Apple Breeding (apple + breeding)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Phenotypic Reaction and Genetic Analysis Using AFLP-derived SCARs for Resistance to Apple Scab

E. M. Huaracha
Abstract Six sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers linked to the apple scab resistance gene Vf were evaluated for their utility in marker-assisted selection (MAS) in apple breeding. Of the six SCARs used in this study, ACS-6 was located left of the Vf gene, ACS-7 and ACS-9 co-segregated with Vf, and ACS-8, ACS-4, ACS-5 were located right of the Vf gene. Three families derived from crosses between scab-resistant and scab-susceptible cultivars, including ,Liberty' ,Deljub', ,Liberty' ,Delcorf', and ,Florina' ,Delcorf', previously screened for scab resistance following greenhouse inoculation with the fungal pathogen Venturia inaequalis, were genotyped and compared with phenotypic reactions to scab infection in the field. For each family, a subset progeny of 30 seedlings (propagated onto Malling 9 rootstock and of 7 years old) was selected based on fungal sporulation according to the following scheme. Ten seedlings with no visible scab sporulation on leaves were given phenotypic scores of 0 (deemed resistant); 10 seedlings with moderate scab sporulation were given phenotypic scores of 1.0 (deemed moderately resistant); and 10 seedlings with heavy sporulation were given phenotypic scores of 2.0 (deemed susceptible). DNA was isolated from leaf tissue collected from all 90 seedlings, parents and Malus floribunda 821, the original source of the Vf gene, and screened with all six SCARs. All six SCARs were present in the two scab-resistant parents, ,Liberty' and ,Florina', and M. floribunda 821; while, the two scab-susceptible parents, ,Deljub' and ,Delcorf', lacked all SCARs. All SCARs were either present or absent in varying numbers of seedlings in each progeny with phenotypic ratings of either 0 (resistant) or 1.0 (moderately resistant); while all seedlings with phenotypic ratings of 2.0 (susceptible) lacked all SCARs. The inconsistencies between phenotypic scab ratings and SCAR marker data are discussed. [source]

Identification and molecular analysis of candidate genes homologous to HcrVf genes for scab resistance in apple

PLANT BREEDING, Issue 1 2009
A. Boudichevskaia
Abstract The genetic locus for resistance to apple scab most frequently used in apple breeding is Vf, derived from Malus floribunda 821. For the Vf locus a cluster of four resistance gene paralogs (called as HcrVf genes) encoding receptor-like proteins (RLP) with similarity to the tomato Cf resistance genes is known. Based on published sequences for HcrVf1 and HcrVf2 PCR primers were designed from the domain B and the variable leucine-rich repeat (LRR) C1 subdomain. PCR products with high amino acid identity (85,100%) to HcrVf1 and HcrVf2 were obtained not only from M. floribunda 821 and Vf cultivars but also from other apple scab resistance sources, such as ,Russian Seedling' R12740-7A (Vr resistance) or ,Antonovka polutorafuntovaya' (VA resistance). A series of 13 HcrVf candidate genes have been partly cloned from the PCR fragments spanning N-terminal LRRs 20,30. A considerable number of amino acid exchanges within the solvent-exposed xxLxLxx structural motives were detected among the homologous sequences. Expression analyses and mapping focused on a selected Vf- homologous candidate gene (called Vf2ARD) identified in resistant Malus genotypes known for carrying other scab resistance genes than Vf. RT-PCR experiments showed that Vf2ARD is expressed under pathogen-free conditions. The results of a quantitative PCR-based transcription profiling suggest that this gene is scab-inducible in some resistant cultivars. Vf2ARD has been mapped on linkage group LG 1. It is separated from the Vf gene cluster with a genetic distance of about 2 cM and might be a member of a second Vf - like locus on apple linkage group LG 1. [source]

Limited application of homozygous genotypes in apple breeding

PLANT BREEDING, Issue 4 2005
L. Vanwynsberghe
Abstract Apple is a temperate fruit species with several breeding disadvantages such as the highly heterozygous nature of the genome and a long reproductive cycle. It is expected that homozygous apple genotypes can increase breeding efficiency, but inbreeding is prevented by the gametophytic self-incompatibility mechanism. In this paper, the production and characterization of homozygous genotypes, generated from anther culture in Malus domestica cv. ,Braeburn', is described as well as their potential for use in breeding programmes. After determination of large scale anther culture efficiency, anther culture-derived genotypes were simple sequence repeat (SSR)-fingerprinted to determine their homozygous nature and confirm their androgenic origin. Their value for breeding was estimated based on growth and fertility measurements. The use of homozygous androgenic genotypes from ,Braeburn' in apple breeding programmes is currently not a realistic approach, partly because of the low efficiency of anther culture, but mainly because of the reduced vigour and severe sterility of the androgenic genotypes produced. [source]

Isolation of two microsatellite markers from BAC clones of the Vf scab resistance region and molecular characterization of scab-resistant accessions in Malus germplasm,

PLANT BREEDING, Issue 4 2004
B. A. Vinatzer
Abstract A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method was developed to isolate microsatellite markers from large-insert genomic DNA clones of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries. The method is fast and economic since it does not require subcloning. It was applied to isolate a microsatellite marker from a BAC clone of the chromosomal region containing the apple scab resistance gene Vf. The Vf gene of Malus floribunda 821 is the most widely used source of scab resistance in apple breeding. A second microsatellite was found on the extremity of a BAC clone flanking the Vf locus. The two microsatellites allowed the identification of the presence of the Vf gene in the scab-resistant accessions M. micromalus SA573-3, ,Golden Gem', M. prunifolia 19651 and MA 16 not previously known to carry this gene. They were also used to verify the correctness of the published genealogical tree of the Vf cultivar ,Florina', in which a probable mistake was identified. This analysis shows the importance of genotyping the Vf locus when choosing scab-resistant germplasm as parents in breeding programmes. [source]