Meat

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Meat

  • breast meat
  • chicken breast meat
  • chicken meat
  • cooked meat
  • fish meat
  • fresh meat
  • ground chicken breast meat
  • ground meat
  • mussel meat
  • other meat
  • pork meat
  • poultry meat
  • raw meat
  • red meat
  • turkey breast meat

  • Terms modified by Meat

  • meat analog
  • meat attribute
  • meat color
  • meat consumption
  • meat industry
  • meat intake
  • meat meal
  • meat patty
  • meat product
  • meat production
  • meat products
  • meat protein
  • meat quality
  • meat quality characteristic
  • meat sample
  • meat tenderness
  • meat yield

  • Selected Abstracts


    EFFECTS OF MUSCLE PROTEASES, ENDOGENOUS PROTEASE INHIBITORS AND MYOFIBRIL FRAGMENTATION ON POSTMORTEM AGING OF GOAT MEAT

    JOURNAL OF FOOD BIOCHEMISTRY, Issue 3 2006
    N.S. NAGARAJ
    ABSTRACT The present study was conducted to evaluate the extent of postmortem proteolysis in longissimus dorsi, biceps femoris, semimembranosus and semitendinosus goat muscles on postmortem aging at an ambient (27C) temperature. The activities of calpains and calpastatin were determined after separation on a (diethylamino)ethyl,Sephacel column (Sigma, St. Louis, MO) and cathepsin (B, B + L and H) by carboxymethyl,Sepharose column (Sigma). The results showed that the decrease in calpain I and calpastatin activities was significantly higher than that of calpain II. Cathepsin B, B + L, H and cystatin were found to fall by 30,80% after 12 h, whereas cathepsin D decreased significantly in all the muscles. The disappearance of titin 1 and nebulin, and the appearance of a 30-kDa component were confirmed by Western blot analysis. The appearance of the 30-kDa component reported here explains the time-induced structural changes of myofibrils. The Z-line degradation had occurred by 6 h postmortem. Cathepsins are not stable compared to calpains during postmortem aging, and both enzymes may play a significant role in the proteolysis of myofibrillar proteins at ambient temperature. [source]


    AQUEOUS GARLIC EXTRACT AND MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF REFRIGERATED POULTRY MEAT

    JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESSING AND PRESERVATION, Issue 2 2005
    KEILY ALVES DE MOURA OLIVEIRA
    ABSTRACT The antibacterial effect of garlic extract (5, 10 and 15%) was investigated on poultry carcasses obtained from a slaughterhouse, stored under refrigeration, and evaluated at selected time intervals. The effect of the garlic extract on the microbial contaminants of the poultry carcass surface , Salmonella, strict and facultative aerobic, mesophilic, and total and fecal coliforms , was evaluated. The garlic extract exhibited a concentration-dependent reduction of microbial contamination. Garlic extract concentrations of 10 and 15% were the most effective. The bacteriostatic action of garlic extract against mesophilic microbiota can be observed until the third storage day. The count of total and fecal coliforms remained low during the storage period. Chicken feed was the apparent source of Salmonella contamination, and the aqueous garlic extract was not effective against Salmonella. [source]


    VALIDATION OF PATHOGEN DESTRUCTION DURING MANUFACTURE OF A MEAT-BASED POTATO SNACK (CHIPAROO)

    JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESSING AND PRESERVATION, Issue 6 2003
    S. J. KIERAS
    ABSTRACT A Chiparoo is a comminuted rabbit and sweet potato dehydrated snack chip manufactured using a process suitable for underdeveloped regions of the world. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of the Chiparoo manufacturing process to adequately deliver 5 log reductions in Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus per gram of food product. These four pathogens were inoculated into regular (pH , 6.0) and lime juice added (pH , 5.0) formulations of rabbit and sweet potato Chiparoos. They were inoculated as a cocktail of four microorganisms at concentrations of approximately 106/g of each pathogen. Individual inoculations of each pathogen at the same concentration (106/g) were also prepared. After inoculation, the product was held for 5 h at 37C, to simulate the maximum hold time in a sub-Saharan Africa manufacturing facility, then dehydrated at 55C (+/- 5C) for 9 h. Samples of the product were taken during the hold and dehydration steps, decimally diluted and plated on the appropriate enumeration medium. The regular formulation (pH , 6.0) did not achieve the required 5 log reduction of each of the four pathogens, while the lime juice added formulation (pH , 5.0) achieved the desired minimum 5 log reduction for each of the four foodborne pathogens tested. [source]


    A NOVEL MULTIPLEX POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION FOR SIMULTANEOUS DETECTION OF YERSINIA ENTEROCOLITICA, STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS, AEROMONAS AND SALMONELLA FROM CHICKEN MEAT AND MILK SAMPLES

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SAFETY, Issue 2 2010
    K. BALAKRISHNA
    ABSTRACT Yersinia enterocolitica, Staphylococcus aureus, Aeromonas and Salmonella are among the most important foodborne bacterial pathogens. The majority of human infections caused by all of these organisms are associated with ingestion of undercooked and contaminated meat, dairy products and water where in the secreted bacterial toxins lead to foodborne intoxications. We, here, report a new multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) assay for the simultaneous detection of these important foodborne bacterial pathogens. The mPCR targeted Ail and virF genes of Y. enterocolitica, nuc and entB genes of S. aureus, aerA and 16S rRNA genes of Aeromonas and invA, an invasion protein A gene of Salmonella. An internal amplification control designed to check the false negative reactions in mPCR was also included. This procedure could detect initial populations of 1,100 cfu/g or /mL within 24 h in experimentally spiked food and water samples. When evaluated on a total of 104 naturally occurring food samples, the mPCR detected two samples to contain S. aureus, one was identified to contain Y. enterocolitica and four samples were identified to contain Salmonella species individually. This was compared with the standard microbiological and biochemical identification procedures. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS All the microorganisms selected in this study are food and waterborne and contaminate a variety of food items. Pathogenic Y. enterocolitica and Aeromonas species are able to grow and multiply and secrete toxins even at low temperatures. The high throughput and cost-effective multiplex polymerase chain reaction method reported here could be a viable alternative for detection of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica, S. aureus, Aeromonas and Salmonella from food and environmental samples. [source]


    PROTECTIVE CULTURES USED FOR THE BIOPRESERVATION OF HORSE MEAT FERMENTED SAUSAGE: MICROBIAL AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SAFETY, Issue 3 2008
    JAZILA EL MALTI
    ABSTRACT In this paper, 150 isolates, originating from horse meat, were subjected to step-by-step screening and characterization to search for potential protective cultures to be used in the meat industry. Isolates were first tested on their homofermentative and salt tolerance. Second, the antibacterial capacities toward Listeria monocytogenes were determined in an agar spot test. In total, 50% of the tested isolates were inhibitory toward Listeria monocytogenes. However, only 12 isolates produced a bacteriocin. Finally, three isolates with the strong bacteriocin activity were evaluated on their competitive nature by comparing their growth rate, acidifying character and lactic acid production at 15C under anaerobic conditions in a liquid broth. All three isolates combined a fast growth rate with a deep and rapid acidification caused by the production of high levels of lactic acid. Lactobacillus sakei was used as starter culture for producing sausage horse meat. In this study, fermentations were followed analyzing the microbiological and physicochemical aspects of this product. The sausages were characterized by an important microbial activity of lactic acid bacteria that resulted in a product with a final pH of about 4.56. No Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp. or sulfite reducing clostridia were ever isolated from the raw materials or the fermented sausages during the maturation, underlining the microbial safety of this product. The final water activity of the product was 0.85. Starter cultures showed that Lactobacillus sakei was really efficient in reducing the amine production since this strain caused a quick pH drop during sausage fermentation. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS A starter culture can be defined as a microbial preparation of large numbers of cells of at least one microorganism to be added to a raw material to produce a fermented food by accelerating and steering its fermentation process. The group of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) occupies a central role in these processes, and has a long and safe history of application and consumption in the production of fermented foods and beverages. They cause rapid acidification of the raw material through the production of organic acids, mainly lactic acid. Also, their production of acetic acid, ethanol, aroma compounds, bacteriocins, exopolysaccharides and several enzymes is of importance. The main reason for suitability of LAB is their natural origin, and they can contribute to food safety and/or offer one or more organoleptic, technological, nutritional or health advantages. [source]


    A STUDY ON SUITABILITY OF FOUR ENRICHMENT BROTHS FOR PCR-BASED DETECTION OF LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES FROM RAW MEAT

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SAFETY, Issue 1 2006
    J. BALAMURUGAN
    ABSTRACT Four enrichment broths were evaluated for their compatibility with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of Listeria monocytogenes from raw meat after single-step enrichment. Standardized PCR protocols for listeriolysin O (hlyA) gene were used for the species-specific identification of L. monocytogenes. Four broths, namely, modified University of Vermont broth (MUVM), Listeria enrichment broth (LEB), Fraser broth (FB) and polymyxin, acriflavin, lithium chloride, ceftazidime, aesculin, mannitol, egg yolk broth (PALCAM) , were inoculated with L. monocytogenes. The enriched cultures were subjected for PCR. Similarly, meat samples were artificially spiked with various concentrations of L. monocytogenes, these spiked samples were enriched in the above-mentioned four broths and subjected to PCR to determine the medium that was most compatible for PCR-based detection of L. monocytogenes. The aliquots taken during different incubation periods were subjected to three different procedures for the concentration of the target organism for use in PCR. Results revealed that MUVM was better than other broths for the detection of L. monocytogenes by both PCR and cultural method; moreover, it was able to support the growth of as low as 10 cfu/g of meat. Concentration of the target organisms by centrifugation and washing with PCR buffer was the most suitable method for improving PCR performance for detection of L. monocytogenes. Goat (n = 67) and buffalo (n = 45) meat samples from local markets were also screened by both PCR and cultural method to validate the results obtained from the spiking studies. Both results were in agreement in spiking studies as well as screening of market meat samples. [source]


    INCIDENCE AND CHARACTERIZATION OF BACILLUS CEREUS IN MEAT AND MEAT PRODUCTS CONSUMED IN TURKEY

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SAFETY, Issue 1 2006
    KIYMET GVEN
    ABSTRACT A total of 100 retail samples of meat and meat products were examined for Bacillus cereus using mannitol egg yolk polymyxin (MYP) agar as a selective isolation medium. Only 22.4% of the samples contained detectable levels of B. cereus, with counts ranging from log10 0.69 to 4.80 cfu/g, but a large number of other organisms up to log10 9.06 cfu/g were sometimes observed on the plates and may have masked the presence of B. cereus or inhibited growth. Two samples of soudjouck contained significant levels of B. cereus, sufficient enough to create a public health hazard. Selected isolates were tested for diarrheal enterotoxin production by a reversed passive latex agglutination (RPLA) test kit. Results showed no difference in the toxin production of B. cereus between beef, ground meat, soudjouck and pastrami samples. Plasmid-profile analysis and susceptibility to the six commonly used antimicrobial agents were done on selected B. cereus isolates. About 96.4% of the isolates contained plasmids. Plasmid sizes ranged between 2.5 and 3.5 kb. The isolates showed a high rate of resistance to oxacillin (OXA) and amoxicillin (AMC) and a low frequency of resistance to the other antimicrobial agents, with all of them being susceptible to vancomycin (VAN). Approximately 54% of the isolates showed multiple resistance. There was no apparent relationship between drug resistance and carriage of plasmids. [source]


    OCCURRENCE OF HEMOLYSIN-PRODUCING AEROMONADS IN MEAT AND OFFAL SOLD IN PORT HARCOURT, NIGERIA

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SAFETY, Issue 3 2005
    E.N. AMADI
    ABSTRACT Fresh, different meat types and offal were examined for the occurrence of Aeromonas species by the direct-plating and enrichment methods. The enrichment method (coefficient of variation = 15.1%) enhanced the recovery of Aeromonas species. The major Aeromonas species identified were A. sobria (67.3%) and A. hydrophila (21.2%). Other species occurred in minor proportions and were A. caviae, A. proteolytica and A. salmonicida. Out of the 52 isolates, 50 were motile species except two which were not motile and identified as the species A. proteolytica. Sixteen motile species occurred in cow, 18 in goat and 16 in lamb. The motile species and the two nonmotile species were hemolytic. They were all sensitive to chloramphenicol (30 mg) and resistant to ampicillin (10 mg). The nonmotile A. proteolytica were all resistant to tetracycline. Aeromonas caviae, A. salmonicida, A. hydrophila and A. sobria were killed after exposure to 50C (decimal reduction time, D10 = 30 s). Aeromonads are unlikely to pose a public health problem in Nigeria where meat undergoes prolonged cooking. Meat is a possible factor in the epidemiology of Aeromonas -associated gastroenteritis in man. [source]


    D- AND z-VALUES OF SALMONELLA IN GROUND CHICKEN BREAST MEAT

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SAFETY, Issue 4 2000
    ALEJANDRO S. MAZZOTTA, Article first published online: 3 APR 200
    ABSTRACT The heat resistance of a Salmonella composite of serotypes Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Montevideo, Mbandaka, Heidelberg and Thompson was evaluated in ground chicken breast meat using an end-point procedure in pouches. A 7D process for Salmonella in chicken was approximately 3 s at 160F (71.1C) with a z-value of 10.3F (5.7C). The data presented here may help cooked chicken products manufacturers design safe processes that meet the USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service performance standard. [source]


    BOTULINAL TOXIN PRODUCTION IN VACUUM AND CARBON DIOXIDE PACKAGED MEAT DURING CHILLED STORAGE AT 2 AND 4C

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SAFETY, Issue 2 2000
    S.M. MOORHEAD
    ABSTRACT This study was undertaken to determine if carbon dioxide packaging of meat afforded a food safety advantage over vacuum packaging with respect to botulinal toxin production during chilled storage. A cocktail of washed spores from five toxigenic clostridial strains , four reference Clostridium botulinumstrains [types A, B (2 strains) and E] and a C. butyricum type E strain , was inoculated onto lamb chumps. Of these strains, two were psychrotolerant. The inoculated chumps were individually carbon dioxide packaged and duplicate packs were placed into storage at 10, 8, 6, 4 and 2C. All storage regimens included a weekly defrost cycle when meat surface temperatures increased by up to 6 to 7C during a 2 to 2.5 h period. After 84 days storage, packs were assessed for the presence of botulinal toxin using the mouse bioassay procedure. All packs contained botulinal toxin. To compare toxin production in vacuum and carbon dioxide packs at chill temperatures, the challenge trials were repeated for 4 and 2C storage. Packs were examined at regular intervals for toxin presence. Both pack types contained toxin after 21 and 48 days storage at 4 and 2C, respectively. In the unlikely, but not impossible, event that raw meat would be contaminated with psychrotolerant toxincapable clostridial spores, product safety, with respect to botulinal toxin presence after prolonged chilled storage, requires storage temperatures to be maintained below 2C for both vacuum and carbon dioxide packaged product. [source]


    INFLUENCE OF SODIUM TRIPOLYPHOSPHATE (STP) TREATMENT AND COOKING TIME ON COOK LOSSES AND TEXTURAL PROPERTIES OF RED MEATS

    JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESS ENGINEERING, Issue 6 2007
    S. BELGIN ERDOGDU
    ABSTRACT Sodium tripolyphosphates (STPs) are important functional additives used in meat products. STPs reduce cook losses and improve textural properties, especially by increasing the water-holding capacity of proteins. However, increases in cooking time or temperature enhance meat proteins' denaturation, resulting in a reduced water-holding capacity. The amount of STPs diffused into meats would play an important role for these changes. Therefore, the objectives of this research were to determine the effects of processing conditions (cooking time, STP concentration and dipping time) on cook losses and textural properties of red meats, and to relate these changes with diffused amount of STPs. For this purpose, meats (2 2 2 cm in size) were dipped in different concentrations of STP solutions (2, 4 and 6%) for 10, 20 and 30 min, and were cooked in boiling water for 5, 10 and 15 min. Cook losses were calculated from weight changes, and textural properties were determined by applying texture profile analysis to data obtained using Texture Analyzer TA-XT2i (Stable Micro Systems, Godalming, Surrey, U.K.). STPs were found to decrease cook losses and hardness values. While an increase in STP concentration increased cohesiveness, increase in cooking time resulted in higher hardness, gumminess, chewiness and cook losses. An increase in dipping times also decreased the cook losses and hardness. The results showed that STP concentration, STP dipping and cooking times had significant effects on the changes of textural properties and cook losses of meats. These results may be used for further meat processing optimization studies if they get correlated with sensory data obtained at the same conditions. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Cooking to assure safety of food products leads to changes in sensory attributes. The major changes occurring in meats are shrinkage, toughening of tissues, releasing of meat juice and color due to the effect of thermal treatment on proteins. Based on these, resulting cook losses for economical considerations and changes in textural properties affecting consumer satisfaction are widely recognized. Because the meat processing industry uses sodium tripolyphosphates (STPs) to improve textural properties and to reduce cook losses, the objective of this research was to determine the effects of STPs and cooking time on cook losses and textural properties of red meats. The results showed that STPs and cooking time affected the changes in cook losses and textural properties significantly. In addition to these results, an optimization study for decreasing cook losses while improving textural properties should be conducted where these changes are attributed to be significant for human perception using a sensory panel. [source]


    EFFECT OF SOLUBLE POLYLACTIC ACID DURING REFRIGERATED STORAGE OF GROUND MEATS INOCULATED WITH ESCHERICHIA COLI O157:H7,

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SAFETY, Issue 1 2000
    ANN ALLANSON
    ABSTRACT Ground beef, ground pork, and commercial breakfast sausage were inoculated (6.5 log10 CFU/mL) with a five strain mixture of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 and treated either with sterile water, or 1% or 2% solutions of soluble polylactic acid (SPLA) in sterile water and stored at 4C for 1, 24, 72 and 168 h. After 168 h, 2% SPLA was significantly (p0.05) more effective than both 1% SPLA and sterile water in reducing E. coli 0157:H7 and resulted in overall reductions of 1.68, 1.70, and 1.32 log10 CFU/mL for beef, pork, and pork sausage, respectively, when compared to control samples. The meat samples treated with 1% and 2% SPLA maintained significantly (p 0.05) lower pH values throughout refrigerated storage of 168 h with the higher concentration sustaining pH values from 3.83 to 3.92. Although the inhibitory effect of this acid increased with storage time, E. coli 0157:H7 survived these acidic conditions, with water activity levels ranging from 0.972 to 0.991. [source]


    Hunting for the Virgin: Meat, Money, and Memory in Tetiz, Yucatn

    CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY, Issue 3 2002
    Paul K. Eiss
    First page of article [source]


    Decomposing Preference Shifts for Meat and Fish in the Netherlands

    JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS, Issue 2 2001
    M.-J.J. Mangen
    The changing preferences of Dutch consumers for meat and fish are investigated using a switching almost ideal demand system. Structural change in demand between January 1994 and May 1998 is decomposed into underlying trends, temporarily irreversible preference shifts triggered by the BSE crisis of March 1996, and a "panic" reaction against beef in the month of the crisis itself. Preference shifts due to the BSE scare reduced expenditure shares for beef, minced meat and meat products by 2.5, 3.3 and 7.9 percentage points respectively. There were offsetting gains in the shares of pork, prepared meat and fish. Taking underlying trends also into account, changing preferences over the whole period reduced beefs share by 4.9 percentage points and increased those of poultry, prepared meat and fish by 4.1, 4.9 and 5.2 percentage points respectively. [source]


    THE EFFECT OF MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE PACKAGING ON THE QUALITY AND SHELF LIFE OF FRANKFURTER TYPE-SAUSAGES

    JOURNAL OF FOOD QUALITY, Issue 2010
    NALAN GOKOGLU
    ABSTRACT The effects of modified atmosphere packaging on the quality and shelf life of frankfurter-type sausages, prepared exclusively from beef meat, were investigated. Sausages were packed under varying modified atmosphere conditions (30% CO2/70% N2; 70% CO2/30% N2; 100% CO2; 80% CO2/20% O2) and vacuum, and stored at 4C for 28 days. Lower pH values were observed in the samples packed under modified atmospheres compared to vacuum. Inhibition effect of carbon dioxide concentration on the oxidation was seen. Carbon dioxide caused microbial inhibition. The lowest total viable count was found in the samples packed under 100% CO2. It was concluded that modified atmosphere packaging had significant effect on the quality and shelf life of frankfurter-type sausages compared to vacuum packaging. The most suitable atmosphere among the tested atmospheres was that with 70% CO2, 30% N2 atmosphere. The shelf life of sausages under this atmosphere was 28 days. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Meat and meat products are susceptible to spoilage. Several preservation techniques are used to extend their shelf life. Packaging of fresh meat is a common application to protect its quality. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) means to replace the air in a package of food with some different mixture of gases. The success in MAP is to choose the suitable gas combination, packaging system, package application and the package material. Proper gas combination to keep meat quality should be provided. Several studies have been performed to extent shelf life of pork sausages and local-type sausages using modified atmosphere packaging technique. However there is no data on beef sausages. The results of this research will form the basis for further studies and also will be beneficial for industry. [source]


    OCCURRENCE OF HEMOLYSIN-PRODUCING AEROMONADS IN MEAT AND OFFAL SOLD IN PORT HARCOURT, NIGERIA

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SAFETY, Issue 3 2005
    E.N. AMADI
    ABSTRACT Fresh, different meat types and offal were examined for the occurrence of Aeromonas species by the direct-plating and enrichment methods. The enrichment method (coefficient of variation = 15.1%) enhanced the recovery of Aeromonas species. The major Aeromonas species identified were A. sobria (67.3%) and A. hydrophila (21.2%). Other species occurred in minor proportions and were A. caviae, A. proteolytica and A. salmonicida. Out of the 52 isolates, 50 were motile species except two which were not motile and identified as the species A. proteolytica. Sixteen motile species occurred in cow, 18 in goat and 16 in lamb. The motile species and the two nonmotile species were hemolytic. They were all sensitive to chloramphenicol (30 mg) and resistant to ampicillin (10 mg). The nonmotile A. proteolytica were all resistant to tetracycline. Aeromonas caviae, A. salmonicida, A. hydrophila and A. sobria were killed after exposure to 50C (decimal reduction time, D10 = 30 s). Aeromonads are unlikely to pose a public health problem in Nigeria where meat undergoes prolonged cooking. Meat is a possible factor in the epidemiology of Aeromonas -associated gastroenteritis in man. [source]


    Effects of Vitamin E and Organic Selenium on Oxidative Stability of ,-3 Enriched Dark Chicken Meat during Cooking

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 2 2010
    T.I. Perez
    ABSTRACT:, The influence of vitamin E and selenomethionine (SeMet) on lipid oxidation in frozen,raw and cooked ,-3 enriched dark chicken meat was evaluated. Feed was supplemented with 2 levels of vitamin E (250 and 50 IU/kg of feed) and selenium (0.1 mg of sodium selenite/kg of feed and 0.3 mg of SeMet/kg of feed). An extruded linseed product was used as the ,-linolenic acid source. Fatty acid (FA) profile, oxysterols, and thiobarbituric reactive acid substances (TBARs) were analyzed in frozen,raw, boiled, pan-fried, and roasted meat. After 6 mo of storage, oxysterols in frozen,raw meat remained stable with either high or low levels of dietary antioxidants. During cooking, high levels of vitamin E reduced oxysterol formation, whereas high levels of SeMet were inconsistent and even increased oxysterols during roasting. TBARs in frozen,raw meat stored for 6 mo were inhibited by high levels of either antioxidant. Conversely, no protective effect during cooking was observed at this time of storage. After 12 mo at ,30 C no antioxidant protection was observed. [source]


    Optimization of the Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Mussel Meat

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 1 2010
    Vanessa M. Silva
    ABSTRACT:, Mussel meat was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis using Protamex. The relationship of temperature (46 to 64 C), enzyme : substrate ratio (0.48% to 5.52%), and pH (6.7 to 8.3) to the degree of hydrolysis were determined. The surface response methodology showed that the optimum conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis of mussel meat were pH 6.85, temperature 51C, and enzyme : substrate ratio of 4.5%. Under these conditions a degree of hydrolysis of 26.5% and protein recovery of 65% were obtained. The produced hydrolysate, under optimum condition, was characterized in terms of chemical composition, electrophoretic profile, and amino acid composition. Practical Application: The practical application of mussel meat hydrolysate is its use as flavoring in products such as soups, sauces, and special beverages. In addition, the product is partially digested and has great nutritional value due to its good amino acid profile and thus can be used as a food supplement in special diets. [source]


    Changes in Tenderness, Color, and Water Holding Capacity of Broiler Breast Meat during Postdeboning Aging

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 8 2009
    Y.S. Lee
    ABSTRACT:, The impact of postharvest aging on the tenderness, color, water holding capacity, and appearance of broiler breast fillets after deboning was investigated. A total of 360 broilers were processed and deboned at either 1.5-, 3-, or 6-h postmortem (PM) and aged at 4 1 C for up to 6 d. Tenderness was predicted by the Meullenet,Owens razor shear. Drip loss, cook loss, color, and muscle-shape profiles were also evaluated during the 6-d aging duration. Deboned fillets were in the tenderness range corresponding to "neither tough nor tender" for the first 2 d of aging and changed into "slightly tender" after 3 d of aging according to the instrument-tenderness perception equivalent scale. Tenderization due to postdeboning aging seemed to be more pronounced for fillets deboned in a prerigor state (that is, 1.5- and 3-h PM). Over the aging period, tenderness improved by 6.9 and 7.4 percentage points for the 1.5- and 3-h PM treatments, respectively, while those fillets deboned in a postrigor state (6-h PM) exhibited no significant difference in tenderness. Drip and cook loss of fillets consistently increased over the aging period. The color of fillets tended to become less red and more yellow during aging although there was no significant difference in,L*. Overall, the tenderizing effects of deboned broiler breast fillets during the storage of 6 d were minimal but seemed to be affected by fillet height and length as determined through analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and K-means clustering analysis. Thicker and tougher fillets were more susceptible to the tenderizing effects during postdeboning aging. [source]


    Sensitive Monoclonal Antibody-based Sandwich ELISA for the Detection of Porcine Skeletal Muscle in Meat and Feed Products

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 1 2006
    Lihua Liu
    ABSTRACT: A monoclonal antibody-based sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the sensitive detection of porcine skeletal muscle in raw and heat-processed meat and feed products. Heat treatment of meat samples up to 132 C for 2 h did not affect the assay performance. The assay uses a pair of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs 8F10 and 5H9) specific to skeletal muscle troponin I (TnI). MAb 8F10, reacting to mammalian TnI, is the capture antibody and the biotin-conjugated MAb 5H9, specific to porcine TnI, the detection antibody. The sandwich ELISA is able to detect 0.05% (w/w) of laboratory-adulterated pork in chicken, 0.1% (w/w) pork in beef mixtures, 0.05% (w/w) pork meal in soy-based feed, and 1% commercial meat and bone meal (MBM), containing an unknown amount of pork, in soy-based feed. This new assay provides a rapid and reliable means to detect the contamination of meat and feed products with trace amounts of porcine muscle tissue to ensure product quality and safety. [source]


    Mortadella Sausage Formulations with Partial and Total Replacement of Beef and Pork Backfat with Mechanically Separated Meat from Spent Layer Hens

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 3 2005
    Marco A. Trindade
    ABSTRACT: Mortadella sausages were formulated with 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% mechanically separated layer hen meat (MSLM) replacing the beef and pork backfat as raw materials. Treatments were compared by determination of shear force, sensory acceptance, and stability during cold storage (microbial analysis, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances [TBARS], color, and descriptive sensory analysis). Mortadella with higher MSLM presented lower shear force values. TBARS index and sensory rancidity were not affected. The greater the amounts of MSLM used, the paler was the pink color observed in the sensory evaluations and the lower were the CIE a* values. All treatments presented minimal increase in the microbiological counts evaluated during storage. The limiting factor in the acceptance of the product was the perception of bone particles in mortadella containing 60% or more MSLM. [source]


    Application of DNA Technique for Identifying the Species of Different Processed Products of Swordfish Meat

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 1 2004
    H. S. HSIEH
    ABSTRACT: Polymerase chain reaction technology and sequence analysis were used to identify the species in fresh, frozen, cooked, sterilized, and dressed dried fried meat of swordfish Xiphias gladius. The specific primers L-HS I, II, III, and IV, in conjunction with H-CSBDH, produced 357-, 238-, 137-, and 87-bp fragments, respectively, in the control region of swordfish mitochondrial DNA, but not for other billfish. These fragments were useful for detecting the species used in processed products claiming to be X. gladius. The primers L-HS IV and H-CSBDH produced 87-bp mtDNA fragments to identify the species of dressed dried fried swordfish meat products. Using L-HS IV and H-CSBDH primers'gene fragment to judge, it was found that only 45.8% (11/24) commercial samples of dressed dried fried products were made from swordfish. [source]


    Effect of Antioxidants on the Production of Off-Odor Volatiles and Lipid Oxidation in Irradiated Turkey Breast Meat and Meat Homogenates

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 5 2003
    E.J. Lee
    ABSTRACT The addition of gallate, sesamol, trolox, and tocopherol was effective, but sesamol, sesamol + tocopherol, and gallate + tocopherol were among the most effective antioxidants in reducing thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, volatile production, and off-odor intensity in turkey breast homogenates. Also, these 3 antioxidant treatments were effective in controlling lipid oxidation and off-odor intensity in both vacuum and aerobically packaged patties. However, aerobic packaging was better than antioxidant treatments in reducing off-odor intensity of irradiated turkey patties. Antioxidants had no effect on redness, but increased lightness and yellowness of irradiated turkey breast. It was concluded that a combination of antioxidant and aerobic packaging was more useful than antioxidant and vacuum packaging in controlling off-odor problems in irradiated raw turkey meat. [source]


    Pink Color Defect in Poultry White Meat as Affected by Endogenous Conditions

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 3 2003
    K. Holownia
    ABSTRACT The pinking defect in cooked, uncured meat has been a problem in the poultry industry for nearly 40 years. Through the years, analyses of data revealed various processing factors that seem to influence the specific biochemical conditions (pH, redox potential, denaturation, reacting ligands) of the meat that are related to the chemical state of the pigments in cooked meat, their structure, and reactivity. This review addresses endogenous conditions that affect the pigments' reactivity, and research studies conducted on in situ conditions resulting in pinking in cooked meat. Future studies could be devised for understanding mechanisms leading to developing processes for reduction/elimination of the pink defect in cooked white poultry meat. [source]


    Effect of Chemically Modified Soy Proteins and Ficin-tenderized Meat on the Quality Attributes of Sausage

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 1 2003
    R. Ramezani
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this investigation was to use ficin-tenderized meat and cysteine-modified soy proteins in the production of bologna and to evaluate the effect of these modifications on water-holding capacity (WHC), emulsion stability (ES), texture, and protein solubility. The effect of ficin on meat protein was also evaluated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Results indicated that both ficin-tenderized meat and modified soy proteins substantially improved WHC, ES, and other quality factors. SDS-PAGE results showed the disappearance of several protein bands in ficin-treated meat. Solubility of meat proteins increased when ficin was used for meat tenderization. The results of this study indicated that some quality attributes of meat products can be improved by enzymatic and chemical modification of protein sources in the manufacture of meat products. [source]


    Warmed-Over Flavor and Lipid Stability of Beef: Effects of Prior Nutrition

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 9 2002
    A. Yang
    ABSTRACT: Development of lipid oxidation and warmed-over flavor (WOF) in cooked meats during refrigerated storage was investigated in beef from pasture-fed cattle or grain-fed cattle supplemented with 0, 500, or 2500 IU vitamin E/head/d for 105 d. Meat from pasture-fed cattle contained as much ,-tocopherol as grain-fed cattle supplemented with 2500 IU vitamin E, but it was found to be less prone to lipid oxidation and development of WOF. It also contained a higher percentage of linolenic acid and lower content of linoleic acid than grain-fed beef. [source]


    Inhibition of Oxidative Flavor Changes in Meat by ,-Tocopherol in Combination with Sodium Tripolyphosphate

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 4 2002
    S. Vara-ubol
    ABSTRACT The effects of ,-tocopherol at 0.03%, sodium tripolyphosphate (STP) at 0.3%, alone and in combination, and STP alone at 0.5% on hexanal and sensory attributes of refrigerated cooked ground turkey or pork, with and without salt (1% NaCl), were studied. For turkey, a combination of ,-tocopherol with 0.3% STP was nearly as effective as 0.5% STP. Turkey and meaty flavor of samples from these 2 treatments did not decline; hexanal content and staleness scores remained low throughout storage. Slick mouthfeel and metallic aftertaste were less for turkey with the antioxidant combination than with 0.5% STP. In pork, STP alone at 0.3% adequately prevented oxidative flavor changes. ,-Tocopherol, when used with STP, provided no additional effect. [source]


    Cholesterol and Lipid Oxidation Products in Cooked Meat as Affected by Raw-Meat Packaging and Irradiation and by Cooked-Meat Packaging and Storage Time

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 9 2001
    M. Du
    ABSTRACT: Aerobic packaging significantly increased cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in cooked turkey, pork, and beef patties after 7-d storage, but vacuum packaging was very effective in preventing cholesterol and lipid oxidation. Packaging of meat after cooking had a much stronger effect on COPs formation than before cooking, and irradiation had only a minor effect. The amount of total COPs correlated well with TBARS in cooked meat. Turkey had the highest rates of COPs and TBARS formation and beef had the lowest rates after 7-d storage, which were closely related to the fatty acid composition of meats. 7a-hydroxycholesterol, 7p-hydroxycholesterol, and 7-ketocholesterol were the major COPs detected in all 3 cooked meat patties. [source]


    Thermal Inactivation Kinetics of Salmonella and Listeria in Ground Chicken Breast Meat and Liquid Medium

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 4 2000
    R.Y. Murphy
    ABSTRACT: Thermal inactivation of Listeria innocua and 6 Salmonella serotypes in ground chicken breast meat was compared to that in peptone (0.1%) - agar (0.1%) solution. Inoculated samples were packed in a thin-wall metal tube and submerged in a water bath at temperatures ranging from 55.0 to 70.0 C. For Salmonella and Listeria, the D values in ground chicken breast meat at 55 to 70 C were higher (p < 0.0001) than those in peptone-agar solution; however, the z values were not significantly different. Complete first-order inactivation models, with Arrhenius temperature dependency, were developed for each inoculum and medium. [source]


    Nondestructive Assessment of Lipid Oxidation in Minced Poultry Meat by Autofluorescence Spectroscopy

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 1 2000
    J.P. Wold
    ABSTRACT: To develop a rapid method to assess lipid oxidation, autofluorescence spectra (excitation wavelengths 365, 380, and 400 nm) from large samples (17 cm2) of minced poultry meat were collected by an optical system to determine directly lipid oxidation level. The same samples were also measured by 2-thiobarbituric acid method (TBARS). High correlations could be made between the TBARS method and autofluorescence spectra, especially those from 380 nm excitation. Partial least squares regression resulted in a root mean square error of 0.15 (R = 0.87) for chicken meat and 0.24 (R = 0.80) for mechanically recovered turkey meat. Classification analysis between fresh (TBARS < 0.25) and rancid (TBARS > 0.25) samples was done with high success rates. Autofluorescence spectroscopy might be well suited for rapid on-line determination of lipid oxidation level in minced poultry meat. [source]