Math Scores (math + score)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Dynamic treatment effect analysis of TV effects on child cognitive development

Fali Huang
We investigate whether TV watching at ages 6,7 and 8,9 affects cognitive development measured by math and reading scores at ages 8,9, using a rich childhood longitudinal sample from NLSY79. Dynamic panel data models are estimated to handle the unobserved child-specific factor, endogeneity of TV watching, and dynamic nature of the causal relation. A special emphasis is placed on the last aspect, where TV watching affects cognitive development, which in turn affects future TV watching. When this feedback occurs, it is not straightforward to identify and estimate the TV effect. We develop a two-stage estimation method which can deal with the feedback feature; we also apply the ,standard' econometric panel data approaches. Overall, for math score at ages 8,9, we find that watching TV during ages 6,7 and 8,9 has a negative total effect, mostly due to a large negative effect of TV watching at the younger ages 6,7. For reading score, there is evidence that watching no more than 2 hours of TV per day has a positive effect, whereas the effect is negative outside this range. In both cases, however, the effect magnitudes are economically small. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Developing math automaticity using a classwide fluency building procedure for middle school students: A preliminary study

Philip K. Axtell
To investigate the influence of an innovative math fluency intervention, 36 middle-school students were randomly assigned to either an experimental (the Detect, Practice, Repair [DPR]) or control condition (reading intervention). After covarying pretest scores, the DPR treatment produced a significantly higher (p = .016) adjusted mean (M) math score (M = 47.53, standard deviation [SD] = 3.26) for the intervention group when compared to the control group (M = 33.31, SD = 4.39). The intervention is described so that teachers and consulting school psychologists can implement the steps for individuals or groups (e.g., in a multitiered response to intervention model). 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Brain Microstructure Is Related to Math Ability in Children With Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 2 2010
Catherine Lebel
Background:, Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) often demonstrate a variety of cognitive deficits, but mathematical ability seems to be particularly affected by prenatal alcohol exposure. Parietal brain regions have been implicated in both functional and structural studies of mathematical ability in healthy individuals, but little is known about the brain structure underlying mathematical deficits in children with FASD. The goal of this study was to use diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate the relationship between mathematical skill and brain white matter structure in children with FASD. Methods:, Twenty-one children aged 5 to 13 years diagnosed with FASD underwent DTI on a 1.5-T MRI scanner and cognitive assessments including the Woodcock-Johnson Quantitative Concepts test. Voxel-based analysis was conducted by normalizing subject images to a template and correlating fractional anisotropy (FA) values across the brain white matter with age-standardized math scores. Results:, Voxel-based analysis revealed 4 clusters with significant correlations between FA and math scores: 2 positively-correlated clusters in the left parietal region, 1 positively-correlated cluster in the left cerebellum, and 1 negatively-correlated cluster in the bilateral brainstem. Diffusion tractography identified the specific white matter tracts passing through these clusters, namely the left superior longitudinal fasciculus, left corticospinal tract and body of the corpus callosum, middle cerebellar peduncle, and bilateral projection fibers including the anterior and posterior limbs of the internal capsule. Conclusions:, These results identify 4 key regions related to mathematical ability and provide a link between brain microstructure and cognitive skills in children with FASD. Given previous findings in typically developing children and those with other abnormal conditions, our results highlight the consistent importance of the left parietal area for mathematical tasks across various populations, and also demonstrate other regions that may be specific to mathematical processing in children with FASD. [source]

Women, the labor market, and the declining relative quality of teachers

Sean P. Corcoran
School officials and policymakers have grown increasingly concerned about their ability to attract and retain talented teachers. A number of authors have shown that in recent years the brightest students,at least those with the highest verbal and math scores on standardized tests,are less likely to enter teaching. In addition, it is frequently claimed that the ability of schools to attract these top students has been steadily declining for years. There is, however, surprisingly little evidence measuring the extent to which this popular proposition is true. We have good reason to suspect that the quality of those entering teaching has fallen over time. Teaching has for years remained a predominately female profession; at the same time, the employment opportunities for talented women outside teaching have soared. In this paper, we combine data from five longitudinal surveys of high school graduates spanning the classes of 1957 to 1992 to examine how the propensity for talented women to enter teaching has changed over time. While the quality of the average new female teacher has fallen only slightly over this period, the likelihood that a female from the top of her high school class will eventually enter teaching has fallen dramatically. 2004 by the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management. [source]