) of the 577 patients were male and 305 (46.3%) were female. The attending physicians ordered abdominal X-rays in 133 patients, abdominal ultrasounds in 319, and abdominal computerized tomography (CT) scans in 93 patients. 125 patients underwent more than one imaging procedure. In all, 85/125 patients received a combination of X-rays, ultrasound and CT scanning! Discussion, Physicians are often insecure about indications for surgery and therefore order useless imaging procedures. The reliability of such procedures in excluding acute appendicitis is limited, which was confirmed by our results. Although evidence-based medicine guidelines exist, they are neglected for many reasons. Future academic efforts should therefore focus more on knowledge translation and the implementation of existing knowledge by heightening awareness, rather than on simply creating new guidelines. [source]

    Plasma Antithrombin Activity as a Diagnostic and Prognostic Indicator in Dogs: A Retrospective Study of 149 Dogs

    S. Kuzi
    Background: Antithrombin (AT) is the major inhibitor of coagulation. In people, hypoantithrombinemia is associated with hypercoagulability, thrombosis, and poor prognosis. Veterinary studies, however, have not demonstrated similar prognostic significance. Thus, AT activity (ATA) in dogs currently is interpreted based on human medicine guidelines. Hypothesis: ATA can serve as a prognostic marker in dogs, as has been shown in people. Objectives: (1) To describe the clinical and clinicopathologic findings, diagnoses, and outcome of dogs with decreased versus normal ATA, (2) to identify diseases and mechanisms associated with hypoantithrombinemia, and (3) to assess ATA as a prognostic indicator. Animals and Methods: Retrospective study of 149 dogs with ATA measurement during their disease course. Results: Hypoantithrombinemic dogs had a higher proportion of leukocytosis, hemostatic abnormalities, hypoalbuminemia, and hyperbilirubinemia versus dogs with normal ATA. Hypoantithrombinemia commonly was present in immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA), pancreatitis, hepatopathy, and neoplasia. It was associated with higher risk of mortality in the entire study population and for specific diseases (eg, IMHA, neoplasia). The odds ratio for mortality significantly and progressively increased when ATA was <60 and <30% (9.9, 14.7, respectively). A receiver operating characteristics analysis of ATA as a predictor of mortality showed an area under the curve of 0.7, and an optimal cutoff point of 60% yielded sensitivity and specificity of 58 and 85%, respectively. Conclusions and Clinical Importance: In dogs, ATA <60% indicates increased mortality risk, similarly to human patients, but ATA has limited value as a single discriminating factor in the outcome. [source]

    Improving Rural Access to Emergency Physicians

    Daniel A. Handel MD
    The recent Institute of Medicine report entitled The Future of Emergency Care in the United States Health System acknowledges workforce issues in rural America but does not adequately address the current shortage of emergency medicine residency,trained and board-certified emergency physicians in rural America. Areas worthy of further attention to ameliorate this threat include 1) government and hospital support of emergency medicine resident educational debt load, 2) modification of residency review committee for emergency medicine guidelines to permit modified training programs that are rural focused, and 3) support of pilot projects designed to modify the delivery of rural emergency care under remote supervision by academic medical center,based practitioners. The authors discuss these potential solutions to help guide policy makers seeking to enhance rural emergency care delivery through a stronger emergency medicine workforce. [source]