Melanoma

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Melanoma

  • acral lentiginou melanoma
  • advanced melanoma
  • amelanotic melanoma
  • and neck melanoma
  • animal-type melanoma
  • anorectal melanoma
  • b16 melanoma
  • cell melanoma
  • childhood melanoma
  • choroidal melanoma
  • conjunctival melanoma
  • cutaneous malignant melanoma
  • cutaneous melanoma
  • desmoplastic melanoma
  • familial melanoma
  • growth phase melanoma
  • head and neck melanoma
  • human malignant melanoma
  • human melanoma
  • ii melanoma
  • iii melanoma
  • invasive melanoma
  • iris melanoma
  • iv melanoma
  • lentiginou melanoma
  • lentigo maligna melanoma
  • maligna melanoma
  • malignant melanoma
  • metastatic malignant melanoma
  • metastatic melanoma
  • mouse melanoma
  • mucosal melanoma
  • neck melanoma
  • nodular melanoma
  • ocular melanoma
  • phase melanoma
  • posterior uveal melanoma
  • primary cutaneous melanoma
  • primary invasive melanoma
  • primary malignant melanoma
  • primary melanoma
  • radial growth phase melanoma
  • situ melanoma
  • skin melanoma
  • spitzoid melanoma
  • spreading melanoma
  • stage iv melanoma
  • subungual melanoma
  • superficial spreading melanoma
  • thick melanoma
  • thin melanoma
  • uveal melanoma

  • Terms modified by Melanoma

  • melanoma case
  • melanoma cell
  • melanoma cell growth
  • melanoma cell line
  • melanoma development
  • melanoma diagnosis
  • melanoma family
  • melanoma growth
  • melanoma incidence
  • melanoma metastase
  • melanoma metastasis
  • melanoma metastatic
  • melanoma model
  • melanoma mortality
  • melanoma patient
  • melanoma progression
  • melanoma risk
  • melanoma risk factor
  • melanoma susceptibility
  • melanoma tissue
  • melanoma tumor

  • Selected Abstracts


    Plantar Melanoma: Is the Prognosis Always Bad?

    DERMATOLOGIC SURGERY, Issue 8 2010
    JENS BAUMERT PHD
    The authors have indicated no significant interest with commercial supporters. [source]


    Sentinel Lymph Node Excision and PET-CT in the Initial Stage of Malignant Melanoma: A Retrospective Analysis of 61 Patients with Malignant Melanoma in American Joint Committee on Cancer Stages I and II

    DERMATOLOGIC SURGERY, Issue 4 2010
    JOACHIM KLODE MD
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Sentinel lymph node excision (SLNE) for the detection of regional nodal metastases and staging of malignant melanoma has resulted in some controversies in international discussions. Positron emission tomography with computerized tomography (PET-CT), a noninvasive imaging procedure for the detection of regional nodal metastases, has increasingly become of interest. Our study is a direct comparison of SLNE and PET-CT in patients with early-stage malignant melanoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS We retrospectively analyzed data from 61 patients with primary malignant melanoma with a Breslow index greater than 1.0 mm. RESULTS Metastatic SLNs were found in 14 patients (23%); 17 metastatic lymph nodes were detected overall, only one of which was identified preoperatively using PET-CT. Thus, PET-CT showed a sensitivity of 5.9% and a negative predictive value of 78%. CONCLUSION SLNE is much more sensitive than PET-CT in discovering small lymph node metastases. We consider PET-CT unsuitable for the evaluation of early regional lymphatic tumor dissemination in this patient population and recommend that it be limited to malignant melanomas of American Joint Committee on Cancer stages III and IV. We therefore recommend the routine use of SLNE for tumor staging and stratification for adjuvant therapy of patients with stage I and II malignant melanoma. The authors have indicated no significant interest with commercial supporters. [source]


    Nail Melanoma in Children: Differential Diagnosis and Management

    DERMATOLOGIC SURGERY, Issue 7 2008
    MATILDE IORIZZO MD
    First page of article [source]


    A Case of Animal-Type Melanoma (or Pigmented Epithelioid Melanocytoma?): An Open Prognosis

    DERMATOLOGIC SURGERY, Issue 1 2008
    GIAN MARCO VEZZONI MD
    First page of article [source]


    Repigmentation after Surgery of Melanoma in a Burn Scar: Dermoscopy as Aid for the Management Decision

    DERMATOLOGIC SURGERY, Issue 7 2007
    ERIKA RICHTIG MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    From Melanocytes to Melanoma: The Progression to Malignancy

    DERMATOLOGIC SURGERY, Issue 6 2006
    WILLIAM P. COLEMAN III MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Selective Spread of a Malignant Melanoma into a Graft after Ten Years: A Case of Delayed Koebner Phenomenon

    DERMATOLOGIC SURGERY, Issue 6 2006
    PEDRO REDONDO MD
    First page of article [source]


    Mohs Micrographic Surgery for Lentigo Maligna and Lentigo Maligna Melanoma using Mel-5 Immunostaining: University of Minnesota Experience

    DERMATOLOGIC SURGERY, Issue 5 2006
    SACHIN S. BHARDWAJ MD
    BACKGROUND Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) continues to become a more common and accepted treatment for lentigo maligna (LM) and lentigo maligna melanoma (LMM). The primary difficulty encountered lies in the accurate identification of atypical single melanocytes to determine tumor-free margins. Numerous methods have been used to better visualize single melanocytes, with varying results. We present our experience using Mel-5 immunostaining in MMS of LM and LMM. METHODS Two hundred patients with primary or recurrent LM or LMM were treated using MMS from 1999 to 2003 at the University of Minnesota. The initial clinical margins were determined by Wood's light examination, and an initial debulk specimen was taken and sent for formalin fixation and later reviewed by a dermatopathologist. The first Mohs layer was then taken, and staining with hemotoxylin and eosin as well as Mel-5 immunostaining was performed. All patients were followed up to evaluate for recurrence, with a mean follow-up time of 38.4 months. RESULTS Of the 200 patients treated, only one recurrence was noted. This patient had been treated with excision followed by radiation before MMS. Use of Mel-5 immunostaining added approximately 40 minutes to each stage. Use of the Autostainer Immunostaining System (DAKO, Carpenterina, CA, USA) shortened the added time to 20 minutes. CONCLUSIONS MMS with Mel-5 immunostaining yielded excellent results in the treatment of LM and LMM, with only one recurrence noted in 200 patients. When an automated immunostainer was used, minimal time was added to each Mohs stage. [source]


    Role of Sun Exposure in Melanoma

    DERMATOLOGIC SURGERY, Issue 4 2006
    GIL B. IVRY BS
    BACKGROUND Malignant melanoma is the third most common skin cancer in the United States. It is commonly thought that sun exposure is causative in these tumors. Recently, however, the significance of the role of sun exposure in melanoma has come into question. Some have suggested that other factors, such as genetics, play a larger role, and that sun protection may even be harmful. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS To investigate the role of sun exposure in melanoma etiology. An extensive review of basic science and clinical literature on this subject was conducted. RESULTS Although exceptions exist, sun exposure likely plays a large role in most melanomas. The pattern of this exposure, however, is not fully known, and controversy exists, especially in the use of sunscreens. Sun exposure may interact with genetic factors to cause melanomas, and sun protective measures appear to be prudent. CONCLUSIONS The cause of melanoma is probably variable and multifactorial. Sun exposure may play a primary or supporting role in most melanoma tumors. [source]


    Single-Institution Experience in the Management of Patients with Clinical Stage I and II Cutaneous Melanoma: Results of Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in 240 Cases

    DERMATOLOGIC SURGERY, Issue 11 2005
    Jordi Rex MD
    Background. Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has been developed as a minimally invasive technique to determine the pathologic status of regional lymph nodes in patients without clinically palpable disease and incorporated in the latest version of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system for cutaneous melanoma. Objective. To analyze the results of SLNB and the prognostic value of the micrometastases and the pattern of early recurrences in patients according to sentinel lymph node (SLN) status. Method. Patients with cutaneous melanoma in stages I and II (AJCC 2002) who underwent lymphatic mapping and SLNB from 1997 to 2003 were included in a prospective database for analysis. Results. The rate of identification of the SLN was 100%. Micrometastases to SLN were found in 20.8% of patients. The rate of SLN micrometastases increased according to Breslow thickness and clinical stage. Breslow thickness of 0.99 mm was the optimal cutpoint for predicting the SLNB result. Twenty-four patients (12.3%) developed a locoregional or distant recurrence at a median follow-up of 31 months. Recurrences were more frequent in patients with a positive SLN. Among patients who had a recurrence, those with a positive SLN were more likely to have distant metastases than those with negative SLN. Nodal recurrences were more frequent in patients with a negative SLN compared with those with a positive SLN. Conclusions. The status of the SLN provides accurate staging for identifying patients who may benefit from further therapy and is the most important prognostic factor of relapse-free survival. THIS WORK WAS SUPPORTED BY GRANTS FROM FONDO DE INVESTIGACIONES SANITARIAS (98/0449), BECA DE FORMACIÓ DE PERSONAL INVESTIGADOR (2001/FI0757), AND THE RED ESPŃOLA DE CENTROS DE GENÓMICA DEL CÁNCER (C03/10). [source]


    Nodular Melanoma: Controversies and Considerations for Containment

    DERMATOLOGIC SURGERY, Issue 8 2005
    Alexander Chamberlain MB BS
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy Has No Benefit for Patients with Primary Cutaneous Melanoma: An Assertion Based on Comprehensive, Critical Analysis

    DERMATOLOGIC SURGERY, Issue 6 2005
    David G. Brodland MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Lessons on Dermoscopy: Malignant Melanoma on Surgical Scar,Dermoscopic Features

    DERMATOLOGIC SURGERY, Issue 12p1 2004
    Nicola Arpaia MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Patterns of Detection of Superficial Spreading and Nodular-Type Melanoma: A Multicenter Italian Study

    DERMATOLOGIC SURGERY, Issue 11 2004
    Paolo Carli
    Background. Nodular histotype represents the condition that is mostly associated with diagnosis of thick melanoma. Objective. The objectives were to evaluate variables associated with and pattern of detection of nodular melanomas and to investigate variables associated with early diagnosis in accordance with histotype (nodular vs. superficial spreading melanomas). Methods. From the original data set of 816 melanomas, all the invasive lesions classified as superficial spreading (n=500) and nodular (n=93) melanomas were considered for the study. A multivariate logistic analysis was performed. Results. Nodular melanomas did not significantly differ from superficial spreading melanomas regarding sex, anatomic site, number of whole-body nevi, and the presence of atypical nevi. As expected, nodular melanomas were represented by a higher percentage of thick (>2 mm) lesions compared to superficial spreading melanomas (64.5% vs. 9.6%, p<0.001). The pattern of detection significantly differed between nodular and superficial spreading melanomas, the former being more frequently self-detected (44.1% vs. 38.0%) or detected by the family doctor (34.4% vs. 11.4%). Female sex, high level of education, and detection made by a dermatologist had an independent, protective effect against late (>1 mm in thickness) diagnosis in superficial spreading melanomas. No protective variable associated with nodular melanomas was found. Conclusion. Patterns of detection for nodular melanomas significantly differ from those for superficial spreading melanomas. For superficial spreading, but not for nodular, melanomas, variables associated with protective effect against late diagnosis can be identified. [source]


    Locoregional Cutaneous Metastases of Malignant Melanoma and their Management

    DERMATOLOGIC SURGERY, Issue 2004
    Ingrid H. Wolf MD
    The correct classification of locoregional metastases of malignant melanoma to skin is central to the planning of treatment. Local recurrence means persistence of neoplastic cells at the local site by virtue of incomplete excision of the primary melanoma. Standard treatment is excisional surgery. In contrast, locoregional metastases of malignant melanoma (satellites, in-transit metastases) are metastases around a primary melanoma or between a primary melanoma and regional lymph nodes. They represent intralymphatic or hematogenous spread of neoplastic cells. We present a variety of available treatment options and discuss especially topical imiquimod as a novel approach for the palliative treatment of locoregional cutaneous melanoma metastases in selected patients. [source]


    Detection of Micrometastasis in the Sentinel Lymph Node via Lymphoscintigraphy for a Patient With In-Transit Metastatic Melanoma

    DERMATOLOGIC SURGERY, Issue 9 2003
    Chih-Hsun Yang MD
    Background. Lymphoscintigraphy and sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy are highly accurate methods of detecting regional lymph node status for melanoma. Previously, these procedures were mainly performed in patients with primary melanoma before wide local excision. Objective. To present a case with in-transit recurrence melanoma using lymphoscintigraphy and SLN biopsy for detection of nodal basin status. Methods. The patient discussed here had a subungual melanoma that developed as an in-transit metastatic melanoma on the pretibia area 2 years after right big toe amputation. By using lymphoscintigraphy and SLN biopsy technique with injection of technetium-99m colloid around the in-transit metastatic site, the first node (SLN) draining the in-transit metastatic tumor was identified and harvested on the right inguinal area. Immediate right inguinal node dissection was subsequently performed. Results. Under thorough histologic examination, the first node (SLN) draining the in-transit metastatic tumor was the only node that contained micrometastatic tumor cells in the surgical specimens. Conclusion. Lymphoscintigraphy and SLN biopsy techniques are sensitive procedures for detecting the regional nodal basin micrometastasis in in-transit recurrence melanoma patients. [source]


    Primary Malignant Melanoma of the Maxillary Gingiva

    DERMATOLOGIC SURGERY, Issue 3 2003
    Betül Gözel Ulusal MD
    BACKGROUND Mucosal malignant melanoma arising from the mucosa of the head and neck region is a rare entity, accounting for approximately 0.2% of all melanomas. Most of these lesions (80%) have occurred on the maxillary anterior gingival area, especially on the palatal and alveolar mucosa. OBJECTIVE Mucosal malignant melanomas are more aggressive than cutaneous melanomas. On the other hand, complex anatomy of this area makes complete surgical excision difficult. Thus, early diagnosis and treatment are important. METHODS We presented primary malignant melanoma of the maxillary gingiva in two cases. CONCLUSION In mucosal malignant melanoma, survival rates may be increased by early diagnosis and treatment. The clinician must carefully examine oral cavity, and pigmented lesions should be biopsied. Because some melanomas may be amelanotic, a high index of suspicion is necessary. [source]


    Pigmented Bowen's Disease (Squamous Cell Carcinoma in situ): A Mimic of Malignant Melanoma

    DERMATOLOGIC SURGERY, Issue 7 2001
    Ravi Krishnan MD
    Background. Darkly pigmented individuals may manifest unusual or uncharacteristic presentations of various skin conditions, including heavy pigmentation of cutaneous tumors. Objective. To increase the awareness of an unusual presentation of Bowen's disease in a darkly pigmented individual. Methods. We report the case of a 52 year old black woman that presented with a lesion clinically consistent with malignant melanoma. However, histopathologic examination revealed pigmented Bowen's disease. Results. A biopsy is almost always indicated to confirm the diagnosis of lesions in darkly pigmented individuals. Conclusion. This case is presented to reinforce the idea that pigmented Bowen's disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of malignant melanoma. [source]


    The Treatment of Nail Apparatus Melanoma with Mohs Micrographic Surgery

    DERMATOLOGIC SURGERY, Issue 3 2001
    David G. Brodland MD
    First page of article [source]


    Regarding Sentinel Node Biopsy in the Management of Melanoma

    DERMATOLOGIC SURGERY, Issue 1 2001
    Brett Coldiron MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    The Current Status of Sentinel Node Biopsy in the Management of Melanoma

    DERMATOLOGIC SURGERY, Issue 8 2000
    Julie R. Lange MD
    [source]


    Melanoma with cartilaginous differentiation: Diagnostic challenge on fine-needle aspiration with emphasis on differential diagnosis

    DIAGNOSTIC CYTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 1 2009
    Krisztina Z. Hanley M.D.
    Abstract Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is a minimally invasive, fast, and accurate diagnostic method for the evaluation of patients with locally recurrent or distant metastases of malignant melanoma. In the vast majority of cases, the diagnosis is straightforward with the characteristic cytologic features well documented in the literature. Divergent differentiation (chondroid, neural, myofibroblastic, and osteocartilagenous) in a melanoma is rare and can potentially create diagnostic challenges if the evaluator is unaware of the same. We report a case of a 46-year-old female with a history of primary anal melanoma who presented with a groin mass. The FNA of the groin mass showed a neoplasm rich in chondroid matrix and raised the possibility of a second primary mesenchymal neoplasm rather than metastasis from the patient's known primary anal melanoma. A review of the histologic features of the anal melanoma showed divergent chondroid differentiation in the anal melanoma with the metastatic deposit in the groin exhibiting extensive chondroid differentiation. The differential diagnostic considerations are discussed. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2009. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Transcriptional regulation of ASK/Dbf4 in cutaneous melanoma is dependent on E2F1

    EXPERIMENTAL DERMATOLOGY, Issue 12 2008
    Sandeep Nambiar
    Background:, Melanoma is a complex genetic disease, the management of which will require an in-depth understanding of the biology underlying its initiation and progression. Recently, we have reported the differential regulation of a novel gene, namely ASK/Dbf4, in melanoma and suggested upregulation of ASK/Dbf4 as a novel molecular determinant with prognostic relevance that confers a proliferative advantage in cutaneous melanoma. As trans -acting factor binding is fundamental to understand the regulation of gene expression, this study focuses on characterization of the specific transcriptional regulation of ASK/Dbf4 in melanoma. Objective:, We investigated whether ASK/Dbf4 is a transcriptional target of the important cell cycle regulator E2F1 in melanoma. Results:, As evidenced by gel supershift assays on nuclear extracts from various melanoma cell lines (SK-MEL-28, MV3, M13, A375 and BLM), E2F1 bound to the ASK/Dbf4 minimal promoter (MP). In addition, cisplatin-mediated abrogation of E2F1 binding to the ASK/Dbf4 MP resulted in a transcriptional decrease in ASK/Dbf4. Further, the current study also demonstrated that ASK/Dbf4 regulation was refractory to UVB, a well-known risk factor for melanoma. Conclusions:, In summary, our study not only elucidated that ASK/Dbf4, a novel cell survival gene in melanoma was transcriptionally regulated by E2F1, but also that the induction of ASK/Dbf4 was refractory to UVB exposure suggesting that its upregulation was not an early event in melanomagenesis. [source]


    Quality of histopathological reporting on melanoma and influence of use of a synoptic template

    HISTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 6 2010
    Lauren E Haydu
    Haydu L E, Holt P E, Karim R Z, Madronio C M, Thompson J F, Armstrong B K & Scolyer R A (2010) Histopathology56, 768,774 Quality of histopathological reporting on melanoma and influence of use of a synoptic template Aims:, To evaluate the quality of histopathological reporting for melanoma in a whole population, to assess the influence on quality of the use of a synoptic template and thus to provide an evidence base to guide improvement in reporting melanoma pathology. Methods and results:, Histopathology reports of all primary invasive melanomas notified to the New South Wales Central Cancer Registry between October 2006 and October 2007 (n = 3784) were reviewed. A detailed audit of histopathology reports for consecutively diagnosed primary invasive melanoma over 6 months (n = 2082) was performed to assess the quality of each report based on compliance with the 2008 Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Melanoma in Australia and New Zealand. Only half of the initial excision specimen reports included the essential components necessary to stage a melanoma patient according to the 2002 American Joint Committee on Cancer/International Union Against Cancer melanoma staging system. Report format was strongly correlated with completeness and validity of reporting: reports in a synoptic format, with or without a descriptive component, achieved the highest quality levels. Conclusions:, Even in a population with a high incidence of melanoma, concordance of pathology reports with current guidelines was comparatively low. Wider adoption of synoptic reporting is likely to increase report quality. [source]


    Melanoma arising in a hairy nevus spilus

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF DERMATOLOGY, Issue 11 2006
    lgül Zeren-Bilgin MD
    Cutaneous melanoma may develop de novo on normal skin or in contiguity with a potential melanocytic precursor. We report a 45-year-old man who presented with a recently developed nodule in a previously stable congenital nevus. Physical examination revealed a 10 × 18-cm lesion with speckled lentiginous pigmentation and terminal hairs on the lower back. A 2 × 2-cm suspicious nodule in the lesion was noted by the patient 2 months earlier. Histopathological evaluation of the nevus and the suspicious nodule revealed the characteristics of a melanocytic nevus and melanoma, respectively. It was interesting for the authors to observe terminal hairs in a lesion that was clinically ,speckled lentiginous' in appearance. This case report is a reminder that there may be great variation in the clinical appearance of nevus spilus, and thus dermatologists must be aware of these lesions as potential precursors of malignant melanoma. [source]


    Childhood melanoma: update and treatment

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF DERMATOLOGY, Issue 9 2005
    Phung M. Huynh MD
    Childhood melanoma is a rare but potentially fatal disease that is important to include in the differential diagnosis of any pigmented lesion in a child. The best prognosis is achieved with early diagnosis and definitive surgical excision. Adjuvant chemotherapy and immunotherapy are options for those with more advanced tumors. Melanoma in children must be treated as aggressively as in adults because childhood melanoma may be equally devastating. [source]


    Socioeconomic Status and Survival in Older Patients with Melanoma

    JOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 11 2006
    Carlos A. Reyes-Ortiz MD
    OBJECTIVES: To determine the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and survival in older patients with melanoma. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER): a population-based cancer registry covering 14% of the U.S. population. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-three thousand sixty-eight patients aged 65 and older with melanoma between 1988 and 1999. MEASUREMENTS: Outcome was melanoma-specific survival. Main independent variable was SES (measured as census tract median household income) taken from the SEER-Medicare linked data. RESULTS: Subjects residing in lower-income areas (,$30,000/y) had lower 5-year survival rates (88.5% vs 91.1%, P<.001) than subjects residing in higher-income areas (>$30,000/y). In Cox proportional hazard models, higher income was associated with lower risk of death from melanoma (hazard ratio=0.88, 95% confidence interval=0.79,0.98, P=.02) after adjusting for sociodemographics, stage at diagnosis, thickness, histology, anatomic site, and comorbidity index. There was an interaction effect between SES and ethnicity and survival from melanoma. For whites and nonwhites (all other ethnic groups), 5-year survival rates increased as income increased, although the effect was greater for nonwhites (77.6% to 90.1%, 1st to 5th quintiles, P=.01) than for whites (89.0% to 91.9%, 1st to 5th quintiles, P<.001). CONCLUSION: Older subjects covered by Medicare residing in lower-SES areas had poorer melanoma survival than those residing in higher-SES areas. Further research is needed to determine whether low SES is associated with late-stage disease biology and poorer early detection of melanoma. [source]


    The Importance of Attached Nail Plate Epithelium in the Diagnosis of Nail Apparatus Melanoma

    JOURNAL OF CUTANEOUS PATHOLOGY, Issue 10 2010
    Beth S. Ruben
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    The Importance of Attached Nail Plate Epithelium in the Diagnosis of Nail Apparatus Melanoma

    JOURNAL OF CUTANEOUS PATHOLOGY, Issue 10 2010
    Beth S. Ruben
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Immunohistochemical characteristics of melanoma

    JOURNAL OF CUTANEOUS PATHOLOGY, Issue 5 2008
    Steven J. Ohsie
    Melanoma has a wide spectrum of histologic features which mimic epithelial, hematologic, mesenchymal, and neural tumors. Immunohistochemistry has been the primary tool to distinguish melanomas from these other tumors; it has also been studied for use as an adjunct to distinguish benign and malignant melanocytic tumors and to elucidate prognosis. Furthermore, there has been extensive effort to find a suitable marker to differentiate spindle cell and desmoplastic melanoma from other tumors. We have reviewed the literature investigating melanocytic differentiation markers, proliferation markers, immunomodulatory markers, signaling molecules, and nerve growth factors and receptors. Despite the proliferation of immunohistochemical markers, S-100 remains the most sensitive marker for melanocytic lesions, while markers such as HMB-45, MART-1/Melan-A, tyrosinase, and MITF demonstrate relatively good specificity but not as good sensitivity as S-100. No marker has proven useful in distinguishing spindle cell and desmoplastic melanomas from other tumors. Ki67 remains the most useful adjunct in distinguishing benign from malignant melanocytic tumors. None of the markers reviewed has been shown conclusively to have prognostic value for melanocytic neoplasms. [source]