Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Terms modified by Medicaid

  • medicaid beneficiary
  • medicaid claim
  • medicaid eligibility
  • medicaid eligible
  • medicaid enrollee
  • medicaid enrollment
  • medicaid expenditure
  • medicaid managed care
  • medicaid patient
  • medicaid policy
  • medicaid program
  • medicaid services

  • Selected Abstracts


    In the context of dramatically increasing U.S. health-care costs, this paper contributes to an ongoing debate discussing proposals to replace the government's current policy of matching state Medicaid spending with a block grant system. State-level panel data analysis provides evidence that, ceteris paribus, increasing the federal matching formula has a negative impact on prenatal care. This aggregate result masks significant differences between high- and low-spending states and appears to be driven by the high-spending states thus implying that a 2-track approach to Medicaid funding may be more appropriate than the current system. (JEL I1, H7) [source]

    Issues related to the diagnosis and treatment of autism spectrum disorders,

    Paul T. Shattuck
    Abstract This paper explores issues and implications for diagnosis and treatment, stemming from the growing number of children identified with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Recent developments and innovations in special education and Medicaid programs are emphasized. Eligibility determination policies, innovations in diagnostic practices, the cost and financing of assessment, variability among programs in diagnostic criteria, and racial/ethnic disparities in the timing of diagnosis all influence the capacity of service systems to provide diagnoses in a timely, coordinated, accurate, economical, and equitable manner. There are several barriers to the more widespread provision of intensive intervention for children with ASDs, including lack of strong evidence of effectiveness in scaled-up public programs, uncertainty about the extent of obligations to provide services under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, high cost of intervention, and variability among states in their willingness to fund intensive intervention via Medicaid. Innovative policy experiments with respect to financing intensive intervention through schools and Medicaid are being conducted in a number of states. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. MRDD Research Reviews 2007;13:129,135. [source]

    Cross-state variation in Medicaid programs and female labor supply

    ECONOMIC INQUIRY, Issue 3 2000
    E Montgomery
    Using a pooled cross-section data set from the 1980 through 1993 Current Population Survey March Supplements, we test if different Medicaid benefit levels across states impact the labor supply behavior of female heads of households. The ordinary least square (OLS) results support the prediction that Medicaid expenditures reduce labor supply. Controlling for state fixed or random effects alters the effect of both AFDC and Medicaid on the decision to participate as well as the number of hours worked. We also find that while the effects of program generosity are sensitive to the inclusion of state effects those of variation in eligibility thresholds are not. [source]

    Epidemiology of Adult Psychiatric Visits to U.S. Emergency Departments

    Sara B. Hazlett MD
    Objectives: To characterize psychiatric-related emergency department visits (PREDVs) among adults in the United States for the year 2000 and to analyze PREDV trends from 1992 to 2000. Methods: Emergency department (ED) visit data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey were used to estimate the number of PREDVs for adults aged 18 years and older. A PREDV was defined as any visit with a psychiatric discharge diagnosis (ICD N290, N312) or a suicide attempt (ICD E950,E959). Results: Approximately 4.3 million PREDVs occurred in the United States in the year 2000, yielding an annual rate of 21 visits per 1,000 adults. The PREDV rates increased 15% between 1992 and 2000. The PREDVs accounted for 5.4% of all ED visits. Substance abuse (27%), neuroses (26%), and psychoses (21%) were the most common conditions. African Americans had significantly higher visit rates (29/1,000; 95% CI = 27/1,000 to 31/1,000) compared with whites (23/1,000; 95% CI = 22/1,000 to 25/1,000). Persons with Medicaid (66/1,000; 95% CI = 64/1,000 to 68/1,000) had double the rate of PREDVs than the uninsured (33/1,000; 95% CI = 31/1,000 to 35/1,000) and almost eight times the rate of those privately insured (8/1,000; 95% CI = 7/1,000 to 10/1,000). Patients with psychiatric diagnoses had a higher admission rate (22%) than those with nonpsychiatric diagnoses (15%). The uninsured were the least likely to be admitted for all major psychiatric conditions except suicide (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: Psychiatric-related ED visits represent a substantial and growing number of ED visits each year. Patient characteristics influence the likelihood of a PREDV. Further research is needed to better understand the role that hospital EDs play in the delivery of health care services to those with mental illness. [source]

    Association between Insurance Status and Admission Rate for Patients Evaluated in the Emergency Department

    Jennifer Prah Ruger PhD
    Abstract Objectives: To determine if differences exist in hospital and intensive care unit (ICU)/operating room admission rates based on health insurance status. Methods: This was a retrospective, cross-sectional study of data from hospital clinical and financial records for all 2001 emergency department (ED) visits (80,209) to an academic urban hospital. Hospital admission and intensive care unit (ICU)/operating room admissions were analyzed, controlling for triage acuity, primary complaint, diagnosis, diagnosis-related group (DRG) severity, and demographics. Multivariate logistic regression models identified factors associated with hospital admission for underinsured (self-pay and Medicaid) compared with other insured (private health maintenance organization, preferred provider organization, worker's compensation, and Medicare) patients. Results: Compared with the other insured group, underinsured patients were less likely, overall, to be admitted to the hospital (odds ratio [OR], 0.82; 95% CI = 0.76 to 0.90), controlling for all other factors studied. Subgroup analysis of common complaints showed underinsured patients with a chief complaint of abdominal pain (OR, 0.67; 95% CI = 0.55 to 0.80) or headache (OR, 0.61; 95% CI = 0.39 to 0.95) had the lowest adjusted ORs for admission to the hospital, compared with other insured patients. Underinsured patients with DRG of "menstrual and other female reproductive system disorders" (OR, 0.17; 95% CI = 0.06 to 0.51) or "esophagitis, gastroenteritis, and miscellaneous digestive disorders" (OR, 0.55; 95% CI = 0.28 to 0.96) also were less likely to be admitted compared with the other insured group. No significant differences in ICU/operating room admission rates were found between insurance groups. Conclusions: Whereas there was no difference in admission rates to the ICU/operating room by insurance status, this single-center study does suggest an association between insurance status and admission to a general hospital service, which may or may not be causally related. Factors other than provider bias may be responsible for this observed difference. [source]


    FAMILY COURT REVIEW, Issue 3 2006
    Hyejung Janet Shin
    The lack of health insurance for children is a serious problem in the United States, especially for those children in families that earn too little to get private health insurance and too much to qualify for Medicare. Even within this subclass of children, immigrant children are particularly vulnerable to the problems faced by lack of health care. Nevertheless, with the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) by Congress, equality interests of low-income immigrant children are undermined when immigrant children are denied federal benefits for the first 5 years of residency in the United States. The first part of this Note examines the importance of child health care and the long-term problems with uninsured children, especially with uninsured immigrant children and pregnant women. The next part introduces Medicaid as well as State Children's Health Insurance Program, a supplemental federal program designed to increase health care coverage to all children, while contrasting these programs in light of the restrictive anti-immigrant PRWORA provisions. The third part explains the passage of PRWORA, its anti-immigrant provisions, and how these provisions prevent needy immigrant children from receiving federally funded health care. Then, the fourth part uses both the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment and the Due Process Clause of the Fifth Amendment to argue the unconstitutionality of the anti-immigrant provisions. Finally, the last part lays out the recommendation to amend the Social Security Act so that the PRWORA barriers can be removed and recent immigrant children can receive federally funded health care. [source]

    SCHIP premiums, enrollment, and expenditures: a two state, competing risk analysis

    HEALTH ECONOMICS, Issue 7 2010
    James Marton
    Abstract Faced with state budget troubles, policymakers may introduce or increase State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) premiums for children in the highest program income eligibility categories. In this paper we compare the responses of SCHIP recipients in a state (Kentucky) that introduced SCHIP premiums for the first time at the end of 2003 with the responses of recipients in a state (Georgia) that increased existing SCHIP premiums in mid-2004. We start with a theoretical examination of how these different policies create different changes to family budget constraints and produce somewhat different financial incentives for recipients. Next we empirically model the impact of these policies using a competing risk approach to differentiate exits due to transfers to other eligibility categories of public coverage from exiting the public health insurance system. In both states we find a short-run increase in the likelihood that children transfer to lower- income eligibility/lower-premium categories of SCHIP. We also find a short-run increase in the rate at which children transfer from SCHIP to Medicaid in Kentucky, which is consistent with our theoretical model. These findings have important financial implications for state budgets, as the matching rates and premium levels are different for different eligibility categories of public coverage. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Maternal health: does prenatal care make a difference?

    HEALTH ECONOMICS, Issue 5 2006
    Karen Smith Conway
    Abstract This research attempts to close an important gap in health economics regarding the efficacy of prenatal care and policies designed to improve access to that care, such as Medicaid. We argue that a key beneficiary , the mother , has been left completely out of the analysis. If prenatal care significantly improves the health of the mother, then concluding that prenatal care is ,ineffective' or that the Medicaid expansions are a ,failure' is premature. This paper seeks to rectify the oversight by estimating the impact of prenatal care on maternal health and the associated cost savings. We first set up a joint maternal,infant health production framework that informs our empirical analysis. Using data from the National Maternal and Infant Health Survey, we estimate the effects of prenatal care on several different measures of maternal health such as body weight status and excessive hospitalizations. Our results suggest that receiving timely and adequate prenatal care may increase the probability of maintaining a healthy weight after the birth and, perhaps for blacks, of avoiding a lengthy hospitalization after the delivery. Given the costs to society of obesity and hospitalization, these are benefits worth exploring before making conclusions about the effectiveness of prenatal care , and Medicaid. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    A preliminary investigation of the effects of restrictions on Medicaid funding for abortions on female STD rates

    HEALTH ECONOMICS, Issue 6 2003
    Bisakha Sen
    Abstract There is evidence in the economics literature that restrictions on Medicaid funding for abortion reduces the demand for abortion. The unresolved question is whether such restrictions also increase safe sex (that is, pregnancy avoidance) behavior among women. This study explores that issue using state-level gonorrhea rates among women for 1975,1995. The rationale is that sexual behavior that leads to greater risk of accidental pregnancies is likely to be highly correlated with sexual behavior leading to greater risk of STD infection. Since gonorrhea has an incubation period of about a week, and is transmitted almost exclusively through sexual intercourse, a change in sexual behavior should soon be followed by a change in gonorrhea rates. The study used a partial adjustment model with lagged-dependent variables estimated using Arellano-Bond's GMM method. Results fail to find any statistically significant evidence that Medicaid funding restrictions are effective in reducing gonorrhea rates. This finding is robust to a variety of alternate specifications and tests. This suggests that restrictions on Medicaid funding for abortion fail to promote safe sex behavior among women. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The Impact of CHIP on Children's Insurance Coverage: An Analysis Using the National Survey of America's Families

    Lisa Dubay
    Objective. To assess the impact of the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) on the distribution of health insurance coverage for low-income children. Data Source. The primary data for the study were from the 1997, 1999, and 2002 National Survey of America's Families (NSAF), which includes a total sample of 62,497 children across all 3 years, supplemented with data from other data sources. Study Design. The study uses quasi-experimental designs and tests the sensitivity of the results to using instrumental variable and difference-in-difference approaches. A detailed Medicaid and CHIP eligibility model was developed for this study. Balanced repeated replicate weights were used to account for the complex sample of the NSAF. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were conducted. Principle Findings. The results varied depending on the approach utilized but indicated that the CHIP program led to significant increases in public coverage (14,20 percentage points); and declines in employer-sponsored coverage (6,7 percentage points) and in uninsurance (7,12 percentage points). The estimated share of CHIP enrollment attributable to crowd-out ranged from 33 to 44 percent. Smaller crowd-out effects were found for Medicaid-eligible children. Conclusions. Implementation of the CHIP program resulted in large increases in public coverage with estimates of crowd-out consistent with initial projections made by the Congressional Budget Office. This paper demonstrates that public health insurance expansions can lead to substantial reductions in uninsurance without causing a large-scale erosion of employer coverage. [source]

    Assessing the Value of the NHIS for Studying Changes in State Coverage Policies: The Case of New York

    Sharon K. Long
    Research Objective. (1) To assess the effects of New York's Health Care Reform Act of 2000 on the insurance coverage of eligible adults and (2) to explore the feasibility of using the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) as opposed to the Current Population Survey (CPS) to conduct evaluations of state health reform initiatives. Study Design. We take advantage of the natural experiment that occurred in New York to compare health insurance coverage for adults before and after the state implemented its coverage initiative using a difference-in-differences framework. We estimate the effects of New York's initiative on insurance coverage using the NHIS, comparing the results to estimates based on the CPS, the most widely used data source for studies of state coverage policy changes. Although the sample sizes are smaller in the NHIS, the NHIS addresses a key limitation of the CPS for such evaluations by providing a better measure of health insurance status. Given the complexity of the timing of the expansion efforts in New York (which encompassed the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks), we allow for difference in the effects of the state's policy changes over time. In particular, we allow for differences between the period of Disaster Relief Medicaid (DRM), which was a temporary program implemented immediately after September 11th, and the original components of the state's reform efforts,Family Health Plus (FHP), an expansion of direct Medicaid coverage, and Healthy New York (HNY), an effort to make private coverage more affordable. Data Sources. 2000,2004 CPS; 1999,2004 NHIS. Principal Findings. We find evidence of a significant reduction in uninsurance for parents in New York, particularly in the period following DRM. For childless adults, for whom the coverage expansion was more circumscribed, the program effects are less promising, as we find no evidence of a significant decline in uninsurance. Conclusions. The success of New York at reducing uninsurance for parents through expansions of both public and private coverage offers hope for new strategies to expand coverage. The NHIS is a strong data source for evaluations of many state health reform initiatives, providing a better measure of insurance status and supporting a more comprehensive study of state innovations than is possible with the CPS. [source]

    The Impact of Welfare Reform on Insurance Coverage before Pregnancy and the Timing of Prenatal Care Initiation

    Norma I. Gavin
    Objective. This study investigates the impact of welfare reform on insurance coverage before pregnancy and on first-trimester initiation of prenatal care (PNC) among pregnant women eligible for Medicaid under welfare-related eligibility criteria. Data Sources. We used pooled data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System for eight states (AL, FL, ME, NY, OK, SC, WA, and WV) from 1996 through 1999. Study Design. We estimated a two-part logistic model of insurance coverage before pregnancy and first-trimester PNC initiation. The impact of welfare reform on insurance coverage before pregnancy was measured by marginal effects computed from coefficients of an interaction term for the postreform period and welfare-related eligibility and on PNC initiation by the same interaction term and the coefficients of insurance coverage adjusted for potential simultaneous equation bias. We compared the estimates from this model with results from simple logistic, ordinary least squares, and two-stage least squares models. Principal Findings. Welfare reform had a significant negative impact on Medicaid coverage before pregnancy among welfare-related Medicaid eligibles. This drop resulted in a small decline in their first-trimester PNC initiation. Enrollment in Medicaid before pregnancy was independent of the decision to initiate PNC, and estimates of the effect of a reduction in Medicaid coverage before pregnancy on PNC initiation were consistent over the single- and two-stage models. Effects of private coverage were mixed. Welfare reform had no impact on first-trimester PNC beyond that from reduced Medicaid coverage in the pooled regression but separate state-specific regressions suggest additional effects from time and income constraints induced by welfare reform may have occurred in some states. Conclusions. Welfare reform had significant adverse effects on insurance coverage and first-trimester PNC initiation among our nation's poorest women of childbearing age. Improved outreach and insurance options for these women are needed to meet national health goals. [source]

    The Effects of Health Sector Market Factors and Vulnerable Group Membership on Access to Alcohol, Drug, and Mental Health Care

    Susan E. Stockdale
    Objective. This study adapts Andersen's Behavioral Model to determine if health sector market conditions affect vulnerable subgroups' use of alcohol, drug, and mental health services (ADM) differently than the general population, focusing specifically on community-level predisposing and enabling characteristics. Data Sources. Wave 2 data (2000,2001) from the Health Care for Communities study, supplemented with cases from wave 1 (1997,1998), were merged with area characteristics taken from Census, Area Resource File (ARF), and other data sources. Study Design. The study used four-level hierarchical logistic regression to examine access to ADM care from any provider and specialty ADM access. Interactions between community-level predisposing and enabling vulnerability characteristics with individual race/ethnicity, age, income category, and insurance type were explored. Principal Findings. Nonwhites, the poor, uninsured, and elderly had lower likelihoods of service use, but interactions between race/ethnicity, income, age and insurance status with community-level vulnerability factors were not statistically significant for any service use. For ADM specialty care, those with Medicare, Medicaid, private fully managed, and private partially managed insurance, the likelihood of utilization was higher in areas with higher HMO penetration. However, for those with other insurance or no insurance plan, the likelihood of utilization was lower in areas with higher HMO penetration. Conclusions. Community-level enabling factors explain part of the effect of disadvantaged status but, with the exception of the effect of HMO penetration on the relationship between insurance and specialty care use, do not modify any of the residual individual-level effects of disadvantage. Interventions targeting both structural and individual levels may be necessary to address the problem of health disparities. More research with longitudinal data is necessary to sort out the causal direction of social context and ADM access outcomes, and whether policy interventions to change health sector market conditions can shift ADM treatment utilization. [source]

    Health Policy Roundtable: How Are Medicaid and SCHIP Weathering the Storm?

    Christina E. Folz
    First page of article [source]

    The Cost-Effectiveness of Independent Housing for the Chronically Mentally Ill: Do Housing and Neighborhood Features Matter?

    Joseph Harkness
    Objective. To determine the effects of housing and neighborhood features on residential instability and the costs of mental health services for individuals with chronic mental illness (CMI). Data Sources. Medicaid and service provider data on the mental health service utilization of 670 individuals with CMI between 1988 and 1993 were combined with primary data on housing attributes and costs, as well as census data on neighborhood characteristics. Study participants were living in independent housing units developed under the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Program on Chronic Mental Illness in four of nine demonstration cities between 1988 and 1993. Study Design. Participants were assigned on a first-come, first-served basis to housing units as they became available for occupancy after renovation by the housing providers. Multivariate statistical models are used to examine the relationship between features of the residential environment and three outcomes that were measured during the participant's occupancy in a study property: residential instability, community-based service costs, and hospital-based service costs. To assess cost-effectiveness, the mental health care cost savings associated with some residential features are compared with the cost of providing housing with these features. Data Collection/Extraction Methods. Health service utilization data were obtained from Medicaid and from state and local departments of mental health. Non-mental-health services, substance abuse services, and pharmaceuticals were screened out. Principal Findings. Study participants living in newer and properly maintained buildings had lower mental health care costs and residential instability. Buildings with a richer set of amenity features, neighborhoods with no outward signs of physical deterioration, and neighborhoods with newer housing stock were also associated with reduced mental health care costs. Study participants were more residentially stable in buildings with fewer units and where a greater proportion of tenants were other individuals with CMI. Mental health care costs and residential instability tend to be reduced in neighborhoods with many nonresidential land uses and a higher proportion of renters. Mixed-race neighborhoods are associated with reduced probability of mental health hospitalization, but they also are associated with much higher hospitalization costs if hospitalized. The degree of income mixing in the neighborhood has no effect. Conclusions. Several of the key findings are consistent with theoretical expectations that higher-quality housing and neighborhoods lead to better mental health outcomes among individuals with CMI. The mental health care cost savings associated with these favorable features far outweigh the costs of developing and operating properties with them. Support for the hypothesis that "diverse-disorganized" neighborhoods are more accepting of individuals with CMI and, hence, associated with better mental health outcomes, is mixed. [source]

    The Unintended Impact of Welfare Reform on the Medicaid Enrollment of Eligible Immigrants

    Namratha R. Kandula
    Background. During welfare reform, Congress passed legislation barring legal immigrants who entered the United States after August 1996 from Medicaid for five years after immigration. This legislation intended to bar only new immigrants (post-1996 immigrants) from Medicaid. However it may have also deterred the enrollment of legal immigrants who immigrated before 1996 (pre-1996 immigrants) and who should have remained Medicaid eligible. Objectives. To compare the Medicaid enrollment of U.S.-born citizens to pre-1996 immigrants, before and after welfare reform, and to determine if variation in state Medicaid policies toward post-1996 immigrants modified the effects of welfare reform on pre-1996 immigrants. Data Source/Study Design. Secondary database analysis of cross-sectional data from 1994,2001 of the U.S. Census Bureau, Annual Demographic Survey of March Supplement of the Current Population Survey. Subjects. Low-income, U.S.-born adults (N=116,307) and low-income pre-1996 immigrants (N=24,367) before and after welfare reform. Measures. Self-reported Medicaid enrollment. Results. Before welfare reform, pre-1996 immigrants were less likely to enroll in Medicaid than the U.S.-born (OR=0.55; 95 percent CI, 0.51,0.59). After welfare reform, pre-1996 immigrants were even less likely to enroll in Medicaid. The proportion of immigrants in Medicaid dropped 3 percentage points after 1996; for the U.S.-born it dropped 1.6 percentage points (p=0.012). Except for California, state variation in Medicaid policy toward post-1996 immigrants did modify the effect of welfare reform on pre-1996 immigrants. Conclusions. Federal laws limiting the Medicaid eligibility of specific subgroups of immigrants appear to have had unintended consequences on Medicaid enrollment in the larger, still eligible immigrant community. Inclusive state policies may overcome this effect. [source]

    The Impact of Medicaid Managed Care on Pregnant Women in Ohio: A Cohort Analysis

    Embry M. Howell
    Objective. To examine the impact of mandatory HMO enrollment for Medicaid-covered pregnant women on prenatal care use, smoking, Cesarean section (C-section) use, and birth weight. Data Sources/Study Setting. Linked birth certificate and Medicaid enrollment data from July 1993 to June 1998 in 10 Ohio counties, 6 that implemented mandatory HMO enrollment, and 4 with low levels of voluntary enrollment (under 15 percent). Cuyahoga County (Cleveland) is analyzed separately; the other mandatory counties and the voluntary counties are grouped for analysis, due to small sample sizes. Study Design. Women serve as their own controls, which helps to overcome the bias from unmeasured variables such as health beliefs and behavior. Changes in key outcomes between the first and second birth are compared between women who reside in mandatory HMO enrollment counties and those in voluntary enrollment counties. County of residence is the primary indicator of managed care status, since, in Ohio, women are allowed to "opt out" of HMO enrollment in mandatory counties in certain circumstances, leading to selection. As a secondary analysis, we compare women according to their HMO enrollment status at the first and second birth. Data Collection/Extraction Methods. Linked birth certificate/enrollment data were used to identify 4,917 women with two deliveries covered by Medicaid, one prior to the implementation of mandatory HMO enrollment (mid-1996) and one following implementation. Data for individual births were linked over time using a scrambled maternal Medicaid identification number. Principal Findings. The effects of HMO enrollment on prenatal care use and smoking were confined to Cuyahoga County, Ohio's largest county. In Cuyahoga, the implementation of mandatory enrollment was related to a significant deterioration in the timing of initiation of care, but an improvement in the number of prenatal visits. In that county also, women who smoked in their first pregnancy were less likely to smoke during the second pregnancy, compared to women in voluntary counties. Women residing in all the mandatory counties were less likely to have a repeat C-section. There were no effects on infant birth weight. The effects of women's own managed care status were inconsistent depending on the outcome examined; an interpretation of these results is hampered by selection issues. Changes over time in outcomes, both positive and negative, were more pronounced for African American women. Conclusions. With careful implementation and attention to women's individual differences as in Ohio, outcomes for pregnant women may improve with Medicaid managed care implementation. Quality monitoring should continue as Medicaid managed care becomes more widespread. More research is needed to identify the types of health maintenance organization activities that lead to improved outcomes. [source]

    Do Commercial Managed Care Members Rate Their Health Plans Differently than Medicaid Managed Care Members?

    Patrick J. Roohan
    Objective. To determine if members of commercial managed care and Medicaid managed care rate the experience with their health plans differently. Data Sources. Data from both commercial and Medicaid Consumer Assessment of Health Plan Surveys (CAHPS) in New York State. Study Design. Regression models were used to determine the effect of population (commercial or Medicaid) on a member's rating of their health plan, controlling for health status, age, gender, education, race/ethnicity, number of office visits, and place of residence. Data Collection. Managed care plans are required to submit to the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) results of the annual commercial CAHPS survey. The NYSDOH conducted a survey of Medicaid enrollees using Medicaid CAHPS. Principal Findings. Medicaid managed care members in excellent or very good health rate their health plan higher than commercial members in excellent or very good health. There is no difference in health plan rating for commercial and Medicaid members in good, fair, or poor health. Older, less educated, black, and Hispanic members who live outside New York City are more likely to rate their managed care plan higher. Conclusions. Medicaid members rating of their health care equals or exceeds ratings by commercial members. [source]

    Inflammatory bowel disease patients who leave hospital against medical advice: Predictors and temporal trends

    Gilaad G. Kaplan MD
    Abstract Background: Leaving hospital against medical advice (AMA) may have consequences with respect to health-related outcomes; however, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients have been inadequately studied. Thus, we determined the prevalence of self-discharge, assessed predictors of AMA status, and evaluated time trends. Methods: We analyzed the 1995,2005 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) to identify 93,678 discharges with a primary diagnosis of IBD admitted to the hospital emergently and did not undergo surgery. We described the proportion of IBD patients who left AMA. Predictors of AMA status were evaluated using a multivariate logistic regression model and temporal trend analyses were performed with Poisson regression models. Results: Between 1995 and 2005, 1.31% of IBD patients left hospitals AMA. Crohn's disease (CD) patients were more likely to leave AMA (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.53; 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.30,1.79). Characteristics associated with leaving AMA included: ages 18,34 (aOR, 7.77, 95% CI: 4.34,13.89); male (aOR, 1.75; 95% CI: 1.55,1.99); Medicaid (aOR, 4.55; 95% CI: 3.81,5.43) compared to private insurance; African Americans (aOR, 1.34; 95% CI: 1.09,1.64) compared to white; substance abuse (aOR, 2.75; 95% CI: 2.14,3.54); and psychosis (aOR, 1.55; 95% CI: 1.13,2.14). The incidence rates of self-discharge for CD patients were stable (P > 0.05) between 1995 and 1999, while they significantly (P < 0.0001) increased after 1999. In contrast, AMA rates for UC patients remained stable during the study period. Conclusions: Approximately 1 in 76 IBD patients admitted emergently for medical management leave the hospital AMA. These were primarily disenfranchised patients who may lack adequate outpatient follow-up. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2009) [source]

    Transnational Twist: Pecuniary Remittances and the Socioeconomic Integration of Authorized and Unauthorized Mexican Immigrants in Los Angeles County,

    Enrico A. Marcelli
    Annual U.S.-Mexico pecuniary remittances are estimated to have more than doubled recently to at least $10 billion - augmenting interest among policymakers, financial institutions, and transnational migrant communities concerning how relatively poor expatriate Mexicans sustain such large transfers and the impact on immigrant integration in the United States. We employ the 2001 Los Angeles County Mexican Immigrant Residency Status Survey (LAC-MIRSS) to investigate how individual characteristics and social capital traditionally associated with integration, neighborhood context, and various investments in the United States influenced remitting in 2000. Remitting is estimated to have been inversely related to conventional integration metrics and influenced by community context in both sending and receiving areas. Contrary to straight-line assimilation theories and more consistent with a transnational or nonlinear perspective, however, remittances are also estimated to have been positively related to immigrant homeownership in Los Angeles County and negatively associated with having had public health insurance such as Medicaid. [source]

    Interview with a Quality Leader,Karen Davis, Executive Director of The Commonwealth Fund

    Lecia A. Albright
    Dr. Davis is a nationally recognized economist, with a distinguished career in public policy and research. Before joining the Fund, she served as chairman of the Department of Health Policy and Management at The Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, where she also held an appointment as professor of economics. She served as deputy assistant secretary for health policy in the Department of Health and Human Services from 1977 to 1980, and was the first woman to head a U.S. Public Health Service agency. Before her government career, Ms. Davis was a senior fellow at the Brookings Institution in Washington, DC; a visiting lecturer at Harvard University; and an assistant professor of economics at Rice University. A native of Oklahoma, she received her PhD in economics from Rice University, which recognized her achievements with a Distinguished Alumna Award in 1991. Ms. Davis is the recipient of the 2000 Baxter-Allegiance Foundation Prize for Health Services Research. In the spring of 2001, Ms. Davis received an honorary doctorate in human letters from John Hopkins University. In 2006, she was selected for the Academy Health Distinguished Investigator Award for significant and lasting contributions to the field of health services research in addition to the Picker Award for Excellence in the Advancement of Patient Centered Care. Ms. Davis has published a number of significant books, monographs, and articles on health and social policy issues, including the landmark books HealthCare Cost Containment, Medicare Policy, National Health Insurance: Benefits, Costs, and Consequences, and Health and the War on Poverty. She serves on the Board of Visitors of Columbia University, School of Nursing, and is on the Board of Directors of the Geisinger Health System. She was elected to the Institute of Medicine (IOM) in 1975; has served two terms on the IOM governing Council (1986,90 and 1997,2000); was a member of the IOM Committee on Redesigning Health Insurance Benefits, Payment and Performance Improvement Programs; and was awarded the Adam Yarmolinsky medal in 2007 for her contributions to the mission of the Institute of Medicine. She is a past president of the Academy Health (formerly AHSRHP) and an Academy Health distinguished fellow, a member of the Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured, and a former member of the Agency for Healthcare Quality and Research National Advisory Committee. She also serves on the Panel of Health Advisors for the Congressional Budget Office. [source]

    Use of Medicare and Department of Veterans Affairs Health Care by Veterans with Dementia: A Longitudinal Analysis

    Carolyn W. Zhu PhD
    The objectives of this study were to examine longitudinal patterns of Department of Veterans Affairs (VA),only use, dual VA and Medicare use, and Medicare-only use by veterans with dementia. Data on VA and Medicare use were obtained from VA administrative datasets and Medicare claims (1998,2001) for 2,137 male veterans who, in 1997, used some VA services, had a formal diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease or vascular dementia in the VA, and were aged 65 and older. Generalized ordered logit models were used to estimate the effects of patient characteristics on use group over time. In 1998, 41.7% of the sample were VA-only users, 55.4% were dual users, and 2.9% were Medicare-only users. By 2001, 30.4% were VA-only users, 51.5% were dual users, and 18.1% were Medicare-only users. Multivariate results show that greater likelihood of Medicare use was associated with older age, being white, being married, having higher education, having private insurance or Medicaid, having low VA priority level, and living in a nursing home or dying during the year. Higher comorbidities were associated with greater likelihood of dual use as opposed to any single system use. Alternatively, number of functional limitations was associated with greater likelihood of Medicare-only use and less likelihood of VA-only use. These results imply that different aspects of veterans' needs have differential effects on where they seek care. Efforts to coordinate care between VA and Medicare providers are necessary to ensure that patients receive high-quality care, especially patients with multiple comorbidities. [source]

    The Effect of Transitioning to Medicare Part D Drug Coverage in Seniors Dually Eligible for Medicare and Medicaid

    William H. Shrank MD
    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate medication use, out-of-pocket spending, and medication switching during the transition period for patients dually eligible for Medicaid and Medicare (dual eligibles). DESIGN: Time-trend analysis, using segmented linear regression. SETTING: Patient-level pharmacy dispensing data from January 2005 to December 2006 from a large pharmacy chain with stores in 34 states. PARTICIPANTS: Dual eligibles aged 65 and older. MEASUREMENTS: Changes in utilization, patient copayments, and medication switching were analyzed using interrupted time trend analyses. Utilization and spending were evaluated for five study drugs: clopidogrel, proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), warfarin, and statins (essential drugs covered by Part D plans) and benzodiazepines (not covered through Part D but potentially covered through Medicaid). RESULTS: Drug use for 13,032 dual eligibles was evaluated. There was no significant effect of the transition to Medicare Part D on use of all study drugs, including the uncovered benzodiazepines. Cumulative reductions were seen in copayments for all covered drugs after implementation of Part D, ranging from 25% annually for PPIs to 53% for warfarin, but there was a larger increase in copayments, 91% annually, for benzodiazepines after the transition. The rate of switching medications was 3.0 times as great for the PPIs after implementation of Part D than before implementation, but there was no significant change in the other study drug classes. CONCLUSION: These findings in a single, large pharmacy chain indicate that the transition plan for dual eligibles led to less medication discontinuation and switching than many had expected. The substantially greater cost sharing for benzodiazepines highlights the importance of implementing a thoughtful transition plan when executing such a national policy. [source]

    Healthcare Costs of Acute and Chronic Pain Associated with a Diagnosis of Herpes Zoster

    Robert H. Dworkin PhD
    OBJECTIVES: To determine the healthcare costs of acute and chronic pain associated with herpes zoster. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort analysis. SETTING: Inpatient and outpatient care. PARTICIPANTS: Patients were selected from Medicare, commercial insurance, and Medicaid claims databases if they had a diagnosis of herpes zoster or postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) or were prescribed analgesics after a diagnosis of herpes zoster (possible PHN) and were matched to controls for demographic and clinical factors using propensity scores. MEASUREMENTS: One-year excess healthcare expenditures attributable to herpes zoster pain or PHN were calculated for inpatient, outpatient, and prescription drug services. RESULTS: For the Medicare cohort, the average excess cost per patient was $1,300 in the year after a diagnosis of herpes zoster with 30 days or fewer of analgesic use and ranged from $2,200 to $2,300 per patient with PHN or possible PHN. Patients with possible PHN were 53% more prevalent than patients with PHN in the Medicare cohort and accounted for half of all excess expenditures. Findings were similar in the younger cohorts with commercial insurance and Medicaid except that costs attributable to PHN and possible PHN were higher, and patients with possible PHN were three to five times as prevalent as patients with PHN. CONCLUSION: Healthcare costs associated with PHN were substantially greater than those associated with herpes zoster pain that resolved within 30 days. The data suggest that as many as 80% of patients with PHN may not be diagnosed with PHN and that these patients account for at least half of PHN expenditures. [source]

    The Effects of a Variant of the Program for All-inclusive Care of the Elderly on Hospital Utilization and Outcomes

    Robert L. Kane MD
    OBJECTIVES: To compare the effects of the Wisconsin Partnership Program (WPP) on hospital, emergency department (ED), and nursing home utilization with those of traditional care. DESIGN: Quasi-experimental longitudinal cohort design. SETTING: Selected counties in Wisconsin. PARTICIPANTS: WPP elderly enrollees and two matched control groups consisting of frail older people enrolled in fee-for-service insurance plans, Medicare, and Medicaid and receiving home- and community-based waiver services, one from the same geographic area as the WPP and another from a location in the state where the WPP was not offered. MEASUREMENTS: Data came from administrative records. Regression and survival analyses were adjusted for case-mix variables. RESULTS: No significant differences in hospital utilization, ED visits, preventable hospitalizations, risk of entry into nursing homes, or mortality were found. WPP enrollees had more contact with care providers than did controls. CONCLUSION: WPP did not dramatically alter the pattern of care. Part of the weak effect may be attributable to the small numbers of WPP cases per participating physician. [source]

    Optimizing Coding and Reimbursement to Improve Management of Alzheimer's Disease and Related Dementias

    Howard Fillit MD
    The objectives of this study were to review the diagnostic, International Classification of Disease, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM), diagnosis related groups (DRGs), and common procedural terminology (CPT) coding and reimbursement issues (including Medicare Part B reimbursement for physicians) encountered in caring for patients with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (ADRD); to review the implications of these policies for the long-term clinical management of the patient with ADRD; and to provide recommendations for promoting appropriate recognition and reimbursement for clinical services provided to ADRD patients. Relevant English-language articles identified from MEDLINE about ADRD prevalence estimates; disease morbidity and mortality; diagnostic coding practices for ADRD; and Medicare, Medicaid, and managed care organization data on diagnostic coding and reimbursement were reviewed. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is grossly undercoded. Few AD cases are recognized at an early stage. Only 13% of a group of patients receiving the AD therapy donepezil had AD as the primary diagnosis, and AD is rarely included as a primary or secondary DRG diagnosis when the condition precipitating admission to the hospital is caused by AD. In addition, AD is often not mentioned on death certificates, although it may be the proximate cause of death. There is only one ICD-9-CM code for AD,331.0,and no clinical modification codes, despite numerous complications that can be directly attributed to AD. Medicare carriers consider ICD-9 codes for senile dementia (290 series) to be mental health codes and pay them at a lower rate than medical codes. DRG coding is biased against recognition of ADRD as an acute, admitting diagnosis. The CPT code system is an impediment to quality of care for ADRD patients because the complex, time-intensive services ADRD patients require are not adequately, if at all, reimbursed. Also, physicians treating significant numbers of AD patients are at greater risk of audit if they submit a high frequency of complex codes. AD is grossly undercoded in acute hospital and outpatient care settings because of failure to diagnose, limitations of the coding system, and reimbursement issues. Such undercoding leads to a lack of recognition of the effect of AD and its complications on clinical care and impedes the development of better care management. We recommend continuing physician education on the importance of early diagnosis and care management of AD and its documentation through appropriate coding, expansion of the current ICD-9-CM codes for AD, more appropriate use of DRG coding for ADRD, recognition of the need for time-intensive services by ADRD patients that result in a higher frequency of use of complex CPT codes, and reimbursement for CPT codes that cover ADRD care management services. [source]

    The changing association between prenatal participation in WIC and birth outcomes in New York City

    Ted Joyce
    We analyze the relationship between prenatal WIC participation and birth outcomes in New York City from 1988,2001. The analysis is unique for several reasons. First, we have over 800,000 births to women on Medicaid, the largest sample ever used to analyze prenatal participation in WIC. Second, we focus on measures of fetal growth distinct from preterm birth, since there is little clinical support for a link between nutritional supplementation and premature delivery. Third, we restrict the primary analysis to women on Medicaid who have no previous live births and who initiate prenatal care within the first four months of pregnancy. Our goal is to lessen heterogeneity between WIC and non-WIC participants by limiting the sample to highly motivated women who have no experience with WIC from a previous pregnancy. Fourth, we analyze a large sub-sample of twin deliveries. Multifetal pregnancies increase the risk of anemia and fetal growth retardation and thus may benefit more than singletons from nutritional supplementation. We find no relationship between prenatal WIC participation and measures of fetal growth among singletons. We find a modest pattern of association between WIC and fetal growth among U.S.-born Black twins. Our findings suggest that prenatal participation in WIC has had a minimal effect on adverse birth outcomes in New York City. 2005 by the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management [source]

    The devil may be in the details: How the characteristics of SCHIP programs affect take-up

    Barbara Wolfe
    In this paper, we explore whether the specific design of a state's program has contributed to its success in meeting two objectives of the Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP): increasing the health insurance coverage of children in lowerincome families and doing so with a minimum reduction in their private health insurance coverage (crowd-out). In our analysis, we use two years of Current Population Survey data, 2000 and 2001, matched with detailed data on state programs. We focus on two populations: the eligible population of children, broadly defined,those living in families with incomes below 300 percent of the federal poverty line (FPL),and a narrower group of children, those who we estimate are eligible for Medicaid or SCHIP. Unique state program characteristics in the analysis include whether the state plan covers families; whether the state uses presumptive eligibility; the number of months without private coverage that are required for eligibility; whether there is an asset test; whether a face-to-face interview is required; and specific outreach activities. Our results provide evidence that state program characteristics are significant determinants of program success. 2005 by the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management [source]

    Incentives, challenges, and dilemmas of TANF: A case study

    Barbara L. Wolfe
    This paper compares the incentives inherent in TANF (Temporary Assistance for Needy Families), the U.S. welfare system in place after the 1996 reforms, with those of TANF's predecessor, AFDC (Aid to Families with Dependent Children), using the experience in one state, Wisconsin, as an example. Is the new program successful in avoiding the "poverty trap" of the old welfare system, in which the marginal tax rates imposed on earnings and benefits were so high that they discouraged work effort outside a narrow earnings range? As women receiving assistance begin working more hours and earning more, income-conditioned benefits (Food Stamps, EITC, Medicaid, and subsidies for child care) are reduced and withdrawn, in effect constituting a "tax" on earnings. Under TANF, there is more support for these families, at least in Wisconsin, and so economic well-being should be higher for most women with earning in this range than it was under AFDC. But marginal tax rates under TANF remain high, and in some income ranges they are higher than under AFDC. Once in the work force, former TANF recipients have earnings over the long run that expose them to very high marginal tax rates, which decrease the benefits of working harder and make it very difficult to gain full eonomic independence. Evidence from other sources suggest that most low-skilled women have earnings in the same range and so are likely to face similar reductions in benefits such as child care subsidies or the EITC as their earnings increase, even if they are not receiving welfare-related benefits. 2002 by the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management. [source]

    Medicaid matters: children's health and medicaid eligibility expansions

    Kristine A. Lykens
    In the late 1980s, a series of federal laws were enacted which expanded Medicaid eligibility to more of the nation's children. States had a great amount of discretion in how fast and how far these expansions were implemented. As a result, there was great variation among the states in defining who was eligible for the program. This variation provides a rare opportunity to disentangle the effect of Medicaid from a child's socioeconomic status. Using data from the National Health Interview Survey, we address whether the Medicaid expansions improved the health and functional status of children. Econometric models were developed using fixed-effects regressions, and were estimated separately for white, black, and Hispanic children. White children experienced statistically significant reductions in acute health conditions and functional limitations. Black and Hispanic children showed some evidence of improved health conditions and functional status, but this evidence is inconclusive in the study sample. This may be due to differences in their access to appropriate health services or to the smaller sample size of minorities in each geographic area. The findings are also relevant to the implementation of the Children' Health Insurance Program (CHIP), the latest federal effort to expand access to health care to poor and near poor children. In many states, CHIP is being implemented in whole or in part through further Medicaid expansions. 2002 by the Association for Policy Analysis and Management. [source]