Maternal Origin (maternal + origin)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts


EVOLUTION, Issue 5 2004
M. Alice Pinto
Abstract The invasion of Africanized honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) in the Americas provides a window of opportunity to study the dynamics of secondary contact of subspecies of bees that evolved in allopatry in ecologically distinctive habitats of the Old World. We report here the results of an 11-year mitochondrial DNA survey of a feral honeybee population from southern United States (Texas). The mitochondrial haplotype (mitotype) frequencies changed radically during the 11-year study period. Prior to immigration of Africanized honeybees, the resident population was essentially of eastern and western European maternal ancestry. Three years after detection of the first Africanized swarm there was a mitotype turnover in the population from predominantly eastern European to predominantly A. m. scutellata (ancestor of Africanized honeybees). This remarkable change in the mitotype composition coincided with arrival of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor, which was likely responsible for severe losses experienced by colonies of European ancestry. From 1997 onward the population stabilized with most colonies of A. m. scutellata maternal origin. [source]

Evidence for allergen-specific IgE of maternal origin in human placenta

ALLERGY, Issue 6 2009
M. Joerink
Background:, Immunoglobulin E (IgE) has been identified on macrophage-like cells in the villi of human placenta, irrespective of the serum IgE levels or allergy status of the mother. The origin of placental IgE is debated and it is not known if it is spontaneously produced, so-called ,natural IgE', or if it has any specificity for certain allergens. The aim of this study was to investigate if placental IgE originates from mother or child and to analyse its specificity. Methods:, Immunoglobulin E was eluted from placenta by lowering the pH. Total and allergen-specific IgEs were measured in placenta eluate, maternal and cord blood plasma by means of ImmunoCAP (Phadia AB). The levels of natural antibodies were determined with an anti-phosphorylcholine (PC) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, as natural IgE has been shown in one previous publication with this assay. Results:, Detectable amounts of IgE were eluted from 11/12 full-term placentas. Natural (anti-PC) IgE antibodies were detected in low amounts in maternal plasma but not in the placental eluate or in cord blood plasma. There was a significant correlation between the amount of total IgE eluted from placenta and the levels of total IgE in maternal plasma; however, not between maternal and cord blood plasma. Allergen-specific IgE was only found in placental eluates from mothers with specific IgE towards these allergens. Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between the amount of allergen-specific IgE eluted from placenta and the levels of allergen-specific IgE in maternal plasma. Allergen-specific IgE could not be detected in cord blood. Conclusion:, These results suggest a maternal origin of placental IgE, which can be allergen-specific. [source]

Estimation of the seed dispersal kernel from exact identification of source plants

Abstract The exact identification of individual seed sources through genetic analysis of seed tissue of maternal origin has recently brought the full analytical potential of parentage analysis to the study of seed dispersal. No specific statistical methodology has been described so far, however, for estimation of the dispersal kernel function from categorical maternity assignment. In this study, we introduce a maximum-likelihood procedure to estimate the seed dispersal kernel from exact identification of seed sources. Using numerical simulations, we show that the proposed method, unlike other approaches, is independent of seed fecundity variation, yielding accurate estimates of the shape and range of the seed dispersal kernel under varied sampling and dispersal conditions. We also demonstrate how an obvious estimator of the dispersal kernel, the maximum-likelihood fit of the observed distribution of dispersal distances to seed traps, can be strongly biased due to the spatial arrangement of seed traps relative to source plants. Finally, we illustrate the use of the proposed method with a previously published empirical example for the animal-dispersed tree species Prunus mahaleb. [source]

Prenatal diagnosis of de novo t(2;18;14)(q33.1;q12.2;q31.2), dup(5)(q34q34), del(7)(p21.1p21.1), and del(10)(q25.3q25.3) and a review of the prenatally ascertained de novo apparently balanced complex and multiple chromosomal rearrangements

Chih-Ping Chen
Abstract Objectives To present the prenatal diagnosis of a de novo complex chromosomal rearrangement (CCR) associated with de novo interstitial deletions and duplication and to review the literature. Case and Methods Amniocentesis was performed at 18 weeks' gestation because of an increased risk for Down syndrome based on maternal serum ,-fetoprotein and human chorionic gonadotrophin screening. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 46,XY,t(2;18;14)(q33.1;q12.2;q31.2),dup(5)(q34q34),del(7)(p21.1p21.1), del(10)(q25.3q25.3). The parental karyotypes were normal. The pregnancy was terminated. The fetus manifested facial dysmorphism, clinodactyly of both hands, and hypoplasia of the left great toe. Spectral karyotyping (SKY), cytogenetic polymorphism, and polymorphic DNA markers were used to investigate the imbalances and the origin of the de novo aberrant chromosomes. Results SKY showed a three-way CCR. Cytogenetic polymorphism investigation of the derivative chromosome 14 of the fetus and the parental chromosomes 14 determined the maternal origin of the translocation. Polymorphic DNA marker analysis confirmed the maternal origin of the de novo interstitial deletions and duplication. No cryptic imbalance at or near the breakpoints of the CCR was detected by the molecular analysis. Conclusions De novo apparently balanced CCRs may be associated with imbalances in other chromosomes. We suggest further investigation and re-evaluation of cryptic or subtle imbalances in all cases classified as de novo apparently balanced CCRs. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Second-trimester diagnosis of complete trisomy 9 associated with abnormal maternal serum screen results, open sacral spina bifida and congenital diaphragmatic hernia, and review of the literature

Chih-Ping Chen
Abstract Objectives To present the prenatal diagnosis of complete trisomy 9 and to review the literature Case A 25-year-old primigravida woman was referred for amniocentesis at 19 weeks' gestation because of abnormal maternal screen results showing an elevated maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) level and a low maternal serum free ,-human chorionic gonadotrophin (MSfree,-hCG) level. Results Genetic amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 47,XX,+9 in the amniocytes and an elevated amniotic fluid AFP level. Ultrasonography demonstrated intrauterine growth restriction, left congenital diaphragmatic hernia, fetal ascites, a sacral spina bifida, a horseshoe kidney, and absence of amniotic fluid. Ultrafast magnetic resonance imaging scans further depicted detailed anatomical configurations of the major congenital malformations. The pregnancy was terminated subsequently. The proband postnatally manifested characteristic facial dysmorphism, limb deformities, and an open sacral spina bifida with myelomeningocele. Cytogenetic analysis of the skin fibroblasts revealed a karyotype of 47,XX,+9. Molecular studies of various uncultured fetal tissues using microsatellite markers confirmed a diagnosis of complete trisomy 9 resulting from a meiotic I nondisjunction error of maternal origin. Conclusion Complete trisomy 9 can be identified prenatally with advanced maternal age, sonographically detected fetal structural abnormalities, and abnormal maternal serum screen results. Fetuses with complete trisomy 9 may be associated with congenital diaphragmatic hernia, an open sacral spina bifida, elevated MSAFP, and low MSfree,-hCG. We suggest detailed prenatal imaging investigations and genetic analyses of multiple fetal tissues when a prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 9 is made. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Prenatal diagnosis of mosaic ring chromosome 22 associated with cardiovascular abnormalities and intrauterine growth restriction

Chih-Ping Chen
Abstract Objectives To present the prenatal diagnosis and perinatal findings of mosaic ring chromosome 22. Case Amniocentesis was performed at 18 gestational weeks because of an advanced maternal age. Cytogenetic analysis of the cultured amniotic fluid cells revealed mosaicism for ring chromosome 22, 45,XX,-22[6]/46,XX,r(22)(p13q13.31)[15]. Abnormal fetal sonographic findings included small for gestational age, a ventricular septal defect, and truncus arteriosus. The pregnancy was terminated. Additional phenotypic findings included hypertelorism, epicanthal folds, and abnormal ears. Cytogenetic analysis of the cord blood lymphocytes revealed a complex mosaic karyotype, 45,XX,-22[7]/46,XX,r(22)(p13q13.31)[82]/46,XX,idic r(22)(p13q13.31;p13q13.31)[11]. Cytogenetic analysis of the hepatocytes also revealed mosaic r(22) with mosaicism for idic r(22) and monosomy 22. The deletion of distal 22q and the duplication of 22q11.2 on idic r(22), and the distal 22q deletion on r(22) were demonstrated by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis using 22q terminal probes at 22q13 and a DiGeorge syndrome critical region probe at 22q11.2. The breakpoint on distal 22q13 and the extent of the duplication of 22q on idic r(22) was determined by examining polymorphic markers specific for chromosome 22 using quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction assays. The chromosomal aberration was of maternal origin. Conclusion Molecular and FISH studies allow a better delineation of some prenatally detected aneuploidy syndromes and help elucidate the genetic pathogenesis. Fetuses having mosaic r(22) with a low level mosaicism for r(22) duplication/deletion may present cardiovascular abnormalities and intrauterine growth restriction on prenatal ultrasound. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Maternal uniparental isodisomy 10 and mosaicism for an additional marker chromosome derived from the paternal chromosome 10 in a fetus

Monika Schlegel
Abstract An Erratum has been published for this article in Prenatal Diagnosis 22(11) 2002: 1056. We report a case of maternal isodisomy 10 combined with mosaic partial trisomy 10 (p12.31-q11.1). Chromosome examinations from a CVS sample showed a karyotype 47,XY,+mar/46,XY. The additional marker chromosome which was present in 6/25 interphase nuclei was shown by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to have been derived from a pericentromeric segment of chromosome 10. DNA analysis was performed from umbilical cord blood from the fetus after termination of the pregnancy at 18 weeks. The results showed that the two structurally normal chromosomes 10 were both of maternal origin, whereas the marker chromosome derived from the father. Autopsy of the fetus revealed hypoplasia of heart, liver, kidneys and suprarenal glands, but, apart from a right bifid ureter, no structural organ abnormalities. This fetus represents the second reported instance of a maternal uniparental disomy (UPD) 10. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Microsatellite analysis in Turner syndrome: Parental origin of X chromosomes and possible mechanism of formation of abnormal chromosomes

Nancy Monroy
Abstract Turner syndrome is a chromosomal disorder in which all or part of one X chromosome is missing. The meiotic or mitotic origin of most cases remains unknown due to the difficulty in detecting hidden mosaicism and to the lack of meiotic segregation studies. We analyzed 15 Turner patients, 10 with a 45,X whereas the rest had a second cell line with abnormal X-chromosomes: a pseudodicentric, an isochromosome, one large and one small ring, and the last with a long arm deletion. Our aims were: to detect X cryptic mosaicism in patients with a 45,X constitution; to determine the parental origin of the abnormality; to infer the zygotic origin of the karyotype and to suggest the timing and mechanism of the error(s) leading to the formation of abnormal X chromosomes from maternal origin. Molecular investigation did not revealed heterozygosity for any microsatellite, excluding X mosaicism in the 45,X cases. Parental origin of the single X chromosome was maternal in 90% of these patients. Three of the structurally abnormal Xs were maternally derived whereas the other two were paternal. These results allowed us to corroborate breakpoints in these abnormal X chromosomes and suggest that the pseudodicentric chromosome originated from post-zygotic sister chromatid exchange, whereas the Xq deleted chromosome probably arose after a recombination event during maternal meiosis. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Origin of Hungarian indigenous chicken breeds inferred from mitochondrial DNA D-loop sequences

T. Revay
Summary In this study, we assessed the maternal origin of six Hungarian indigenous chicken breeds using mitochondrial DNA information. Sequences of Hungarian chickens were compared with the D-loop chicken sequences annotated in the GenBank and to nine previously described reference haplotypes representing the main haplogroups of chicken. The first 530 bases of the D-loop region were sequenced in 74 chickens of nine populations. Eleven haplotypes (HIC1 - HIC11) were observed from 17 variable sites. Three sequences (HIC3, HIC8 and HIC9) of our chickens were found as unique to Hungary when searched against the NCBI GenBank database. Hungarian domestic chicken mtDNA sequences could be assigned into three clades and probably two maternal lineages. Results indicated that 86% of the Hungarian haplotypes are related to the reference sequence that likely originated from the Indian subcontinent, while the minor part of our sequences presumably derive from South East Asia, China and Japan. [source]

Genetic differentiation in pointing dog breeds inferred from microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA sequence

D. Parra
Summary Recent studies presenting genetic analysis of dog breeds do not focus specifically on genetic relationships among pointing dog breeds, although hunting was among the first traits of interest when dogs were domesticated. This report compares histories with genetic relationships among five modern breeds of pointing dogs (English Setter, English Pointer, Epagneul Breton, Deutsch Drahthaar and German Shorthaired Pointer) collected in Spain using mitochondrial, autosomal and Y-chromosome information. We identified 236 alleles in autosomal microsatellites, four Y-chromosome haplotypes and 18 mitochondrial haplotypes. Average FST values were 11.2, 14.4 and 13.1 for autosomal, Y-chromosome microsatellite markers and mtDNA sequence respectively, reflecting relatively high genetic differentiation among breeds. The high gene diversity observed in the pointing breeds (61.7,68.2) suggests contributions from genetically different individuals, but that these individuals originated from the same ancestors. The modern English Setter, thought to have arisen from the Old Spanish Pointer, was the first breed to cluster independently when using autosomal markers and seems to share a common maternal origin with the English Pointer and German Shorthaired Pointer, either via common domestic breed females in the British Isles or through the Old Spanish Pointer females taken to the British Isles in the 14th and 16th centuries. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequence indicates the isolation of the Epagneul Breton, which has been formally documented, and shows Deutsch Drahthaar as the result of crossing the German Shorthaired Pointer with other breeds. Our molecular data are consistent with historical documents. [source]

Phylogenetic analysis for the Seoul National University (Minnesota) miniature pig by mitochondrial DNA sequence polymorphism

Su-Cheong YEOM
ABSTRACT Seoul National University (SNU) miniature pigs are originated from the Minnesota miniature pig. This study was conducted to investigate the maternal origin of SNU (Minnesota) miniature pigs and their phylogenetic relationships by analyzing the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop (control region) sequence. Two mtDNA D-loop sequences of the SNU miniature pigs were identified. On an unweighted pair-group method with an arithmetic mean (UPGMA) phylogenetic tree analysis, the large white was the pig breed closest to the SNU miniature pig, and the pairwise distance analysis showed the same result. While mtDNA sequences of 4 pig breeds which were used to establish Minnesota miniature pig were not known, our result might be different from the history of the Minnesota miniature pig development. In conclusion, we thought that some haplotypes of the Minnesota miniature pig maternally were originated from the Large white pig, or that wild pigs had similar mtDNA sequences to the Large white pig, and all SNU miniature pigs were derived from this colony. [source]

Analysis of Dystrophin Gene Deletions Indicates that the Hinge III Region of the Protein Correlates with Disease Severity

A. Carsana
Summary We have investigated the frequency of deletions in the dystrophin gene in 108 unrelated Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD/BMD) patients from southern Italy (DMD, n. 47; BMD, n. 61) and identified 89 deletions. The de novo mutation rate (about 30%), and the preferentially maternal origin of deletional mutations, analysed in families in which the maternal grandparents were available or their haplotypes could be unequivocally reconstructed, are in agreement with data reported for other populations. The correlation between BMD phenotype and type of deletion suggests that, in the distal rod domain region, the deletion size may not be as crucial as the particular combination of missing exons. In fact, we provide immunohistochemical and clinical evidence that in-frame deletion of the hinge III region in the distal rod domain results in a milder phenotype as compared with shorter deletions that do not include the hinge III region. Our data obtained in BMD patients, by confirming inferences arising from minigene transfection experiments in mdx mice, represent an important contribution to gene therapy approaches. [source]

Maternal variation in juvenile survival and growth of triploid hybrids between female rainbow trout and male brown trout and brook charr

J M Blanc
Abstract Related sib-groups of rainbow trout × brown trout and rainbow trout × brook charr triploid hybrids and monospecific diploid and triploid rainbow trout controls were obtained from a common set of rainbow trout dams. On the basis of hybrid juvenile performances, 10 sib-groups were selected and the corresponding diploid rainbow trouts were raised up to adult stage. Females from each group of rainbow trout were used to produce a second generation of hybrid progeny, the performances of which were analysed for grandmaternal variation and relation with first-generation relatives. Results showed that hybrid traits (alevin yield and weight, survival and growth of fingerlings) were strongly influenced by maternal origin, and could be correlated to those of rainbow trout controls, but that maternal abilities had a low rate of inheritance. It was concluded that little improvement can be expected through selective breeding within parental populations. [source]

The nucleolus of the maternal gamete is essential for life

BIOESSAYS, Issue 7 2008
Brigitte Lefèvre
The mammalian oocyte is a round cell arrested at prophase I of meiosis. It is characterized by the presence of a large nucleus, called the germinal vesicle, in the middle of which is the nucleolus. Before it can be fertilized, the oocyte must resume meiosis, enter metaphase II and be ovulated. The nucleolus is dissolved during this process. However, the nucleoli of the male and female pronuclei in the zygote are both of maternal origin. A recent paper1 demonstrates that the maternal nucleolus, together with other nucleoplasmic elements, is essential for early embryonic development. These nucleolar and nucleoplasmic factors remain undetermined. BioEssays 30:613,616, 2008. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]