Mechanical Processing (mechanical + processing)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Multilevel structure of reinforcing silica and carbon

D.W. Schaefer
Using small-angle x-ray (SAXS), neutron (SANS), x-ray diffraction and light scattering, we study the structure of colloidal silica and carbon on length scales from 4 < q,1 < 107 where q is the magnitude of the scattering vector. These materials consist of primary particles of the order of 100 , aggregated into micron-sized aggregates that in turn are agglomerated into 100 agglomerates. The diffraction data show that the primary particles in precipitated silica are composed of highly defective amorphous silica with little intermediate-range order (order on the scale of several bond distances). On the next level of morphology, primary particles arise by a complex nucleation process in which primordial nuclei briefly aggregate into rough particles that subsequently smooth out to become the seeds for the primaries. The primaries aggregate to strongly bonded clusters by a complex process involving kinetic growth, mechanical disintegration and restructuring. Finally, the small-angle scattering (SAS) data lead us to postulate that the aggregates cluster into porous, rough-surfaced, non-mass-fractal agglomerates that can be broken down to the more strongly bonded aggregates by application of shear. We find similar structure in pelletized carbon blacks. In this case we show a linear scaling relation between the primary and aggregate sizes. We attribute the scaling to mechanical processing that deforms the fractal aggregates down to the maximum size able to withstand the compaction stress. Finally, we rationalize the observed structure based on empirical optimization by filler suppliers and some recent theoretical ideas due to Witten, Rubenstein and Colby. [source]

Informatic calibration of a materials properties database for predictive assessment of mechanically activated disordering potential for small molecule organic solids

Yannan Lin
Abstract The potential for small molecule organic crystalline materials to become disordered as a result of high shear mechanical processing was investigated. A data-driven model was generated from a database of critical materials properties, which were expected to correlate with the potential of a small molecule organic crystalline solid to become fully disordered by the application of mechanical energy. The model was compared with a previously published disordering model based on fundamental thermodynamic relationships. Samples of 23 crystalline solids were subjected to extensive comminution under controlled temperature conditions; powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to confirm disordering. Logistic regression was used to investigate the significance of each materials property with respect to the prediction of disordering potential. Seven materials properties (glass transition temperature, melting temperature, heat of fusion, crystallographic density, Young's modulus, molar volume and attachment energy) were identified as having a significant correlation with the potential for material disordering. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression was used to further assess the correlation between disordering potential and each of the seven properties. A linear probability model based on two materials properties (glass transition temperature and molar volume) was developed for the prediction of disordering potential. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 98:2696,2708, 2009 [source]

Effects of length of cut and mechanical processing on utilization of corn silage harvested at the black line stage of maturity by lactating dairy cows

Satoshi HARA
ABSTRACT The effects of length of cut and mechanical processing on corn silage utilization by dairy cows were evaluated. Corn silage treatments were harvested at the black line stage of maturity and chopped at a theoretical length (TLC) of 9.5 mm without processing (Control) or at a TLC of 19 mm with processing at roller clearances of 1, 3, or 5 mm. Eight multiparous Holstein cows were assigned in a replicated 4 4 Latin square design with 21-day periods. Corn silage treatments were fed in diets containing 78.3% corn silage and 21.7% soybean meal (DM basis). Treatments had no significant effects on DMI, milk and 4% FCM production. The efficiency of converting DMI to FCM tended to be greater with processing at a roller clearance of 1 and 3 mm than at other clearances. Apparent total tract digestibility of starch tended to be lowest for cows fed control silage, and increased as roller clearance decreased. Ruminal ammonia concentrations in cows fed control silage were numerically higher than in cows fed proccesed silages. These results suggest that when corn silage is harvested at the black line of maturity, roller clearance should be 3 mm or less with a TLC of 19 mm. [source]