Mechanical Treatment (mechanical + treatment)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

COUNTERPOINT: Mechanical Treatment of Atherosclerosis Is Not a Cure

William R. Lewis MD
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Lack of desquamation , the Achilles heel of the reconstructed epidermis

M. Ponec
Synopsis The use of human skin equivalents for screening tests aiming to assess repetitive application of various test agents is hampered by the lack of desquamation in vitro. The present study was undertaken to examine whether the desquamation can be induced by various treatments including mechanical stress, application of various agents that should decrease the surface pH and calcium level, activate the enzymes involved in desquamation process or UV irradiation. In addition, the effect of ,-hydroxyacids, known to enhance desquamation and to improve the stratum corneum barrier function in vivo, was examined as well. Human epidermis reconstructed on de-epidermized dermis or on fibroblast-populated collagen matrices during a 2-week culture at the air,liquid interface underwent various treatments during an additional 3-week period. The effects of treatments were evaluated on the basis of tissue morphology and lipid composition. The results of the present study revealed that cell shedding could only be induced by a mild repetitive mechanical treatment. The lack of desquamation, under most in vitro conditions, has a practical consequence, since it may hamper the use of reconstructed epidermis for various screening studies aiming to examine the repetitive exposure to topical agents or UV irradiation. The gradual thickening of the stratum corneum will lead to its higher resistance to the environmental stimuli and in this way affect the outcome of the tests. Furthermore, from the results obtained in the present study, it became evident that one should be careful in selecting endpoints when, for example, the effects of agents known to modulate melanogenesis are examined. Résumé L'utilization d'équivalents cutanés humains dans les procédures de criblage, afin d'estimer l'action répétée de divers agents, est entravée par l'absence de desquamation in vitro. La présente étude a été entreprise afin de déterminer dans quelle mesure la desquamation peut être induite par différents traitements tels que stress mécanique, application d'agents divers qui conduiraient à une chute du pH de surface et du taux de Calcium, activeraient les enzymes impliquées dans le processus de desquamation, ou l'irradiation UV. De plus, l'effet des , hydroxy-acides, connus pour favouriser la desquamation et d'améliorer la fonction barrière du Stratum-Corneum in vivo, a étéétudié. L'épiderme humain reconstruit sur un derme dé-épidermisé ou sur des matrices de collagène colonisées par des fibroblastes pendant 2 semaines de culture, en interface air × liquide, a subi divers traitements pendant une période additionnelle de 3 semaines. Les effets de ces traitements étaient évalués sur des critères morphologiques du tissu ainsi que la composition en lipides. Les résultats de cette étude montrent que l'élimination cellulaire ne peut être induite que par un léger traitement mécanique répété. L'absence de desquamation dans la plupart des conditions in vitro a une conséquence pratique puisqu'elle peut entraver l'utilization de l'épiderme reconstruit à des fins diverses de criblage en vue d'appréhender les expositions répétées à des agents topiques, ou l'irradiation UV. L'épaississement progressif du Stratum-Corneum lui confèrera une résistance accrue aux stimuli environnementaux qui, en retour, modifiera les résultats des tests. De plus, les résultats de cette présente étude impliquent à l'évidence une précaution dans la sélection des cinétiques de mesures lorsque, par exemple, les effets des agents connus pour moduler la mélanogénèse sont étudiés. [source]

The periodontal abscess (II).

Short-term clinical, microbiological efficacy of 2 systemic antibiotic regimes
Background/aims: The aim of this short-term open parallel longitudinal clinical study was to compare the clinical and microbiological efficacy of 2 different antibiotic regimes in the treatment of acute periodontal abscesses. Method: After patient selection, a clinical examination was carried out recording the following variables: pain, edema, redness, swelling, bleeding on probing, suppuration, tooth mobility, lymphadenopathy, and probing pocket depth. Microbiological samples were taken from the lesion and the patient was randomly assigned to one of two antibiotic regimes: azithromycin or amoxicillin/clavulanate. Clinical variables were recorded, and microbiological samples were taken, at 3,5 days, 10,12 days and 30 days. Additional mechanical treatment (debridement and scaling) was performed in the third visit (10,12 days). Blood and urine samples were collected at baseline and after 10,12 days. Microbiological samples were processed by anaerobic culturing, and isolated periodontal pathogens were tested for antibiotic susceptibility by means of the spiral gradient endpoint methodology. Results: 15 patients took azithromycin, and 14 amoxicillin/clavulanate. Subjective clinical variables demonstrated statistically significant improvements with both antibiotic regimes, which lasted for at least 1 month (p<0.01). Objective clinical variables also showed clear improvements, being statistically significant after 30 days with probing pocket depth in the azithromycin group (p<0.01). Microbiologically, short-term reductions were detected with both antibiotics, however fast recolonization occurred after the third visit. No significant differences were found between both treatment regimes. Antibiotic susceptibilities demonstrated no resistances for amoxicillin/clavulanate, while 2,3 strains of each studied pathogen were resistant to azithromycin. Conclusions: However, both antibiotic regimes were effective in the short-term treatment of periodontal abscesses in periodontitis patients. [source]

Polymorph transitions of bicalutamide: A remarkable example of mechanical activation

Zoltán Német
Abstract Bicalutamide, an active pharmaceutical ingredient possessing antiandrogenic activity, is known to exhibit polymorphism. The higher melting Form I relates monotropically to the lower melting Form II. The amorphous form can be easily produced by quench cooling the melt, but it is known to crystallize spontaneously to Form II at room temperature within days. Our results show that crystallization of amorphous bicalutamide is greatly influenced by experimental conditions and sample treatment. The effect of mechanical activation on the polymorph transitions is investigated in detail. Seeds of Form I can be formed in the amorphous phase even due to gentle mechanical treatment, which results in crystallization to the more stable structure at elevated temperature. The crystalline Form II may as well be transformed to the stable modification through mechanical activation at elevated temperature. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 97: 3222,3232, 2008 [source]

Adjunctive local antibiotic therapy in the treatment of peri-implantitis II: clinical and radiographic outcomes

Giovanni E. Salvi
Abstract Aim: To monitor over 12 months clinical and radiographic changes occurring after adjunctive local delivery of minocycline microspheres for the treatment of peri-implantitis. Material and methods: In 25 partially edentulous subjects, 31 implants diagnosed with peri-implantitis were treated. Three weeks after oral hygiene instruction, mechanical debridement and local antiseptic cleansing using 0.2% chlorhexidine gel, baseline (Day 0) parameters were recorded. Minocycline microspheres (Arestin®) were locally delivered to each implant site with bone loss and a probing pocket depth (PPD) ,5 mm. Rescue therapy with Arestin® was allowed at Days 180 and 270 at any site exhibiting an increase in PPD,2 mm from the previous visit. The following clinical parameters were recorded at four sites/implant at Day 0, 10, 30, 60, 90, 180, 270 and 360: PPD, clinical attachment level (CAL), bleeding on probing (BOP) and plaque index (PlI). Results: Six implants in six subjects were either rescued or exited because of persisting active peri-implantitis. Successful implants showed a statistically significant reduction in both PPD and percentage of sites with BOP between baseline and Day 360 (P<0.05). At mesial implant sites, the mean PPD reduction amounted to 1.6 mm (95% CI: 0.9,2.2 mm, P<0.001) and was accompanied by a statistically significant reduction of the BOP value (P<0.001). Binary regression analysis showed that the clinical parameters and smoking history could not discriminate between successfully treated and rescued or exited implants at any observation time point. Conclusion: Non-surgical mechanical treatment of peri-implantitis lesions with adjunctive local delivery of microencapsulated minocycline led to positive effects on clinical parameters up to 12 months. [source]

Net changes in regional woody vegetation cover and carbon storage in Texas Drylands, 1937,1999

Abstract Although local increases in woody plant cover have been documented in arid and semiarid ecosystems worldwide, there have been few long-term, large-scale analyses of changes in woody plant cover and aboveground carbon (C) stocks. We used historical aerial photography, contemporary Landsat satellite data, field observations, and image analysis techniques to assess spatially specific changes in woody vegetation cover and aboveground C stocks between 1937 and 1999 in a 400-km2 region of northern Texas, USA. Changes in land cover were then related to topo-edaphic setting and historical land-use practices. Mechanical or chemical brush management occurred over much of the region in the 1940,1950s. Rangelands not targeted for brush management experienced woody cover increases of up to 500% in 63 years. Areas managed with herbicides, mechanical treatments or fire exhibited a wide range of woody cover changes relative to 1937 (,75% to + 280%), depending on soil type and time since last management action. At the integrated regional scale, there was a net 30% increase in woody plant cover over the 63-year period. Regional increases were greatest in riparian corridors (33%) and shallow clay uplands (26%) and least on upland clay loams (15%). Allometric relationships between canopy cover and aboveground biomass were used to estimate net aboveground C storage changes in upland (nonriparian) portions of regional landscapes. Carbon stocks increased from 380 g C m,2 in 1937 to 500 g C m,2 in 1999, a 32% net increase across the 400 km2 region over the 63-year period. These plant C storage change estimates are highly conservative in that they did not include the substantial increases in woody plant cover observed within riparian landscape elements. Results are discussed in terms of implications for ,carbon accounting' and the global C cycle. [source]

Ammine(2,2,-bipyridine-,2N,N,)silver(I) nitrate: a dimer formed by ,,, stacking and ligand-unsupported Ag...Ag interactions

Di Sun
Reaction of AgNO3 and 2,2,-bipyridine (bipy) under ultrasonic treatment gave the title compound, [Ag(C10H8N2)(NH3)]NO3. The crystal structure consists of dimers formed by two symmetry-related AgI,bipy monomers connected through intra-dimer ,,, stacking and ligand-unsupported Ag...Ag interactions. A crystallographic C2 axis passes through the mid-point of and is perpendicular to the Ag...Agi(,x + 1, y, ,z + ) axis. In addition, each AgI cation is coordinated by one chelating bipy ligand and one ammine ligand, giving a trigonal coordination environment capped by the symmetry-equivalent Ag atom. Molecules are assembled by Ag...Ag, ,,,, hydrogen-bond (N,H...O and C,H...O) and weak Ag..., interactions into a three-dimensional framework. Comparing the products synthesized under different mechanical treatments, we found that reaction conditions have a significant influence on the resulting structures. The luminescence properties of the title compound are also discussed. [source]

Pits and Fissures: Etch Resistance in Prismless Enamel Walls

MF Burrow
Background: In a previous study to examine the nature of etching on the walls of fissures, there was a consistent result of resistance to deep etching on parts of the walls and a zone of lesser etching on part of the walls as evidenced by the uptake of stain. The staining had been used to examine the nature of the etch pattern. The aims of this study were to define the nature of this etch resistant area. Methods: A sample of 55 teeth, both molars and premolars, were divided into three groups. In the first group the wetting of fissures by the etchant was examined; the second group tested for the effects of pellicle-cuticle-debris or air entrapment on the etching process. The final group looked at alternative mechanical treatments of the fissure prior to etching. Results: The specimens split along the fissures showed clearly that the etch resistant zone was not due to lack of contact with the etchant or the presence of a pellicle-cuticle-debris covering, but to the presence of a prismless enamel structure. This study showed that this zone inhibited tag development on the fissure walls. Conclusions: The mechanical removal of this prismless layer of enamel within the fissure system should result in an improved bonding of a fissure sealant through better tag development, in turn leading to a reduction in the failure rate of a sealant used to prevent caries. [source]

Cellulose-Nanocomposites: Towards High Performance Composite Materials

Robert Kohler
Abstract Summary: Strong cellulose fibres, e.g. flax and hemp, are increasingly used for composites. Despite substantial advantages, the tensile strength of these fibres is limited due to their complex structure and the unavoidable imperfections of the cell wall, inherent from growth or induced by processing. Essential improvements are possible by using highly crystalline cellulose fibrils ("whiskers") which can be isolated from the cell wall, thus eliminating the influence of adhesion and defects. Instead of complete fibrillation, which demands special time consuming processing, a partly fibrillation has been achieved by adapted textile finishing procedures which have the potential for mass production. By combining chemical and mechanical/hydro-mechanical treatments it is possible to produce finest fibrils with diameters from below 1 µm down to the nanometer range. The problem of fibril agglomeration during drying has been avoided by forming homogenous fibrous sheets in a wet-laid non-woven process. These sheets can be impregnated with thermosetting resins. Alternatively thermoplastic polymers can be directly integrated to form hybrid materials ready for moulding. The resulting composites show greatly enhanced mechanical properties. [source]