Maternal Toxicity (maternal + toxicity)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Antiandrogenic effects of dibutyl phthalate and its metabolite, monobutyl phthalate, in rats

Makoto Ema
ABSTRACT, Developmental toxicity following administration of dibutyl phthalate (DBF) and its major metabolite, monobutyl phthalate (MBuP), by gavage was determined in Wistar rats. DBF on days 0,8 of pregnancy induced an increase in the incidence of preimplantation loss at 1250 mg/kg and higher and postimplantation loss at 750 mg/kg and higher. MBuP on days 0,8 of pregnancy produced an increase in the incidence of pre-and postimplantation loss at 1000 mg/kg. DBF on days 7,15 of pregnancy caused an increase in the incidence of fetuses with malformations at 750 mg/kg. MBuP on days 7,15 of pregnancy produced an increased incidence of fetuses with malformations at 500 mg/kg and higher. DBF on days 15,17 of pregnancy resulted in a decrease in the anogenital distance (AGD) of male fetuses and increase in the incidence of fetuses with undescended testes at 500 mg/kg and higher. MBuP on days 15,17 of pregnancy caused a decreased male AGD and increased incidence of fetuses with undescended testes at 250 mg/kg and higher. No effect of DBF and MBuP on the AGD was found in female offspring. The spectrum of fetal malformations, dependence of gestational days of treatment on the manifestation of teratogenicity, and alterations in development of the male reproductive system observed after administration of DBF were in good agreement with those observed after administration of MBuP. These findings suggest that MBuP may be responsible for the induction of developmental toxic effects of DBP. The doses that produced a decrease in the AGD and undescended testes in male offspring were lower than those producing maternal toxicity, fetal malformations after administration during major organogenesis, and embryonic loss. The male reproductive system may be more susceptible than other organ systems to DBP and MBuP toxicity after maternal exposure. [source]

Developmental toxicity evaluation of inhaled tertiary amyl methyl ether in mice and rats

Frank Welsch
Abstract This evaluation was part of a much more comprehensive testing program to characterize the mammalian toxicity potential of the gasoline oxygenator additive tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME), and was initiated upon a regulatory agency mandate. A developmental toxicity hazard identi,cation study was conducted by TAME vapor inhalation exposure in two pregnant rodent species. Timed-pregnant CD(Sprague-Dawley) rats and CD-1 mice, 25 animals per group, inhaled TAME vapors containing 0, 250, 1500 or 3500 ppm for 6 h a day on gestational days 6,16 (mice) or 6,19 (rats). The developmental toxicity hazard potential was evaluated following the study design draft guidelines and end points proposed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Based on maternal body weight changes during pregnancy, the no-observable-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) was 250 ppm for maternal toxicity in rats and 1500 ppm for developmental toxicity in rats using the criterion of near-term fetal body weights. In mice, more profound developmental toxicity was present than in rats, at both 1500 and 3500 ppm. At the highest concentration, mouse litters revealed more late fetal deaths, signi,cantly reduced fetal body weights per litter and increased incidences of cleft palate (classi,ed as an external malformation), as well as enlarged lateral ventricles of the cerebrum (a visceral variation). At 1500 ppm, mouse fetuses also exhibited an increased incidence of cleft palate and the dam body weights were reduced. Therefore, the NOAEL for the mouse maternal and developmental toxicity was 250 ppm under the conditions of this study. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Antiproliferative effect of Scutellaria barbata D. Don. on cultured human uterine leiomyoma cells by down-regulation of the expression of Bcl-2 protein

Kyung-Woon Kim
Abstract Scutellaria barbata D. Don (Lamiaceae; SB) inhibited the growth of leiomyomal cells (LM). A time-dependent antiproliferative effect was noted when 10,5m buserelin, gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist or 20,40 g/mL SB was added. The inhibition of cell growth decreased with the addition of the PKC activator (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbor-13-acetate; TPA) much as it did with the addition of SB, and the decreases in the viable cells caused by the addition of SB were reversed completely by pretreatment with a protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor (calphostin C). The findings suggest that SB inhibits cell proliferation in cultured human uterine leiomyoma cells accompanied by PKC activation. Next, the study investigated the effect of SB on fetal development for toxicity. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats, from gestation day 6,15, were administered 20 g/L or 50 g/L SB in the drinking water and then killed on day 20. No maternal toxicity was observed, however, embryonic loss in the treatment groups was double that of the controls (p < 0.05). No gross morphologic malformations were seen in the treated fetuses. Fetuses exposed to SB were found to be significantly heavier than the controls, an effect that was greater in female fetuses and was not correlated with increased placental size. The results suggest that the SB had no toxicity and that in utero exposure to SB resulted in increased early embryo loss with increased growth in surviving fetuses. On the other hand, Western blot analyses revealed that Bcl-2 protein of a 26 kDa was abundant in leiomyomal cells, but not in normal myometrial cells. The addition of progesterone (100 ng/mL) resulted in a striking increase in Bcl-2 protein expression in the cultured leiomyoma cells. However, the addition of SB (20 g/mL) resulted in a significant reduction in Bcl-2 protein expression in the cells. The results indicated that human uterine leiomyomal cells express Bcl-2 protein and progesterone enhances its expression, however, SB reduces the expression of Bcl-2 protein in human uterine leiomyoma cells. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Developmental toxicity evaluation of ELF magnetic fields in Sprague,Dawley rats

Moon-Koo Chung
Abstract To identify possible effects of horizontally polarized magnetic field (MF) exposure on maintenance of pregnancy and embryo-fetal development, an MF exposure system was designed and constructed and 96 time-mated female Sprague,Dawley (SD) rats (24/group) received continuous exposure to 60 Hz MF at field strengths of 0 (sham control) and 5, 83.3, or 500 ,T (50, 833, or 5000 mG). Dams received MF or sham exposures for 22 h/day on gestational day 6,20. MF was monitored continuously throughout the study. There were no evidences of maternal toxicity or developmental toxicity in any MF exposed groups. Mean maternal body weight, organ weights, and hematological and serum biochemical parameters in groups exposed to MF did not differ from those in sham control. No exposure related differences in fetal deaths, fetal body weight, and placental weight were observed between MF exposed groups and sham control. External, visceral, and skeletal examination of fetuses demonstrated no significant differences in the incidence of fetal malformations between MF exposed and sham control groups. In conclusion, exposure of pregnant rats to 60 Hz at MF strengths up to 500 ,T during gestation day 6,20 did not produce any biologically significant effect in either dams or fetuses. Bioelectromagnetics 24:231-240, 2003. 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]