Maternal Nutritional Status (maternal + nutritional_status)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Effects of supplemental L-methionine on E-64 [trans-epoxysuccinyl-1-leucyl-amido (4-guanido) butane]-induced dysmorphology in rat embryos cultured in vitro

Kouichi Yoshidome
ABSTRACT E-64 [trans-epoxysuccinyl-1-leucylamido (4-guanido) butane] is teratogenic, inducing a spectrum of malformations in vivo and producing similar effects in vitro. Numerous studies support the concept that E-64-induced malformations result from embryonic nutritional deficiency, without affecting the maternal nutritional status. This has provided a useful model with which to investigate the nutritional requirements of the early embryo, as well as the role of various nutrients in the etiology of congenital defects. In the current investigation, we examined effects of L-methionine on E-64-induced embryotoxicity in vitro. For these experiments, we cultured rat embryos 9.5 days postconception (p.c.) for 48 hours with E-64 and/or L-methionine. We found that the addition of L-methionine to E-64-exposed cultures reduced optic abnormality and increased embryo protein. These results suggest that embryopathy largely results from a deficiency of L-methionine although E-64 limits the supply of all amino acids to the embryo. Furthermore, although endocytosis and degradation of proteins by the visceral yolk sac (VYS) supply most amino acids to the embryo, free amino acids may be compensatory when this source is reduced. These results support those of previous investigations that suggest L-methionine is a limiting nutrient for embryonic development. [source]

Factors influencing twins and zygosity

Gary V. D. Hankins
Summary Zygosity is influenced by many factors. Monozygotic twins occur spontaneously in approximately 1 in 250 births and are felt to increase twofold with ovulation induction techniques. Monozygotic twinning also increases in proportion to the number of blastocysts transferred during in vitro fertilisation. In contrast, dizygotic twinning appears to be influenced by race, genetic factors, maternal age, fertility enhancing drugs, folic acid supplementation, and maternal nutritional status. [source]

Maternal work and childhood nutritional status among the Purari, Papua New Guinea

Stanley J. Ulijaszek
In traditional economies, body size, physical work capacity, subsistence productivity, and nutrition of adults may be interrelated, and one cross-generational effect of these relationships may operate through the household, influencing nutritional status of children. In this analysis, the relationships among adult body size, work productivity in terms of time spent making sago starch, dietary diversity, nutrient availability, and childhood nutritional status are examined in the Purari population of Papua New Guinea, a group largely dependent on the starchy staple palm sago, which is devoid of all nutrients apart from energy. Observations of work scheduling, household food and nutrient availability, and nutritional status were carried out for 16 women, their households, and their children. A multiple regression model of hours spent in sago making on a particular day with days spent in other subsistence activities showed a negative relationship with the number of days spent in sago-making and a positive relationship with the number of days spent fishing. The number of hours spent in sago-making on a particular day was also positively related to daily per capita availability of protein at the household level. This is not a function of maternal nutritional status, however, since there is no association between body size of adult females and the number of hours spent making sago on a particular day. Nor does the greater per capita protein availability at the household level in households where women spend longer on a particular day in sago-making result in improved childhood nutritional status. Since relationships among adult body size, work productivity, dietary diversity, nutrient availability, and childhood nutritional status are only partially demonstrated in this population, it may be that these linkages may only be important if physically arduous work is needed more consistently than is the case in the Purari delta. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 15:472,478, 2003. 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

A test of three hypotheses for ovariole number determination in the grasshopper Romalea microptera

Ovariole number in insects determines potential fecundity and can be influenced by genes, environmental conditions during development and parental effects. In the present study, three hypotheses are tested for ovariole number determination in the grasshopper Romalea microptera (Beauvois), which exhibits both intra- and interpopulation variation in ovariole number. In hypothesis 1, variation in ovariole number is a result of genetic variation. In hypothesis 2, ovariole number is influenced by nutrition during development. In hypothesis 3, ovariole number is influenced by maternal nutritional status. Females from four treatments are compared: low-food, high-food, daughters of low-food, and daughters of high-food. There is a relationship between parent and offspring ovariole number despite different environments, supporting hypothesis 1. Also, ovariole numbers are slightly, but significantly lower in individuals fed a low-food diet compared with a high-food diet, supporting hypothesis 2. Hypothesis 3 is not supported: starved and well-fed females produce eggs of similar mass, as well as offspring with similar numbers of ovarioles, suggesting that the nutritional status of mothers does not influence offspring mass or offspring ovariole number. The results imply that genetic variation and developmental conditions determine ovariole number in this species but maternal environment does not. These results conflict with previous studies of ovariole determination in grasshoppers and locusts. [source]