Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Mass

  • abdominal mass
  • accurate mass
  • added mass
  • adipose mass
  • adnexal mass
  • adrenal mass
  • adult body mass
  • adult mass
  • air mass
  • apparent molecular mass
  • ash-free dry mass
  • atomic mass
  • atrial mass
  • average molecular mass
  • beta-cell mass
  • biofilm mass
  • birth mass
  • bite mass
  • black hole mass
  • body fat mass
  • body mass
  • bone mass
  • breast mass
  • buccal mass
  • calculated molecular mass
  • cardiac mass
  • cell mass
  • central mass
  • cervical mass
  • cluster mass
  • clutch mass
  • cm mass
  • critical mass
  • cystic mass
  • cystic renal mass
  • decreased bone mass
  • decreased fat mass
  • different mass
  • dry mass
  • dynamical mass
  • echogenic mass
  • effective mass
  • egg mass
  • electron effective mass
  • exact mass
  • fat free mass
  • fat mass
  • fat-free mass
  • feather mass
  • final mass
  • fine root mass
  • free mass
  • fresh mass
  • galaxy mass
  • gas mass
  • gland mass
  • gonad mass
  • greater mass
  • growing mass
  • halo mass
  • hepatic mass
  • herbage mass
  • heterogeneous mass
  • high molar mass
  • hole effective mass
  • hole mass
  • hypoechoic mass
  • ice mass
  • increased body mass
  • inflammatory mass
  • initial body mass
  • initial mass
  • inner cell mass
  • ion mass
  • islet mass
  • kg body mass
  • land mass
  • large body mass
  • large mass
  • leaf dry mass
  • leaf mass
  • lean body mass
  • lean mass
  • lean tissue mass
  • leave ventricular mass
  • litter mass
  • liver mass
  • low body mass
  • low bone mass
  • lower body mass
  • lower mass
  • lv mass
  • male mass
  • maternal mass
  • mean body mass
  • mean mass
  • mediastinal mass
  • mobile mass
  • molar mass
  • molecular mass
  • muscle mass
  • myocardial mass
  • neck mass
  • nestling mass
  • neutrino mass
  • nodular mass
  • nodule mass
  • painless mass
  • palpable breast mass
  • palpable mass
  • pancreatic mass
  • parotid mass
  • peak bone mass
  • peak mass
  • pectoral muscle mass
  • pelvic mass
  • peptide mass
  • plant dry mass
  • plant mass
  • polypoid mass
  • predicted molecular mass
  • primary mass
  • protein mass
  • pupal mass
  • relative molecular mass
  • renal mass
  • residual mass
  • retroperitoneal mass
  • right atrial mass
  • rock mass
  • root mass
  • same mass
  • sample mass
  • scrotal mass
  • sediment mass
  • seed mass
  • shell mass
  • shoot mass
  • similar mass
  • skeletal muscle mass
  • small mass
  • small renal mass
  • soft tissue mass
  • soft-tissue mass
  • soil mass
  • solar mass
  • solid mass
  • solid renal mass
  • star mass
  • stellar mass
  • subcutaneous mass
  • testicular mass
  • testis mass
  • thoracic mass
  • thyroid mass
  • tissue mass
  • total dry mass
  • total mass
  • trabecular bone mass
  • trunk fat mass
  • tumor mass
  • tumour mass
  • unit mass
  • ventricular mass
  • wall mass
  • water mass

  • Terms modified by Mass

  • mass accuracy
  • mass action
  • mass alone
  • mass analysis
  • mass analyzer
  • mass approximation
  • mass balance
  • mass balance calculation
  • mass balance equation
  • mass basis
  • mass casualty
  • mass change
  • mass communication
  • mass component
  • mass concentration
  • mass conservation
  • mass conservation equation
  • mass cultivation
  • mass culture
  • mass customization
  • mass damper
  • mass data
  • mass decrease
  • mass decreased
  • mass defect
  • mass density
  • mass dependence
  • mass destruction
  • mass detection
  • mass determination
  • mass difference
  • mass discrimination
  • mass distribution
  • mass effect
  • mass estimate
  • mass estimation
  • mass exchange
  • mass extinction
  • mass extinction event
  • mass fingerprint
  • mass fingerprinting
  • mass flow
  • mass flow rate
  • mass flowering crop
  • mass flux
  • mass fractal dimension
  • mass fraction
  • mass function
  • mass gain
  • mass growth
  • mass incarceration
  • mass increase
  • mass index
  • mass index standard deviation score
  • mass index value
  • mass killing
  • mass lesion
  • mass limit
  • mass loading
  • mass loss
  • mass m
  • mass mapping
  • mass market
  • mass matrix
  • mass measurement
  • mass measuring
  • mass media
  • mass migration
  • mass mortality
  • mass mortality event
  • mass movement
  • mass occurrence
  • mass output
  • mass peak
  • mass point
  • mass politics
  • mass poverty
  • mass production
  • mass public
  • mass range
  • mass ratio
  • mass recovery
  • mass reduction
  • mass relationships
  • mass removal
  • mass resolution
  • mass resolving power
  • mass screening
  • mass selection
  • mass separation
  • mass shift
  • mass size
  • mass spectral analysis
  • mass spectral data
  • mass spectrometer
  • mass spectrometric
  • mass spectrometric analysis
  • mass spectrometric characterization
  • mass spectrometric data
  • mass spectrometric detection
  • mass spectrometric experiment
  • mass spectrometric fragmentation
  • mass spectrometric investigation
  • mass spectrometric method
  • mass spectrometric methods
  • mass spectrometric result
  • mass spectrometric studies
  • mass spectrometric study
  • mass spectrometric technique
  • mass spectrometric techniques
  • mass spectrometry
  • mass spectrometry analysis
  • mass spectrometry approach
  • mass spectrometry data
  • mass spectrometry detection
  • mass spectrometry determination
  • mass spectrometry experiment
  • mass spectrometry imaging
  • mass spectrometry measurement
  • mass spectrometry method
  • mass spectrometry methods
  • mass spectrometry study
  • mass spectrometry system
  • mass spectrometry technique
  • mass spectrometry techniques
  • mass spectrometry technology
  • mass spectroscopy
  • mass spectrum
  • mass star
  • mass tag
  • mass transfer
  • mass transfer behavior
  • mass transfer characteristic
  • mass transfer coefficient
  • mass transfer efficiency
  • mass transfer kinetics
  • mass transfer limitation
  • mass transfer model
  • mass transfer parameter
  • mass transfer phenomenoN
  • mass transfer process
  • mass transfer property
  • mass transfer rate
  • mass transfer resistance
  • mass transport
  • mass transport coefficient
  • mass transport limitation
  • mass transport model
  • mass transport phenomenoN
  • mass transport process
  • mass trapping
  • mass unemployment
  • mass unit
  • mass vaccination
  • mass value
  • mass variation

  • Selected Abstracts

    The effect of tree height and light availability on photosynthetic leaf traits of four neotropical species differing in shade tolerance

    FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY, Issue 1 2000
    T. Rijkers
    Abstract 1.,Light-saturated rate of photosynthesis (Amax), nitrogen (N), chlorophyll (Chl) content and leaf mass per unit area (LMA) were measured in leaves of trees of different heights along a natural light gradient in a French Guiana rain forest. The following four species, arranged in order from most shade-tolerant to pioneer, were studied: Duguetia surinamensis, Vouacapoua americana, Dicorynia guianensis and Goupia glabra. Light availability of trees was estimated using hemispherical photography. 2.,The pioneer species Goupia had the lowest LMA and leaf N on both an area and mass basis, whereas Duguetia had the highest values. In general, leaf variables of Vouacapoua and Dicorynia tended to be intermediates. Because Amax/area was similar among species, Goupia showed both a much higher light-saturated photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency (PNUEmax) and Amax/mass. Leaves of Vouacapoua demonstrated the greatest plasticity in Amax/area, particularly in small saplings. 3.,A distinction could be made between the effect of tree height and light availability on the structural, i.e. LMA, and photosynthetic leaf characteristics of all four species. The direction and magnitude of the variation in variables were similar among species. 4.,LMA was the key variable that mainly determined variation in the other leaf variables along tree height and light availability gradients, with the exception of changes in chlorophyll concentration. Amax/area, N/area, LMA and stomatal conductance to water vapour (gs) increased, whereas Chl/mass decreased, with both increasing tree height and canopy openness. Amax/mass, PNUEmax and Amax/Chl increased with increasing openness only. N/mass and Chl/area were independent of tree height and openness, except for small saplings of Goupia which had a much lower Chl/area. [source]


    Mélissa Labonté Dtp
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Wing-Keung Cheung MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Ergun Seyfeli MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Issue 12 2008
    Esther M. Bonrath MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    BRAIN PATHOLOGY, Issue 3 2010
    Orna O'Toole
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    BRAIN PATHOLOGY, Issue 1 2010
    Kenta Masui MD
    First page of article [source]


    BRAIN PATHOLOGY, Issue 3 2009
    Benedetta Ludovica Pettorini MD
    First page of article [source]


    BRAIN PATHOLOGY, Issue 1 2009
    Gabrielle A. Yeaney MD
    First page of article [source]


    BRAIN PATHOLOGY, Issue 1 2008
    Article first published online: 22 JAN 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    BRAIN PATHOLOGY, Issue 1 2008
    Article first published online: 22 JAN 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    BRAIN PATHOLOGY, Issue 1 2008
    Rudi Beschorner
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    BRAIN PATHOLOGY, Issue 4 2005
    Piyali Pal MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    BRAIN PATHOLOGY, Issue 3 2005
    Azzam Ismail MD
    CASE OF THE MONTH: ABSTRACT January 2005. A boy aged 7 years was found to have a tumor arising from the roof of the fourth ventricle. Histopathologically, part of the tumor appeared as a PNET, while neuroglial tissue, striated and smooth muscle, cartilage and small glandular structures were present in other regions. Tumor cells in both primitive and mature elements showed a loss of chromosome 17p accompanied by a gain of 17q, a pattern consistent with the presence of an isochromosome 17q. This abnormality is not characteristic of intracranial germ cell tumors, but is present in over 30% of medulloblastomas. On the basis of the histologic and genetic abnormalities, we propose a diagnosis of PNET with multilineal differentiation. [source]

    Cor Triatriatum Sinister with and without Left Ventricular Inflow Obstruction: Visualization of the Entire Supravalvular Membrane by Real-time Three-dimensional Echocardiography.

    Impact on Clinical Management of Individual Patient
    ABSTRACT We present 4 cases of cor triatriatum in whom the diagnosis was correctly made by 2-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography, which showed the supravalvular left atrial membrane that divides the left atrium into 2 chambers. The pulmonary veins were connected normally to the proximal left atrial chamber and the left atrial appendage was connected to the distal left atrial chamber. In 1 patient there was evidence of severe pulmonary venous obstruction to the mitral valve by Doppler examination, while in the other three, there was no venous obstruction. Patients were then examined by real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE, using ×4 matrix array transducer connected to Sonos 7500 echocardiographic system Phillips, Andover, Mass, USA). This showed the exact morphology of the membrane and led to cancellation of planed surgical intervention in 1 case in which the membrane was only a broad band crossing the left atrial cavity. In addition to delineating the exact morphology of the intracavitary anomaly, this novel echocardiographic imaging modality should be an additive tool to better understand the natural history of these nonobstructive left atrial membranes via longitudinal follow-up of these patients. [source]

    Acinetobacter Endocarditis Presenting as a Large Right Atrial Mass: An Atypical Presentation

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 4 2010
    Sherrita Bhagan-Bruno M.D.
    This paper discusses a 26-year-old woman with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii complex endocarditis. The patient had an indwelling right internal jugular catheter that was probably the nidus of infection. Transthoracic echocardiogram revealed an atypical presentation of the endocarditis as a large intracardiac mass, measuring in centimeters and occupying more than 50% of the right atrial cavity. The mass was attached to the lateral wall of the right atrium without valvular involvement. The patient was treated with prompt removal of the indwelling catheter, intravenous antibiotics, and surgical resection of the mass with an uneventful recovery. A literature search for cases of "Acinetobacter endocarditis" reveals this as the first case reported of Acinetobacter endocarditis presenting in this manner. (Echocardiography 2010;27:E39-E42) [source]

    Overestimation of Left Ventricular Mass and Misclassification of Ventricular Geometry in Heart Failure Patients by Two-Dimensional Echocardiography in Comparison with Three-Dimensional Echocardiography

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 3 2010
    Dmitry Abramov M.D.
    Background: Accurate assessment of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and ventricular geometry is important, especially in patients with heart failure (HF). The aim of this study was to compare the assessment of ventricular size and geometry by 2D and 3D echocardiography in normotensive controls and among HF patients with a normal and a reduced ejection fraction. Methods: One hundred eleven patients, including 42 normotensive patients without cardiac disease, 41 hypertensive patients with HF and a normal ejection fraction (HFNEF), and 28 patients with HF and a low ejection fraction (HFLEF), underwent 2DE and freehand 3DE. The differences between 2DE and 3DE derived LVM were evaluated by use of a Bland,Altman plot. Differences in classification of geometric types among the cohort between 2DE and 3DE were determined. Results: Two-dimensional echocardiography overestimated ventricular mass compared to 3D echocardiography (3DE) among normal (166 ± 36 vs. 145 ± 20 gm, P = 0.002), HFNEF (258 ± 108 vs. 175 ± 47gm, P < 0.001), and HFLEF (444 ± 136 vs. 259 ± 77 gm, P < 0.001) patients. The overestimation of mass by 2DE increased in patients with larger ventricular size. The use of 3DE to assess ventricular geometry resulted in reclassification of ventricular geometric patterns in 76% of patients with HFNEF and in 21% of patients with HFLEF. Conclusion: 2DE overestimates ventricular mass when compared to 3DE among patients with heart failure with both normal and low ejection fractions and leads to significant misclassification of ventricular geometry in many heart failure patients. (Echocardiography 2010;27:223-229) [source]

    Echocardiographic Left Ventricular Mass in a Multiethnic Southeast Asian Population: Proposed New Gender and Age-Specific Norms

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 8 2008
    M.R.C.P., Raymond Ching-Chiew Wong M.B.B.S.
    Background: Left ventricular mass (LVM) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular outcome. We aimed to define normal reference values of LVM/body surface area (BSA) in a multiethnic Southeast Asian population across ages, and define demographic parameters that predict LVM/BSA. Methods: 198 subjects (44% men, mean age 40 ± 14 years, 82% Chinese, 13% Malay and 5% Indian) with no cardiovascular comorbidity and had normal echo images for age were included in the analysis. Echo LVM was calculated as: 1.04 ×[(left ventricular internal diameter at end-diastole {LVIDd}+ interventricular septal thickness at end-diastole {IVSd}+ left ventricular posterior wall thickness at end-diastole {LVPWd})3, LVIDd3× 0.8]+ 0.61, indexed by BSA (LVM/BSA)* and expressed as g/m2. Results: BSA and blood pressure (BP) were comparable between dichotomous age groups < or , 50 years within the same gender. Women aged , 50 years had larger IVSD, LVPWd, LVM and LVM/BSA compared to younger cohort. (p < 0.01 for all variables). The 95th percentile of LVM in men and women were 189 g and 148 g respectively; corresponding values for LVM/BSA were 106 and 96 g/m2. These values are consistently smaller than published values from the West. Age (r = 0.27, P < 0.001), gender (r =,0.30, P < 0.001), and systolic BP (r = 0.25, P = 0.003) were significant univariate predictors of LVM/BSA. Conclusion: We therefore propose a different cutoff value for the diagnosis of LV hypertrophy among Southeast Asians. [source]

    A Prominent Pectinate Muscle Mimicking a Pathological Cardiac Mass

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 6 2008
    Emine Bilen M.D.
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Unusual Left Atrial Appendage Mass: Atypical Presentation of Papillary Fibroelastoma

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 5 2008
    Miroslawa Jablonski-Cohen M.D.
    Papillary fibroelastomas are small, histologically benign neoplasms that are typically found on the valvular endocardium. We report a patient with a papillary fibroelastoma in an unusual location: the left atrial appendage. Although the mass was visualized both by computed tomography (CT) and transesophageal echocardiography, the diagnosis was histologically confirmed after surgical excision. [source]

    Assessment of the Vascularity of a Left Atrial Mass Using Myocardial Perfusion Contrast Echocardiography

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 5 2008
    Sahar S. Abdelmoneim M.D. M.Sc.
    Emerging applications of myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) include the evaluation of myocardial perfusion, the improvement of the definition of intracavitary structures, and evaluation of the relative perfusion of a cardiac mass. We present a case of a patient that was found incidentally to have a cardiac mass on transthoracic echocardiography. MCE was used to evaluate the vascularity of the mass. This case is compared with another patient with a left atrial thrombus, which represents an "avascular" cardiac mass by MCE. [source]

    Echocardiographic Assessment of Left Ventricular Mass in Neonatal and Adult Mice: Accuracy of Different Echocardiographic Methods

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 10 2006
    Alexander Ghanem M.D.
    Echocardiography is an established method to estimate left-ventricular mass (LVM) in mice. Accuracy is determined by cardiac size and morphology and influenced by mathematical models. We investigated accuracy of three common algorithms in three early developmental stages. High-resolution echocardiography was performed in 35 C57/BL6-mice. Therefore, two-dimensional-guided M-mode echocardiography and parasternal short- and long-axis views in B-mode were obtained. LVM was assessed in vivo applying Penn (P), Area Length (AL), and Truncated Ellipsoid (TE) algorithms and validated with histomorphometry. Regression analysis of all mice showed fair estimation of LVM assessed with M-mode-based Penn algorithm (y = 0.6*x , 0.12, r: 0.71). In contrast two-dimensional assessment of LVM revealed close linear relationship with histomorphometry (yAL= 1.21*x , 12.1, r: 0.88, yTE= 1.38*x , 2.88, r: 0.86). Bias was lowest for LVM-AL at diastole underestimating 3.2%. In concordance with the summarized data, LVM-P revealed lower regression coefficients and significant underestimation in all three subgroups. Small hearts (<50 mg, n = 12) correlated best with LVM-AL at systole. Hearts of adolescent (50,75 mg, n = 13) and adult (75,100 mg, n = 10) mice revealed close linear relationship with LVM-AL and LVM-TE at diastole. Echocardiographic assessment of LVM is feasible in hearts weighting less than 50 mg and can be estimated best in systole. Hearts weighting more than 50 mg are estimated most accurately by means of LVM-AL at diastole. [source]

    A Large Saphenous Vein Graft Aneurysm Presenting as a Right Atrial Mass: A Case Report

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 6 2006
    Shemy Carasso M.D.
    An aneurysm of a saphenous vein graft (SVG) is a rare but potentially fatal complication of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). We describe a case of a large SVG aneurysm (7 × 6 cm) compressing the right atrium. The patient presented with chest pain, dyspnea and desaturation, and a right intra-atrial mass was revealed on echocardiography. The differential diagnosis of intracardiac masses revealed by echocardiography should include extrinsic lesions. Due to its potential lethal complications, an SVG aneurysm should be considered in a post-CABG patient presenting with acute coronary syndrome or heart failure. [source]

    A Different Intracardiac Mass: Retained Sponge

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 4 2006
    Yildirim Imren M.D.
    We report a case involving a surgical sponge retained following an aortic valve replacement. The surgical sponge was placed into the left ventricle to protect calcified debris from falling down into the left ventricular cavity. However, the sponge was forgotten and left inside the patient. We identified the retained surgical sponge by transesophageal echocardiography, which was performed because of a difficulty in weaning the patient from the cardiopulmonary bypass. [source]

    Saphenous Vein Graft Aneurysm Masquerading as a Right Atrial Mass

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 3 2005
    Leonid Yatskar M.D.
    We report a case of a large saphenous vein graft (SVG) aneurysm masquerading as a right atrial mass on transesophageal echocardiogram. Cardiac magnetic resonance angiography reliably made a diagnosis of SVG aneurysm extrinsically compressing right atrium. This case illustrates the importance of using combined imaging modalities for the diagnosis and management of cardiac masses. [source]

    Echocardiographic Left Ventricular Mass in African-Americans

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 2 2003
    The Jackson Cohort of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study
    Characterization of target organ damage from hypertension is of particular interest in African-Americans, and evidence from electrocardiographic studies suggests that left ventricular hypertrophy is a frequent clinical finding of considerable prognostic importance. Echocardiographic studies may permit more precise characterization of the pathologic impact of hypertension on cardiac structure and function. The objective of this study is to characterize left ventricular (LV) structure including measures of wall thickness, septal thickness, internal dimension, and mass in a middle-aged sample of African-Americans using echocardiography. This study is a cohort (cross-sectional) study in which 2445 middle-aged African-American study participants from a population-based sample initially enrolled by the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities, Jackson, Mississippi Examination Center in 1987,1989 underwent an M-mode echocardiograpic examination at their third or fourth clinic visit in 1993,1996. Measures of LV mass, even where indexed by size were conspicuously greater in men compared to women, and men exhibited a demonstrably steeper gradient of LV mass across the rather restricted age range of the study. However, when gender specific thresholds for LV hypertrophy were utilized, African-American men appear to have lower prevalence of LV hypertrophy than women. The lowest prevalence of LV hypertrophy was observed in African-American men who did not have hypertension (28.4%). The findings confirm previous suggestions from electrocardiographic investigations that cardiac hypertrophy is common, if not epidemic in middle-aged African-American men and women, whether or not they have hypertension. (ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Volume 20, February 2003) [source]

    Positional Localization: Three-Dimensional Transthoracic Echocardiography Techniques for the Measurement of Cardiac Mass, Volume, and Function

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 8 2000
    Andrew M. Keller M.D.
    An accurate and reproducible determination of cardiac volume and mass is important for the selection and timing of therapeutic interventions. Quantitative three-dimensional echocardiography has evolved to provide these measurements with the use of a noninvasive, readily available, and inexpensive technique. We introduce and review the principle of positional localization as well as the clinical application of this technique for the measurement of cardiac volume and mass. [source]

    Cholinesterase activity and behavior in chlorpyrifos-exposed Rana sphenocephala tadpoles

    Pamela D. Widder
    Abstract Recent studies have found a correlation between organophosphate (OP) pesticide exposure and declines in amphibian populations. We evaluated the hypothesis that this relationship is driven by behavioral changes in developing larvae. Specifically, we examined how exposure to a common OP pesticide, chlorpyrifos, influenced cholinesterase (ChE) activity, mass, and swim speed in Rana sphenocephala tadpoles. We also determined how the presence of natural pond sediments in exposure chambers influenced response to the pesticide and how mass and survival were affected when tadpoles were exposed to an invertebrate (odonate) predator in addition to the pesticide. Mass and swim speed were measured after 4- and 12-d laboratory exposures to 1, 10, 100, and 200 ,g/L of chlorpyrifos in test chambers that either did or did not contain pond sediments. These same parameters also were examined in mesocosms dosed with 200 ,g/L of chlorpyrifos to evaluate responses under more environmentally realistic conditions. The effect of the invertebrate predators on survival and/or growth of tadpoles was evaluated in the mesocosm study and in separate laboratory experiments. In laboratory tests, no pesticide-induced mortality was observed; however, tadpole ChE activity in the two highest concentrations was significantly lowered, with a longer exposure duration further decreasing activity (maximum inhibition, 43%). Mass also was lower at higher concentrations, but this effect was not enhanced with longer duration of exposure. Reductions in ChE activity of tadpoles exposed in mesocosms were similar to those observed in laboratory experiments for the first 4 d. Tadpole swim speed and survival in the presence of a predator were not affected, with the latter largely resulting from pesticide-induced predator mortality. [source]

    Mass and size distribution of firebrands generated from burning Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) trees

    FIRE AND MATERIALS, Issue 1 2009
    Samuel L. Manzello
    Abstract The present study reports on a series of real-scale fire experiments that were performed to determine the mass and size distribution of firebrands generated from Korean Pine (Pinus koraiensis), a common conifer species indigenous to China, Japan, and Korea. The experiments were performed at the Building Research Institute in Tsukuba, Japan. The total tree height was fixed at 4.0,m and tree moisture content was varied to examine the influence that this parameter has on the mass and size distribution of the firebrands that are produced, under ambient wind conditions. The firebrands were collected using an array of pans. The pans used for firebrand collection were filled with water. This ensured that firebrands would be quenched as soon as they made contact with the pans. The firebrands were subsequently dried and the mass and size of more than 500 firebrands were measured. The Korean pine trees were also mounted on load cells during burning to determine the temporally resolved mass loss profiles. The mass loss data were used to compare the total amount of mass collected as firebrands with the total amount of mass burned. Results of this study are presented and compared with the mass and size distribution of firebrands collected from burning Douglas-fir trees, a conifer tree species indigenous to the U.S.A. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Interpreting the smells of predation: how alarm cues and kairomones induce different prey defences

    FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY, Issue 6 2009
    Nancy M. Schoeppner
    Summary 1.,For phenotypically plastic organisms to produce phenotypes that are well matched to their environment, they must acquire information about their environment. For inducible defences, cues from damaged prey and cues from predators both have the potential to provide important information, yet we know little about the relative importance of these separate sources of information for behavioural and morphological defences. We also do not know the point during a predation event at which kairomones are produced, i.e. whether they are produced constitutively, during prey attack or during prey digestion. 2.,We exposed leopard frog tadpoles (Rana pipiens) to nine predator cue treatments involving several combinations of cues from damaged conspecifics or heterospecifics, starved predators, predators only chewing prey, predators only digesting prey or predators chewing and digesting prey. 3.,We quantified two behavioural defences. Tadpole hiding behaviour was induced only by cues from crushed tadpoles. Reduced tadpole activity was induced only by cues from predators digesting tadpoles or predators chewing + digesting tadpoles. 4.,We also quantified tadpole mass and two size-adjusted morphological traits that are known to be phenotypically plastic. Mass was unaffected by the cue treatments. Relative body length was affected (i.e. there were differences among some treatments), but none of the treatments significantly differed from the no-predator control. Relative tail depth was affected by the treatments and deeper tails were induced only when tadpoles were exposed to cues from predators digesting tadpoles or cues from predators chewing + digesting tadpoles. 5.,These results demonstrate that some prey species can discriminate among a diverse set of potential cues from heterospecific prey, conspecific prey and predators. Moreover, the results illustrate that the cues responsible for the full suite of behavioural and morphological defences are not induced by tadpole crushing nor can they be induced by generalized digestive chemicals produced when predators digest their prey. Instead, both prey damage and predator digestion of conspecific tissues appear to be important for communicating predatory risk to phenotypically plastic anuran prey. Importantly, the production of chemical cues by predators may be unavoidable and prey have evolved the ability to eavesdrop on these signals. [source]