Methyl Methacrylate (methyl + methacrylate)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Polymers and Materials Science

Terms modified by Methyl Methacrylate

  • methyl methacrylate monomer
  • methyl methacrylate polymerization

  • Selected Abstracts


    Compositional and configurational sequence determination of methyl methacrylate/ethyl acrylate copolymers by one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    JOURNAL OF POLYMER SCIENCE (IN TWO SECTIONS), Issue 2 2003
    A. S. Brar
    Abstract Ethyl acrylate (E)/methyl methacrylate (M) copolymers of different compositions were prepared, and their compositions were determined with 1H NMR spectra. The complete spectral assignments, in terms of the compositional and configurational sequences of these copolymers, were made with the help of distortionless enhancement by polarization transfer and two-dimensional heteronuclear single quantum coherence spectroscopy. The ,-(CH3)M, CH (E), CH2, and ,CO carbons of both M and E units were found to be sensitive to various compositional and configurational sequences. 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 41: 313,326, 2003 [source]


    Structure of reactively extruded rigid PVC/PMMA blends

    POLYMERS FOR ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES, Issue 6 2005
    Y. Haba
    Abstract A novel route for producing polymer blends by reactive extrusion is described, starting from poly (vinyl chloride)/methyl methacrylate (PVC/MMA) dry blend and successive polymerization of MMA in an extruder. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements were applied to study the monomer's mode of penetration into the PVC particles and to characterize the supermolecular structure of the reactive poly(vinyl chloride)/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PVC/PMMA) blends obtained, as compared to the corresponding physical blends of similar composition. These measurements indicate that the monomer molecules can easily penetrate into the PVC sub-primary particles, separating the PVC chains. Moreover, the increased mobility of the PVC chains enables formation of an ordered lamellar structure, with an average d -spacing of 4.1,nm. The same characteristic lamellar structure is further detected upon compression molding or extrusion of PVC and PVC/PMMA blends. In this case the mobility of the PVC chains is enabled through thermal energy. Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) and SAXS measurements of reactive and physical PVC/PMMA blends indicate that miscibility occurs between the PVC and PMMA chains. The studied reactive PVC/PMMA blends are found to be miscible, while the physical PVC/PMMA blends are only partially miscible. It can be suggested that the miscible PMMA chains weaken dipole,dipole interactions between the PVC chains, leading to high mobility and resulting in an increased PVC crystallinity degree and decreased PVC glass transition temperature (Tg). These phenomena are shown in the physical PVC/PMMA blends and further emphasized in the reactive PVC/PMMA blends. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Ceramic,Polymer Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3/Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) Composites with Different Type Composite Structures for Electronic Technology

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF APPLIED CERAMIC TECHNOLOGY, Issue 4 2010
    Hong Wang
    Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 (BST)/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) composites with 0,3, 1,3, and 2,2 type structures were prepared and studied. The effect of composite type on the dielectric properties of BST/PMMA composites was comprehensively investigated by both theoretical and experimental methods. The 1,3 type composite shows the highest permittivity and dielectric tunability, while the 2,2 and 0,3 type composites show lower permittivity as well as lower dielectric tunabilities. The experimentally measured dielectric properties are in agreement with the theoretically calculated values. The results help in understanding and tailoring the dielectric properties of ceramic,polymer composites by choosing a suitable composite structure. [source]


    Termination Rate Coefficients for Radical Homopolymerization of Methyl Methacrylate and Styrene at Low Conversion,

    MACROMOLECULAR CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS, Issue 5 2010
    David R. Taylor
    Abstract A comprehensive and systematic study of overall termination rate coefficients, kt, in low-conversion radical (homo)polymerization of methyl methacrylate and styrene is presented. Values of kt were determined by gravimetric analysis of steady-state experiments, employing 2,2,-azoisobutyronitrile as initiator. The values delivered by this simple method were found to be in qualitative and quantitative agreement with those from more modern and sophisticated techniques for measuring kt. Accordingly, correlations for bulk, low-conversion kt as a function of temperature are given for each monomer. The effects of initiator concentration, cI, and temperature on bulk kt were studied in a controlled way for both monomers. Additionally, ethyl benzene was used as solvent in order to investigate rigorously the effect of monomer concentration, cM, on styrene kt. The trends found by these systematic studies were considered in the light of what is known about the chain-length dependence of termination. Styrene's behavior was always found to be qualitatively in accord with expectation, although the variations of kt with cI and cM were not as strong as should be the case. However its activation energy, 15,kJ,,mol,1, is shown to be almost perfectly in agreement with theory. Methyl methacrylate, on the other hand, is recalcitrant in that its overall kt does not make manifest the chain-length dependent termination that has been directly measured by other techniques. Possible reasons for these discrepancies are discussed, as are reasons for the difference in values between kt for the two monomers. On the latter topic it is concluded likely that the chain-length dependence of termination at short chain lengths is primarily responsible for styrene having kt that is higher by a factor of about 3, with there also being a contribution that arises from styrene's slower propagation. [source]


    Free Radical Graft Copolymerization of Methyl Methacrylate onto Polyolefin Backbone: Kinetics Modeling through Model Compounds Approach

    MACROMOLECULAR CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS, Issue 13-14 2009
    Thierry Badel
    Abstract The grafting of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) from poly[ethylene- co -(1-octene)] in the molten state by in situ radical polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) was investigated through a kinetic modeling using a model compound approach. We resorted to pentadecane (C15H32) and 2,6,10,15,19,23-hexamethyltetracosane (Squalane, C30H62) as models for both the copolymer ethylene and octene moieties. The attention was focused on the simulation of MMA conversion and PMMA average polymerization degree according to temperature, reaction time, and initiator ratio required for the polymerization of MMA in the presence of alkoxyl radicals and alkanes. [source]


    Effect of LiClO4 and LiCl Additives on the Kinetics of Anionic Polymerization of Methyl Methacrylate in Toluene-Tetrahydrofuran Mixed Solvent

    MACROMOLECULAR CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS, Issue 12 2003
    Mahua G. Dhara
    Abstract The kinetics of anionic polymerization of MMA has been studied at ,78,C in toluene-THF (9:1 v/v) using 1,1,-diphenylhexyl lithium as initiator in the presence of lithium perchlorate and lithium chloride as Lewis acid additives. The control of the polymerization is lost in the absence of additives as evident from the non-linear first-order time-conversion plot and polymers with broad multimodal molecular weight distribution. The presence of LiClO4 and LiCl in 10:1 and 5:1 ratio, respectively, over the initiator brings about sufficient control, yielding polymers of narrow unimodal distribution throughout the polymerization. The reaction in the presence of the additives follows first-order kinetics free of termination and transfer. Moreover, the order with respect to the active centers is found to be almost unity, which signifies a probable disaggregation of ion-pairs to a single complexed propagating species. GPC elugrams at different conversions for MMA polymerization in the presence of LiClO4. [source]


    Concurrent Initiation by Air in the Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization of Methyl Methacrylate

    MACROMOLECULAR CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS, Issue 9 2003
    Ajaya Kumar Nanda
    Abstract The effect of air in atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of methyl methacrylate (MMA) was studied. Air initiated polymerization was clearly noticed by the appearance of a low molecular weight peak in the synthesis of high molecular weight poly(isobutylene)- graft -poly(methyl methacrylate) (Mn,=,5.0,,105 g/mol). The concentration of chains initiated by oxygen (air) was ,8,,10,4 mol/L, determined using the Gladstone-Dale relationship. The tentatively proposed mechanism for air initiated polymerization was supported by kinetic studies. Similar to typical ATRP systems, the rate of air initiated polymerization increased with temperature, [MMA], amount of air, and activity of the catalyst complex. Polymers with lower polydispersities (Mw/Mn,=,1.13) were obtained in the presence of Cu(II) as compared to Cu(I) catalyst complex system. Kinetic plots for the air initiated bulk polymerization of MMA at (,) 20,C, (,) 50,C, and (,) 90,C. [source]


    Morphological and Physical Properties of Triblock Copolymers of Methyl Methacrylate and 2-Ethylhexyl Methacrylate

    MACROMOLECULAR MATERIALS & ENGINEERING, Issue 9 2006
    Hormoz Eslami
    Abstract Summary: Triblock copolymers of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and 2-ethylhexyl methacrylate (EHMA) [that is, poly(MMA,EHMA,MMA)] were prepared by an emulsion atom-transfer radical polymerization. The relationships of their structural, morphological, and physical properties were investigated. The latex particles had core-shell morphologies and the block copolymers experienced phase separation. Small latex particles with a low number of cores could deform and wet silicon-wafer surfaces, but the deformation of large latex particles was restricted by the internal two-phase morphology of the particles. Latex casting produced continuous pinhole-free films, in which hard poly(MMA) (PMMA) cores of different latex particles merged and provided interparticle connections. The morphology of solution-cast films depended on block composition, solvent type, and film thickness. For all the prepared polymer samples, thick films cast in toluene had poly(EHMA) (PEHMA) materials at air surface, whereas those cast in tetrahydrofuran had a sponge-like PMMA surface structure. Thin toluene-cast films from P(MMA,EHMA,MMA) with the block degrees of polymerization () 200,930,200 showed spherical PMMA domains and those from 380,930,380 yielded a protruded worm-like PMMA structure. The copolymer materials were coated on a glass surface for peeling tests. The films gave good hot-melt adhesion properties when the of the PEHMA block was over 600. The peeling strength depended on the lengths of both PEHMA and PMMA blocks. The P(MMA,EHMA,MMA) sample with of 310,930,310 yielded the highest peeling strength of 7.4 kgf,,inch,1. The developed material is demonstrated to be a good candidate for a solvent-free, hot-melt, pressure-sensitive adhesives for special-purpose applications such as medical tapes and labels. [source]


    Microwave-Assisted Free Radical Copolymerizations of Styrene and Methyl Methacrylate

    MACROMOLECULAR RAPID COMMUNICATIONS, Issue 4 2007
    Heiner Stange
    Abstract Free radical copolymerizations of styrene and MMA were performed in toluene and DMF as solvents using different peroxide initiators with and without microwave irradiation. A general trend showed significant solvent dependence of monomer conversion rate only for copolymerizations initiated by tert -butyl perbenzoate in DMF compared to toluene but nearly no impact for copolymerizations initiated by dicumyl peroxide and dibenzoyl peroxide. Significant variations in copolymer composition were not observed for reactions under conventional heating compared to microwave irradiation. It was concluded that enhanced initiator decomposition under microwave irradiation in DMF accelerate polymerization of styrene and MMA by formation of larger amount of initiator radicals. [source]


    Effects of Ionic Liquid [Me3NC2H4OH]+[ZnCl3], on , -Radiation Polymerization of Methyl Methacrylate in Ethanol and N,N -Dimethylformamide

    MACROMOLECULAR RAPID COMMUNICATIONS, Issue 1 2005
    Guozhong Wu
    Abstract Summary: Radiation-induced polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) in ethanol (EtOH) and N,N -dimethylformamide (DMF) in the presence of ionic liquid [Me3NC2H4OH]+[ZnCl3], is reported. A substantial increase in monomer conversion and molecular weight is observed at room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) >60 vol.-%, and the resulting PMMA has a broad multimodal MWD. A clear difference in the MWD pattern is noted between EtOH/RTIL and DMF/RTIL systems, probably due to the complicated interactions between the solvent and ionic liquid. Gel permeation chromatography traces of poly(methyl methacrylate) obtained by radiation polymerization in EtOH/RTIL and DMF/RTIL mixed solvent. Organic/RTIL (v/v): 1) 100:0; 2) 80:20; 3) 60:40; 4); 40:60; 5) 0:100. [source]


    Chain Transfer and Efficiency of End-Group Introduction in Free Radical Polymerization of Methyl Methacrylate in the Presence of Poly(methyl methacrylate) Macromonomer

    MACROMOLECULAR RAPID COMMUNICATIONS, Issue 22 2004
    Kazuki Miyake
    Abstract Summary: Experimental and modeling studies of addition,fragmentation chain transfer (AFCT) during radical polymerization of methyl methacrylate in the presence of poly(methyl methacrylate) macromonomer with 2-carbomethoxy-2-propenyl , -ends (PMMA-CO2Me) at 60,C are reported. The results revealed that AFCT involving PMMA-CO2Me formed in situ during methyl methacrylate polymerization has a negligible effect on the molecular weight distribution. [source]


    Sol MWD During Styrene, Vinyl Acetate, Methyl Methacrylate, and Butyl Acrylate Homopolymerization: A Numerical Study Using the NFT Approach

    MACROMOLECULAR THEORY AND SIMULATIONS, Issue 3 2009
    Bibiana Alejandra Yez-Martnez
    Abstract Complete parameter sensitivity analyses using the numerical fractionation technique are presented for the cases of homopolymerization with chain transfer to polymer and termination by combination. Also, using reported values for the kinetic rate constants associated with the linear and non-linear homopolymerizations of styrene, vinyl acetate, methyl methacrylate and butyl acrylate, overall molecular weight distributions and averages of the MWD were calculated using the NFT. Good agreement with the expected behavior, with MMA and STY not gelling while BA and VAc do, was obtained. It is concluded that the NFT produces coherent and reliable performance for known polymerization systems, whether linear or non-linear. [source]


    Study on bulk polymerization of methyl methacrylate initiated by low intensity ultrasonic irradiation

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, Issue 6 2010
    Sude Ma
    Abstract Methyl methacrylate (MMA) was polymerized in bulk solutions using low intensity ultrasonic radiation of 0.25 W/cm2. The polymerization occurred after 1 h of irradiation time was applied. The polymerization rate was greatly accelerated either by increasing the amount of poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) granular added into the system or by elongating the irradiation time. However, it was found that the reaction rate increased with the decreasing of the ultrasonic frequencies when the exposure time of the polymerization under the irradiation was less than 3 h. Experimental results verified that the polymerization was initiated by free radicals, which were mainly generated from the degradation of PMMA macromolecular chains, the friction between the polymer macromolecular chains and the solvent monomer. These findings were obviously different from those obtained when high intensity ultrasonic irradiation was used. The polymers fabricated in this study by using ultrasound irradiation have a narrower molecular weight distribution compared to those obtained from the polymerizations induced by the conventional initiators. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2010 [source]


    Poly(methyl methacrylate) copolymers containing pendant carbazole and oxadiazole moieties for applications in single-layer organic light emitting devices

    JOURNAL OF POLYMER SCIENCE (IN TWO SECTIONS), Issue 23 2008
    David D. Evanoff Jr.
    Abstract Methyl methacrylate derived monomers functionalized with pendant carbazole and oxadiazole moieties were synthesized and could be copolymerized to form a random copolymer. The glass transition temperature of the copolymers could be predicted with a Fox equation and ranged from 140 to 191 C. The photoluminescent characteristics of the copolymers, both in solution and in solid films, exhibited emission that was a combination of sharp and broad peaks, suggestive of monomeric and chromophore aggregation emission. These trends were also apparent in the electroluminescent response of the copolymers, where the appearance of an electromer emission was evident and was tentatively assigned to the carbazole moieties. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 46: 7882,7897, 2008 [source]


    Block copolymers by chemoenzymatic cascade polymerization: A comparison of consecutive and simultaneous reactions

    JOURNAL OF POLYMER SCIENCE (IN TWO SECTIONS), Issue 14 2006
    Matthijs de Geus
    Abstract The synthetic parameters for the chemoenzymatic cascade synthesis of block copolymers combining enzymatic ring-opening polymerization (EROP) and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) in one pot were investigated. A detailed analysis of the mutual interactions between the single reaction components revealed that the ATRP catalyst system could have a significant inhibiting effect on the enzyme activity. The inhibition of the enzyme was less pronounced in the presence of multivalent ligands such as dinonyl bipyridine, which thus could be used in this reaction as an ATRP catalyst. Moreover, the choice of the ATRP monomer was investigated. Methyl methacrylate interfered with EROP by transesterification, whereas t -butyl methacrylate was inert. Block copolymers were successfully synthesized with this cascade approach by the activation of ATRP after EROP by the addition of the ATRP catalyst and, with lower block copolymer yields, by the mixing of all the components before the copolymerization. Adetailed kinetic analysis of the reactions and the structure of the block copolymers showed that the first procedure proceeded smoothly to high block copolymer yields, whereas in the latter a noteworthy amount of the poly(t -butyl methacrylate) homopolymer was detected. 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 44: 4290,4297, 2006 [source]


    Termination Rate Coefficients for Radical Homopolymerization of Methyl Methacrylate and Styrene at Low Conversion,

    MACROMOLECULAR CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS, Issue 5 2010
    David R. Taylor
    Abstract A comprehensive and systematic study of overall termination rate coefficients, kt, in low-conversion radical (homo)polymerization of methyl methacrylate and styrene is presented. Values of kt were determined by gravimetric analysis of steady-state experiments, employing 2,2,-azoisobutyronitrile as initiator. The values delivered by this simple method were found to be in qualitative and quantitative agreement with those from more modern and sophisticated techniques for measuring kt. Accordingly, correlations for bulk, low-conversion kt as a function of temperature are given for each monomer. The effects of initiator concentration, cI, and temperature on bulk kt were studied in a controlled way for both monomers. Additionally, ethyl benzene was used as solvent in order to investigate rigorously the effect of monomer concentration, cM, on styrene kt. The trends found by these systematic studies were considered in the light of what is known about the chain-length dependence of termination. Styrene's behavior was always found to be qualitatively in accord with expectation, although the variations of kt with cI and cM were not as strong as should be the case. However its activation energy, 15,kJ,,mol,1, is shown to be almost perfectly in agreement with theory. Methyl methacrylate, on the other hand, is recalcitrant in that its overall kt does not make manifest the chain-length dependent termination that has been directly measured by other techniques. Possible reasons for these discrepancies are discussed, as are reasons for the difference in values between kt for the two monomers. On the latter topic it is concluded likely that the chain-length dependence of termination at short chain lengths is primarily responsible for styrene having kt that is higher by a factor of about 3, with there also being a contribution that arises from styrene's slower propagation. [source]


    A fluorescence study on critical exponents during sol-gel phase transition in complex monomeric systems

    MACROMOLECULAR SYMPOSIA, Issue 1 2003
    Demet Kaya
    Abstract Methyl methacrylate (MMA), ethyl methacrylate (EMA) and various combinations of MMA with EMA were used during FCC experiments. Pyrene (Py) was introduced as a fluorescence probe and fluorescence lifetimes from its decay traces were measured during sol-gel phase transitions. The fast transient fluorescence (FTRF) technique was used to study the critical exponents during sol-gel phase transition in free-radical crosslinking copolymerization (FCC). The results were interpreted in the view of percolation theory. The critical exponents of gel fraction, , and weight average degree of polymerization, , were measured near the point of gel effect and found to be around 0.37 0.015 and 1.69 0.05 in all systems studied respectively. [source]


    Incipient stable bubble formation during bulk polymerization of methyl methacrylate under near-isothermal conditions.

    POLYMER ENGINEERING & SCIENCE, Issue 12 2009

    Methyl methacrylate is polymerized under near-isothermal conditions in a 1-l stainless steel batch reactor having a glass bottom and stirred with an anchor agitator. A camcorder is used to obtain images of the entrapped vapor bubbles at different times so as to identify the point, Bi, where stable clusters of vapor bubbles first (incipient) get formed. This is being referred to as the transition point. Data on the monomer conversion, xm,Bi, the weight average molecular weight, Mw,Bi, and the viscosity, ,Bi, of the reaction mass at this point have been generated for a variety of experimental conditions. It is observed that the pressure above the liquid reaction mixture and the RPM of the stirrer have little effect on the results in the ranges studied. Correlations have been developed for xm,Bi, Mw,Bi, and ,Bi, relating these to the initiator loading, Io, and the constant set-point temperature, T. Results are compared with those obtained earlier for reactors stirred with ribbon agitators. The transition point is useful for the design of the first stage of polymerization reactors. POLYM. ENG. SCI., 2009. 2009 Society of Plastics Engineers [source]


    Using the Aggregation of Latex Polymers in the Fabrication of Reproducible Enzyme Electrodes

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 17 2003
    Wibowo Rahmat
    Abstract An enzyme electrode for glucose is described as a model system to demonstrate a fabrication method using latex aggregation and entrapment of enzyme. Electrosterically-stabilized latex particles synthesized by emulsion polymerization in batch from acrylic acid, methyl methacrylate and butyl acrylate, and glucose oxidase were coagulated together at pH,5.5 with ethanol. A platinum disk electrode dipped in the solution becomes coated with latex/enzyme. The relative thickness of the film and relative amount of enzyme may be controlled by the time the electrode is in contact with the solution. The enzyme was then immobilized by covalent attachment of amine groups to carboxylic moieties in the polymer using 1-ethyl-3(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide hydrochloride and N -hydroxysuccinimide. Five minutes contact with the latex/enzyme solution and subsequent amide coupling, gave electrodes with a reproducibility of 5.7% RSD, a wide dynamic range (0,100,mM) and good storage properties. [source]


    Affinity monolith preconcentrators for polymer microchip capillary electrophoresis

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 16 2008
    Weichun Yang
    Abstract Developments in biology are increasing demands for rapid, inexpensive, and sensitive biomolecular analysis. In this study, polymer microdevices with monolithic columns and electrophoretic channels were used for biological separations. Glycidyl methacrylate- co -ethylene dimethacrylate monolithic columns were formed within poly(methyl methacrylate) microchannels by in situ photopolymerization. Flow experiments in these columns demonstrated retention and then elution of amino acids under conditions optimized for sample preconcentration. To enhance analyte selectivity, antibodies were immobilized on monoliths, and subsequent lysozyme treatment blocked nonspecific adsorption. The enrichment capability and selectivity of these affinity monoliths were evaluated by purifying fluorescently tagged amino acids from a mixture containing green fluorescent protein (GFP). Twenty-fold enrichment and 91% recovery were achieved for the labeled amino acids, with a >25,000-fold reduction in GFP concentration, as indicated by microchip electrophoresis analysis. These devices should provide a simple, inexpensive, and effective platform for trace analysis in complex biological samples. [source]


    Enhanced electrophoretic resolution of monosulfate glycosaminoglycan disaccharide isomers on poly(methyl methacrylate) chips

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 3 2007
    Yong Zhang
    Abstract To improve the separation of monosulfate glycosaminoglycan disaccharide isomers by microchip electrophoresis, we found that addition of 1,4-dioxane,(DO) dramatically improved analyte resolution, probably due to solvation effects. Methylcellulose,(MC) was tested for the ability to suppress EOF and analyte adsorption to the chip. To improve analyte resolution, buffer pH, ,-CD, and DO were systematically investigated. Fast separation was achieved by increasing the electric field strength, and field-amplified sample stacking occurred with increasing buffer concentrations. Therefore, based on our findings, we describe an efficient method for the separation of monosulfate and trisulfate unsaturated disaccharides (,Di-UA2S, ,Di-4S, ,Di-6S, and ,Di-triS) derivatized with 2-aminoacridone hydrochloride. A mixture of monosulfate disaccharide isomers (,Di-UA2S, ,Di-4S, and ,Di-6S) was baseline-separated within 75,s on a poly(methyl methacrylate) chip using a mixed buffer (DO/running buffer 57:43,v:v), 0.5% MC, pH,6.81, with an Esep of 558,V/cm. The theoretical plate was in the range of 5105 to 1106,m,1. [source]


    SDS-CGE of proteins in microchannels made of SU-8 films

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 18 2006
    Maria Agirregabiria
    Abstract This work describes the SDS-CGE of proteins carried out in microchannels made of the negative photoresist EPON SU-8. Embedded electrophoretic microchannels have been fabricated with a multilayer technology based on bonding and releasing steps of stacked SU-8 films. This technology allows the monolithic integration of the electrodes in the device. A high wafer fabrication yield and mass production compatibility guarantees low costs and high reliability. A poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) packaging allows an easy setup and replacement of the device for electrophoresis experiments. In addition, the wire-bonding step is avoided. The electrophoretic mobilities of four proteins have been measured in microchannels filled with polyacrylamide. Different pore sizes have been tested obtaining their Ferguson plots. Finally, a separation of two proteins (20 and 36,kDa) has been carried out confirming that this novel device is suitable for protein separation. A resolution of 2.75 is obtained. This is the first time that this SU-8 microfluidic technology has been validated for SDS-CGE of proteins. This technology offers better separation performance than glass channels, at lower costs and with an easy packaging procedure. [source]


    Carbon nanotube/poly(methyl methacrylate) composite electrode for capillary electrophoretic measurement of honokiol and magnolol in Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 16 2006
    Xiao Yao
    Abstract This paper describes the development and the application of a novel carbon nanotube/poly(methyl methacrylate) (CNT/PMMA) composite electrode as a sensitive amperometric detector of CE. The composite electrode was fabricated on the basis of the in,situ polymerization of a mixture of CNT and prepolymerized methylmethacrylate in the microchannel of a piece of fused-silica capillary under heat. The performance of this unique system has been demonstrated by separating and detecting honokiol and magnolol in traditional Chinese medicine, Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis. Factors influencing their separation and detection processes were examined and optimized. Honokiol and magnolol were well separated within 7,min in a 40 cm long capillary at a separation voltage of 15,kV using a 50 mM borate buffer (pH,9.2). The new CNT-based CE detector offered significantly lower operating potentials, yielded substantially enhanced S/N characteristics, and exhibited resistance to surface fouling and hence enhanced stability. It demonstrated long-term stability and reproducibility with RSDs of less than 5% for the peak current (n = 9) and should also find a wide range of applications in microchip CE, flowing injection analysis, and other microfluidic analysis systems. [source]


    External skeletal fixation in the management of equine mandibular fractures: 16 cases (1988,1998)

    EQUINE VETERINARY JOURNAL, Issue 2 2001
    K. A. BELSITO
    Summary Fifty-three cases of equine mandibular fractures were managed surgically from 1988,1998, of which 16 (30%) were repaired by external skeletal fixation (ESF). Three surgical methods were utilised: transmandibular 4.76 or 6.35 mm Steinmann pins incorporated into fibreglass casting material or nonsterile dental acrylic (methyl methacrylate - MMA) bars reinforced with steel; transmandibular 9.6 mm self-tapping threaded pins 4.76 or 6.35 mm Steinmann pins incorporated into MMA bars reinforced with steel; and 4.5 mm or 5.5 mm ASIF cortical bone screws incorporated into MMA bars reinforced with steel or a ventral MMA splint. Fourteen horses were presented to the hospital for fixator removal at an average of 56.2 days. At removal, fractures were stable and occlusion of incisor and cheek teeth was considered adequate. Complications of the procedure occurred in 3 horses. Two horses with persistent drainage and ring sequestra from pin tracts required curettage 4 or 5 months after ESF removal. A third horse required replacement of the original fibreglass ESF with MMA bars to regain access to open, infected wounds. Another horse required removal of the second premolar at the time of fixator removal because the tooth root had been damaged in the original injury. ESF for the surgical management of mandibular fractures in horses has produced good results, with incisive and cheek tooth alignment reestablished in all horses. Horses that were managed via ESF had a rapid return to full feed and did not require any supplementation via nasogastric tube or oesophagostomy to maintain bodyweight or hydration status. [source]


    Synthesis and Reactivity of Oxametallacyclic Niobium Compounds by Using ,,,-Unsaturated Carbonyl Ligands,

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF INORGANIC CHEMISTRY, Issue 14 2008
    Roco A. Arteaga-Mller
    Abstract Reduction of mono(cyclopentadienyl)niobium complexes [NbCpRCl4] [CpR = C5Me4H (1), C5H4SiMe2Cl (2), C5H4SiMe3 (3)] with Na/Hg in the presence of methyl methacrylate [MMA, CH2=C(Me)C(O)OMe (a)], methyl acrylate [MA, CH2=CHC(O)OMe (b)] and mesityl oxide [MO, CMe2=CHC(O)Me (c)] afforded the corresponding derivatives [NbCpRCl2(LL)] [CpR = C5Me4H, LL = MMA (1a); CpR = C5H4SiMe2Cl, LL = MMA (2a), MA (2b), MO (2c); CpR = C5H4SiMe3, LL = MMA (3a), MA (3b)] in variable yields depending on both the cyclopentadienyl and the ,,,-unsaturated carbonyl compounds. The reactivity of these complexes was studied toward protic and Lewis acids. Addition of triflic acid TfOH (Tf = CF3SO2) to 3b gave the triflate complex [NbCpRCl2{(CH2)2C(O)OMe}(OTf)] [CpR = C5H4SiMe3 (4)]. The Lewis acids E(C6F5)3 (E = B, Al) reacted with complexes 2b and 3b to give the three-membered metallacyclic (or ,2 -enone) compounds [NbCpRCl2{,2 -CH2=CHC(OMe){OE(C6F5)3}}] [CpR = C5H4SiMe2Cl, E = B (5), Al (6); CpR = C5H4SiMe3, E = B (7), Al (8)], which decomposed to the corresponding adducts MAE(C6F5)3. The same reaction with the 2a and 3a derivatives only allowed the observation of the corresponding adducts MMAE(C6F5)3. Complexes 2a,b and 3a,b reacted with CO with elimination of the acrylate compounds, MA and MMA, respectively, to give the carbonylniobium(III) compounds [NbCpRCl2(CO)2]2 [CpR = C5H4SiMe2Cl (9), C5H4SiMe3 (10)]. Analogous reactions with CNAr showed the elimination of the free MA and MMA compounds. ( Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2008) [source]


    The effect of polymers and surfactants on the pour point of palm oil methyl esters

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF LIPID SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, Issue 4 2007
    Cheah Han Sern
    Abstract The objective of this research was to find some additives suitable to reduce the pour point (PP) of palm oil methyl esters. The PP properties of palm oil methyl esters (biodiesel) were evaluated with commercially available polymeric and surfactant compounds with various polarities, molecular sizes and structures. The compounds under study were poly(ethylene glycol), poly(methyl methacrylate), poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate), poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride), poly(ethylene glycol) distearate, poly-(octadecyl methacrylate), poly(1-decene), poly(maleic anhydride- alt -1-octadecene), caprylic acid sodium salt, N -lauroylsarcosine sodium salt, polyoxyethylene(2) cetyl ether and polyoxyethylene(10) cetyl ether. Seven out of the twelve polymeric compounds tested were miscible in palm oil methyl esters due to similar polarities of the solute and biodiesel. The blends of the resultant seven polymeric compounds in palm oil methyl esters were evaluated respectively for their effect on the PP property. Poly-(maleic anhydride- alt -1-octadecene) was able to improve the PP of palm oil methyl esters from 12 to 6,C when 2,wt-% was added. The cloud point was reduced from 12.9 to 8.1,C, and the cold filter plugging point was reduced from 12 to 7,C, whilst the flash point value remained unchanged at 156,C when 2,wt-% of poly(maleic anhydride- alt -1-octadecene) was added to the palm oil methyl esters. [source]


    Physicochemical evaluation of silica-glass fiber reinforced polymers for prosthodontic applications

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ORAL SCIENCES, Issue 3 2005
    Gke Meri
    This investigation was designed to formulate silica-glass fiber reinforced polymeric materials. Fused silica-glass fibers were chosen for the study. They were heat-treated at various temperatures (500C, 800C and 1100C), silanized, sized and incorporated in two modified resin mixtures (A and B). The flexural properties in dry and wet conditions were tested and statistically analyzed, and the content of residual methyl methacrylate (MMA) monomer, dimensional changes with temperature, water sorption and solubility were determined. Woven fibers [36.9% (wt/wt)], heat-treated at 500C, gave the highest strength values for the polymeric composites (an ultimate transverse strength of 200 Mpa and a flexural modulus of 10 GPa) compared with the fibers heat-treated at other temperatures. There was no statistically significant difference in the measured flexural properties between resins A and B regarding fiber treatment and water storage time. These fiber composites had a small quantity of residual MMA content [0.37 0.007% (wt/wt)] and very low water solubility, indicating good biocompatibility. It was suggested that silica-glass fibers could be used for reinforcement as a result of their anticipated good qualities in aqueous environments, such as the oral environment. [source]


    High-Nanofiller-Content Graphene Oxide,Polymer Nanocomposites via Vacuum-Assisted Self-Assembly

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 19 2010
    Karl W. Putz
    Abstract Highly ordered, homogeneous polymer nanocomposites of layered graphene oxide are prepared using a vacuum-assisted self-assembly (VASA) technique. In VASA, all components (nanofiller and polymer) are pre-mixed prior to assembly under a flow, making it compatible with either hydrophilic poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) or hydrophobic poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) for the preparation of composites with over 50 wt% filler. This process is complimentary to layer-by-layer assembly, where the assembling components are required to interact strongly (e.g., via Coulombic attraction). The nanosheets within the VASA-assembled composites exhibit a high degree of order with tunable intersheet spacing, depending on the polymer content. Graphene oxide,PVA nanocomposites, prepared from water, exhibit greatly improved modulus values in comparison to films of either pure PVA or pure graphene oxide. Modulus values for graphene oxide,PMMA nanocomposites, prepared from dimethylformamide, are intermediate to those of the pure components. The differences in structure, modulus, and strength can be attributed to the gallery composition, specifically the hydrogen bonding ability of the intercalating species [source]


    Ultrathin, Organic, Semiconductor/Polymer Blends by Scanning Corona-Discharge Coating for High-Performance Organic Thin-Film Transistors

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 17 2010
    Hee Joon Jung
    Abstract A new thin-film coating process, scanning corona-discharge coating (SCDC), to fabricate ultrathin tri-isopropylsilylethynyl pentacene (TIPS-PEN)/amorphous-polymer blend layers suitable for high-performance, bottom-gate, organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) is described. The method is based on utilizing the electrodynamic flow of gas molecules that are corona-discharged at a sharp metallic tip under a high voltage and subsequently directed towards a bottom electrode. With the static movement of the bottom electrode, on which a blend solution of TIPS-PEN and an amorphous polymer is deposited, SCDC provides an efficient route to produce uniform blend films with thicknesses of less than one hundred nanometers, in which the TIPS-PEN and the amorphous polymer are vertically phase-separated into a bilayered structure with a single-crystalline nature of the TIPS-PEN. A bottom-gate field-effect transistor with a blend layer of TIPS-PEN/polystyrene (PS) (90/10 wt%) operated at ambient conditions, for example, indeed exhibits a highly reliable device performance with a field-effect mobility of approximately 0.23 cm2 V,1 s,1: two orders of magnitude greater than that of a spin-coated blend film. SCDC also turns out to be applicable to other amorphous polymers, such as poly(, -methyl styrene) and poly(methyl methacrylate) and, readily combined with the conventional transfer-printing technique, gives rise to micropatterned arrays of TIPS-PEN/polymer films. [source]


    A Versatile Solvent-Free "One-Pot" Route to Polymer Nanocomposites and the in situ Formation of Calcium Phosphate/Layered Silicate Hybrid Nanoparticles

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 11 2010
    Hans Weickmann
    Abstract Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), polystyrene (PS), and polyurethane (PU) nanocomposites containing well-dispersed calcium phosphate/layered silicate hybrid nanoparticles were prepared in a versatile solvent-free "one-pot" process without requiring separate steps, such as organophilic modification, purification, drying, dispersing, and compounding, typical for many conventional organoclay nanocomposites. In this "one-pot" process, alkyl ammonium phosphates were added as swelling agents to a suspension of calcium/layered silicate in styrene, methyl methacrylate, or polyols prior to polymerization. Alkyl ammonium phosphates were prepared in situ by reacting phosphoric acid with an equivalent amount of alkyl amines such as stearyl amine (SA) or the corresponding ester- and methacrylate-functionalized tertiary alkyl amines, obtained via Michael Addition of SA with methyl acrylate or ethylene 2-methacryloxyethyl acrylate. Upon contact with the calcium bentonite suspension, the cation exchange of Ca2+ in the silicate interlayers for alkyl ammonium cations rendered the bentonite organophilic and enabled effective swelling in the monomer accompanied by intercalation and in situ precipitation of calcium phosphates. According to energy dispersive X-ray analysis, the calcium phosphate precipitated exclusively onto the surfaces of the bentonite nanoplatelets, thus forming easy-to-disperse calcium phosphate/layered silicate hybrid nanoparticles. Incorporation of 5,15,wt% of such hybrid nanoparticles into PMMA, PS, and PU afforded improved stiffness/toughness balances of the polymer nanocomposites. Functionalized alkyl ammonium phosphate addition enabled polymer attachment to the nanoparticle surfaces. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses of PU and PU-foam nanocomposites, prepared by dispersing hybrid nanoparticles in the polyols prior to isocyanate cure, revealed the formation of fully exfoliated hybrid nanoparticles. [source]