Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Markers

  • accurate marker
  • activation marker
  • activity marker
  • additional marker
  • aflp marker
  • age marker
  • allozyme marker
  • alternative marker
  • amplified fragment length polymorphism marker
  • amplified polymorphic dna marker
  • ancestry informative marker
  • another marker
  • antibiotic resistance marker
  • apoptosi marker
  • apoptotic marker
  • autoimmune marker
  • autosomal marker
  • b virus marker
  • b-cell marker
  • best marker
  • biochemical marker
  • biologic marker
  • biological marker
  • blood marker
  • bone formation marker
  • bone marker
  • bone resorption marker
  • bone turnover marker
  • cancer marker
  • candidate marker
  • carcinoma marker
  • cardiac marker
  • cardiovascular risk marker
  • cell activation marker
  • cell cycle marker
  • cell marker
  • cell proliferation marker
  • cell surface marker
  • cell-specific marker
  • cellular marker
  • chemical marker
  • chloroplast microsatellite marker
  • chromosome marker
  • circulating marker
  • clinical marker
  • common marker
  • conventional marker
  • csf marker
  • current marker
  • cutaneous marker
  • cycle marker
  • cytoplasmic marker
  • degradation marker
  • developmental marker
  • diagnostic marker
  • different marker
  • differentiation marker
  • disease marker
  • dna marker
  • dna microsatellite marker
  • dominant marker
  • early marker
  • effective marker
  • endogenous marker
  • endophenotypic marker
  • endothelial cell marker
  • endothelial marker
  • epithelial marker
  • excellent marker
  • expression marker
  • fiducial marker
  • fluorescent marker
  • formation marker
  • fragment length polymorphism marker
  • functional marker
  • gene marker
  • genetic marker
  • genomic marker
  • glial marker
  • good marker
  • good prognostic marker
  • hbv marker
  • helpful marker
  • hepatitis b virus marker
  • hepatocyte marker
  • highly polymorphic microsatellite marker
  • highly specific marker
  • histochemical marker
  • histological marker
  • identity marker
  • immune marker
  • immunohistochemical marker
  • immunological marker
  • important marker
  • important prognostic marker
  • independent marker
  • independent prognostic marker
  • indirect marker
  • individual marker
  • inflammation marker
  • inflammatory marker
  • informative marker
  • injury marker
  • intermediate marker
  • issr marker
  • key marker
  • laboratory marker
  • least one marker
  • length polymorphism marker
  • lineage marker
  • linked marker
  • lymphatic marker
  • lymphoid marker
  • macrophage marker
  • many marker
  • maturation marker
  • melanocytic marker
  • mesenchymal marker
  • metabolic marker
  • metabolism marker
  • microsatellite dna marker
  • microsatellite marker
  • mitochondrial dna marker
  • mitochondrial marker
  • molecular genetic marker
  • molecular marker
  • morphological marker
  • multiple marker
  • muscle marker
  • myeloid marker
  • myogenic marker
  • neural marker
  • neurochemical marker
  • neuroendocrine marker
  • neuron marker
  • neuronal marker
  • neutral genetic marker
  • neutral marker
  • new marker
  • new microsatellite marker
  • new molecular marker
  • non-invasive marker
  • noninvasive marker
  • novel genetic marker
  • novel immunohistochemical marker
  • novel marker
  • novel microsatellite marker
  • novel molecular marker
  • novel polymorphic microsatellite marker
  • novel prognostic marker
  • nuclear dna marker
  • nuclear marker
  • nuclear microsatellite marker
  • nucleotide polymorphism marker
  • objective marker
  • one marker
  • only marker
  • osteoblastic marker
  • osteogenic differentiation marker
  • osteogenic marker
  • other marker
  • other molecular marker
  • oxidative stress marker
  • paracellular marker
  • pathological marker
  • pcr marker
  • peripheral marker
  • peroxidation marker
  • phenotype marker
  • phenotypic marker
  • phylogenetic marker
  • physiological marker
  • plasma marker
  • platelet activation marker
  • pluripotency marker
  • polymorphic dna marker
  • polymorphic marker
  • polymorphic microsatellite dna marker
  • polymorphic microsatellite marker
  • polymorphic molecular marker
  • polymorphism marker
  • popular marker
  • positive marker
  • possible marker
  • potential diagnostic marker
  • potential genetic marker
  • potential marker
  • potential predictive marker
  • potential prognostic marker
  • potential tumor marker
  • powerful marker
  • predictive marker
  • prognostic marker
  • proliferation marker
  • proliferative marker
  • promising marker
  • protein marker
  • putative marker
  • radio-opaque marker
  • random amplified polymorphic dna marker
  • rapd marker
  • relevant marker
  • reliable marker
  • repeat marker
  • resistance marker
  • resorption marker
  • rflp marker
  • risk marker
  • sc marker
  • scar marker
  • screening marker
  • selectable marker
  • selection marker
  • selective marker
  • senescence marker
  • sensitive marker
  • sequence repeat marker
  • serologic marker
  • serological marker
  • serum biochemical marker
  • serum marker
  • several marker
  • several molecular marker
  • significant marker
  • simple sequence repeat marker
  • single marker
  • single nucleotide polymorphism marker
  • site marker
  • size marker
  • skin marker
  • smooth muscle marker
  • snp marker
  • soft marker
  • specific marker
  • ssr marker
  • stem cell marker
  • str marker
  • stress marker
  • strong marker
  • sts marker
  • studied marker
  • suitable marker
  • surface marker
  • surrogate marker
  • synaptic marker
  • systemic marker
  • tetranucleotide microsatellite marker
  • trait marker
  • tumor marker
  • tumour marker
  • turnover marker
  • type-specific marker
  • unique marker
  • universal marker
  • unlinked marker
  • urinary marker
  • used marker
  • useful clinical marker
  • useful diagnostic marker
  • useful inflammatory marker
  • useful marker
  • useful molecular marker
  • useful prognostic marker
  • useful tumor marker
  • valuable marker
  • various marker
  • vesicle marker
  • viral marker
  • virulence marker
  • virus marker
  • visible marker
  • vulnerability marker

  • Terms modified by Markers

  • marker allele
  • marker alone
  • marker analysis
  • marker association
  • marker available
  • marker cd31
  • marker cd34
  • marker characteristic
  • marker chromosome
  • marker combination
  • marker compound
  • marker data
  • marker decreased
  • marker density
  • marker distribution
  • marker enzyme
  • marker expression
  • marker gene
  • marker gene expression
  • marker genotype
  • marker horizon
  • marker information
  • marker interval
  • marker isolated
  • marker ki-67
  • marker level
  • marker locations
  • marker locus
  • marker map
  • marker method
  • marker molecule
  • marker nestin
  • marker panel
  • marker profile
  • marker protein
  • marker selection
  • marker sequence
  • marker set
  • marker specific
  • marker studies
  • marker system
  • marker techniques
  • marker technology
  • marker test
  • marker used
  • marker useful
  • marker validation
  • marker vimentin

  • Selected Abstracts


    Erica M. Woodin
    Pretreatment aggression severity was examined as a risk marker for recidivism in the treatment of partner aggression. Intact married couples experiencing husband-to-wife partner aggression were recruited from the community and participated in either conjoint group treatment or gender-specific group treatment. Elevated levels of husband and wife physical aggression and wife psychological aggression before treatment predicted the continuation and severity of physical aggression by both spouses during treatment and in the following year, with no significant differences across treatment formats. These results indicate that high levels of psychological and physical aggression signify a poor prognosis for both conjoint and gender-specific group treatment programs, suggesting the need for interventions of greater intensity, duration, and/or focus for individuals highest in psychological and physical aggression. [source]


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 3 2000
    Willem Stolte
    Genetic variation of pigment composition was studied in 16 different strains of Emiliania huxleyi (Lohm.) Hay et Mohler in batch culture. Distinct strain-dependent differences were found in the ratios of fucoxanthin, 19,-hexanoyloxyfucoxanthin, and 19,-butanoyloxyfucoxanthin, hampering the use of these individual pigments as a taxonomic marker at the species level. The molar ratio of total carotenoids to chl a, however, was constant for all strains tested. In addition, the pigment composition of one axenic strain (L) of E. huxleyi at different growth rates in light-, nitrate-, and phosphate-limited continuous cultures was analyzed quantitatively. The pigments fucoxanthin and 19,-hexanoyloxyfucoxanthin correlated closely under all conditions. From steady-state rate calculations, it is hypothesized that 19,-hexanoyloxyfucoxanthin is synthesized from fucoxanthin, with light as a modulating factor. The net rate of synthesis of diatoxanthin depended both on the concentration of diadinoxanthin (its partner in the xanthophyll cycle) and on light, illustrating its photoprotective function in the xanthophyll cycle. In axenic strain L, the ratio of total fucoxanthins to chl a correlated strongly with photon flux density and can potentially be used to assess the physiological status with respect to irradiance in field populations. In multispecific bloom situations, the ratio of diadinoxanthin plus diatoxanthin to total fucoxanthins could be used as an alternative indicator for the light-dependent physiological state of E. huxleyi, provided that no other chromophytes are present. Application of these correlations to mesocosm data from the literature has so far provided no evidence that E. huxleyi blooms form only at inhibiting light levels, as previously suggested. [source]

    Practical CFD Simulations on Programmable Graphics Hardware using SMAC,

    Carlos E. Scheidegger
    Abstract The explosive growth in integration technology and the parallel nature of rasterization-based graphics APIs (Application Programming Interface) changed the panorama of consumer-level graphics: today, GPUs (Graphics Processing Units) are cheap, fast and ubiquitous. We show how to harness the computational power of GPUs and solve the incompressible Navier-Stokes fluid equations significantly faster (more than one order of magnitude in average) than on CPU solvers of comparable cost. While past approaches typically used Stam's implicit solver, we use a variation of SMAC (Simplified Marker and Cell). SMAC is widely used in engineering applications, where experimental reproducibility is essential. Thus, we show that the GPU is a viable and affordable processor for scientific applications. Our solver works with general rectangular domains (possibly with obstacles), implements a variety of boundary conditions and incorporates energy transport through the traditional Boussinesq approximation. Finally, we discuss the implications of our solver in light of future GPU features, and possible extensions such as three-dimensional domains and free-boundary problems. [source]

    Apocrine Carcinoma, Adenopathies, and Raised TAG-72 Serum Tumor Marker

    Jorge Santos-Juanes PHD
    Background. The detection of tumor-associated glycoprotein-72 in the serum of patients with carcinomas, basically of the colon, has proved to be of great use in the follow-up of these gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas. Results. We report the case of a male patient presenting adenopathies in the right axilla. The histologic study of an adjacent skin tumor enabled the diagnosis of a cutaneous apocrine carcinoma. Among the studies made, the increase in the serum antibody CA72.4 can be highlighted. The tumor marker was negative after the extirpation of the skin tumor and the axillary adenopathies. Conclusion. To our best knowledge, this is the first case in which a tumor serum marker is associated with a cutaneous apocrine carcinoma, a fact that should be confirmed with further patients. Its use in the monitoring of this infrequent skin neoplasia is also noteworthy. [source]

    Mitral Annular Calcification as a Marker of Complex Aortic Atheroma in Patients with Stroke of Uncertain Etiology

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 2 2008
    Ramón Pujadas M.D.
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of dense mitral annular calcification as a marker of complex aortic atherosclerosis in patients with stroke of uncertain etiology. One hundred twenty-one patients with stroke of uncertain etiology were evaluated for complex aortic atherosclerotic plaques; their presence and severity were correlated with transthoracic echocardiographic findings, demographic data, and cardiovascular risk factors. Complex plaques in the ascending aorta or aortic arch were found in 72 of the 121 patients (59.5%). The only difference seen in patients with or without plaques was the presence of dense mitral annular calcification (58.3 vs 16.3%; P < 0.001). Dense mitral annular calcification (n = 50) was associated with higher prevalence of complex aortic plaques (84.0% vs 42.3%; P < 0.001), mobile components (28.0% vs 9.9%; P < 0.01), and protruding (80.0% vs 36.6%; P < 0.001), ulcerated (16.0% vs 1.4%; P < 0.01), and multisite complex plaques (46.0% vs 9.0%; P < 0.001). Therefore, in patients with stroke of uncertain etiology dense mitral annular calcification is an important marker of aortic atherosclerosis with high risk of embolism, and this association may explain in part the high prevalence of stroke and peripheral embolism in patients with mitral annular calcification. [source]

    Aortic Valve Sclerosis: Is It a Cardiovascular Risk Factor or a Cardiac Disease Marker?

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 3 2007
    F.I.S.C.U., Pasquale Palmiero M.D.
    Background: Aortic valve sclerosis, without stenosis, has been associated with an increased cardiovascular mortality and morbidity due to myocardial infarction. However, it is unclear whether it is a cardiovascular risk factor or a cardiac disease marker. The goal of our study is to evaluate the difference in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease and risk factors among patients with or without aortic sclerosis. Methods: This observational study compared a group of 142 consecutive subjects with aortic valve sclerosis, assigned as group S, with a group of 101 subjects without aortic sclerosis, assigned as group C. Patients with bicuspid aortic valves and those with antegrade Doppler velocity across aortic valve leaflets exceeding 2.0 m/sec were excluded. Results: Mean ages of groups S and C were 71 ± 8, and 68.8 ± 6 years, respectively (P value = not significant). The prevalence of smoking, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, pulse pressure, left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, atrial fibrillation, and stroke was not significantly different between the two groups. However, there was a significantly higher prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy (P = 0.05), ventricular arrhythmias (P = 0.02), myocardial infarction (P = 0.04), and systolic heart failure (P = 0.04) in aortic sclerosis group. Conclusions: Aortic sclerosis is associated with a higher prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy, ventricular arrhythmias, myocardial infarction, and systolic heart failure, while the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is not different between aortic sclerosis patients and controls. Hence, aortic sclerosis represents a cardiac disease marker useful for early identification of high-risk patients beyond cardiovascular risk factors rate. [source]

    Serum S-100 Protein Is Not a Suitable Seizure Marker in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 10 2002
    Fritz Leutmezer
    Summary: ,Purpose: S-100 protein is a sensitive marker of various brain diseases; however, its role in epilepsy is controversially discussed in the literature. We therefore studied the temporal profile of serial concentrations of S-100 protein in serum after secondarily generalized tonic,clonic seizures during video-EEG monitoring. Methods: Ten patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy were prospectively studied. Serum S-100 protein was measured after a seizure-free period of ,24 h (baseline) and 30 min, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h after a secondarily generalized tonic,clonic seizure of temporal lobe origin in nine and a convulsive status epilepticus in one patient. Results: All S-100 levels were within the normal range, except for those of one patient at baseline. Mean values were 0.045 ,g/L (range, 0.003,0.13 ,g/L) at baseline, 0.038 ,g/L (range, 0.003,0.09 ,g/L) at 30 min, 0.036 ,g/L (range, 0.003,0.08 ,g/L) at 3 h, 0.034 ,g/L (range, 0.003,0.07 ,g/L) at 6 h, 0.034 ,g/L (range, 0.003,0.08 ,g/L) at 12 h, and 0.035 ,g/L (range, 0.003,0.09 ,g/L) at 24 h after seizure offset. There were no significant differences between mean concentrations at any interval postictally. Conclusions: We could not detect any significant alterations in serum S-100 protein concentration either after a single secondarily generalized tonic,clonic seizure or after convulsive status epilepticus in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Our data do not confirm previous work, which suggested serum S-100 protein to be a suitable marker for epileptic seizures. [source]

    Plasma Hypertonicity: Another Marker of Frailty?

    Jodi D. Stookey PhD
    Objectives: To determine whether plasma hypertonicity might be a marker of early frailty, this study tested the associations between plasma hypertonicity, incident disability, and mortality in nondisabled older adults. Design: Longitudinal, observational study. Setting: Community-based. Participants: Older adults (,70), who reported no disability and gave blood in the 1992 Duke Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly survey (n=705), were re-interviewed in 1996 for functional status (n=561) and followed for all deaths up to January 1, 2000. Measurements: Plasma tonicity was estimated from plasma glucose, sodium, and potassium measures and used to classify subjects as normo- (285,294 mOsm/L) or hypertonic (,300 mOsm/L). Disability was defined as any impairment on the Rosow-Breslau, activity of daily living (ADL), and instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) scales. The relative risk (RR) of any new disability and relative hazard of death associated with hypertonicity were estimated using logistic regression models and Cox proportional hazards models, respectively. All models were controlled for age, sex, race, weight status, current smoking, activity level, plasma blood urea nitrogen and creatinine, cognitive impairment, depression, and chronic disease status. To determine whether observed effects were attributable to plasma glucose alone, all models were repeated on a subsample of nondiabetic, normoglycemic subjects. Results: Plasma hypertonicity (observed in 15% of subjects) was associated with increased risk of new Rosow-Breslau (RR=2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.2,3.6), IADL (RR=2.3, 95% CI=1.2,4.3), and ADL (RR=2.7 95% CI=1.3,5.6) disability by 1996 and mortality by 2000 (RR=1.4, 95% CI=1.0,1.9). Results were similar for the normoglycemic subgroup (ADL: RR=2.9, 95% CI=1.0,8.0; IADL: RR=2.5, 95% CI=1.0,6.3; Rosow-Breslau: RR=1.8, 95% CI=0.8,3.9; mortality: RR=1.5, 95% CI=0.9,2.3). Conclusion: Plasma hypertonicity may be a marker of early frailty. It was prevalent in this sample of nondisabled community-dwelling older adults and predicted incident disability and mortality. Further research to identify its determinants and consequences may help inform interventions against frailty. [source]

    Cholesterol and Health in Old Age: Risk Factor or Risk Marker?

    Tamara B. Harris MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Diversity in five goat populations of the Lombardy Alps: comparison of estimates obtained from morphometric traits and molecular markers

    P. Crepaldi
    Phenotypic and genetic variability were studied within and between the goat populations of Bionda dell'Adamello, Frisa, Orobica, Verzaschese and Val di Livo. These are populations reared for most of the year on pastures of the Lombardy Alps, numbering a minimum of 1000 and a maximum of 8000 individuals per breed. The first four are standardized breeds of recent formation; at present they are supported by the European Union measures for the conservation of rare breeds. On the basis of its visible genetic profile the Val di Livo goat may be classified as a primary population. Phenotypic variability was estimated on the basis of six somatic measurements on 60,140 adult goats per breed, whereas genetic variation was measured on the basis of 201 AFLP loci. The partition of the total molecular variation into the within and between breed components indicates that the majority of the molecular variability is conserved within populations, whereas only 8.8% can be attributed to between population variation. Morphometric and molecular marker data produced unrelated distance values and different topology of UPGMA clusters. It may be hypothesized that the morphometric originality of the Val di Livo goat is mostly determined by environmental factors and selection pressure rather than by different origin and genome evolution. Conversely Orobica seems to have diverged from the other breeds at the genome level, which may be explained by an undocumented Southern Italian origin. An objective evaluation of conservation priorities may in the near future be based on the integrated use of molecular markers and of information on quantitative traits and allelic variation with adaptive relevance. Diversité dans cinq populations de chèvres des Alpes lombardes: comparaisons entre estmations obtenues par des mesures somatiques et par des marqueurs moléculaires On a etudié la variabilité phénotypique et génétique entre et parmi les populations de chèvres Bionda dell'Adamello, Frisa, Orobica, Verzaschese et Val di Livo. Il s'agit de populations qui content entre 1000 et 8000 sujets, elevés pour la plus part de l'année sur les pâturages des Alpes de Lombardie. Les quatre premières, actuellement sauvegardées par des mesures communautaires, sont des races à standard recemment constituées. La chèvre de la Val di Livo peut être rangée parmi les races primaires. La diversité phénotypique a été montrée par un dendrogramme obtenus des distances euclidiennes calculées à partir de six mesures somatiques qui avaient été prises sur 60,140 chèvres adultes pour chaque race. La diversité génétique a été montrée par un dendrogramme bâti sur la matrice des distances de Nei obtenues des 201 marqueurs moléculaires AFLP, produits par 7 combinaisons de primers, sur 30 sujets pour chaque race. La décomposition de la variabilité génétique totale estimée par les données moléculaires a montré que la plus part de la variabilité est conservée parmi la population, tandis que seulement l,8,8% peut être imputé aux différences entre populations. Les données moléculaires et somatiques ont donné lieu à des distances qui ne sont pas corrélées et à des cluster avec une topologie nettement différente. La comparaison entre les deux approches permet d'avancer l'hypothèse que l'originalité somatique de la chèvre de la Val di Livo pourrait être due à des facteurs d'environnement et/ou à la pression de sélection plutôt qu'à des facteurs liés à l'évolution du genome. Au contraire ces derniers seraient responsables de l'originalité génétique de la race Orobica et confirmeraient des témoignages orals non documentés. Un choix objectif des ressources génétiques qui méritent d'être conservées pourra probablement se baser sur l'employ conjoint des marqueurs et de renseignements sur les caractères quantitatifs et sur les variantes alléliques des gènes qui ont une valeur adaptative. Diversität in fünf Ziegenpopulationen der lombardischen Alpen: Vergleich von Schätzungen auf der Basis morphologischer Eigenschaften und molekularer Marker Es wurden die phänotypische und genetische Variabilität innerhalb und zwischen Bionda dell'Adamello, Frisa, Orobica, Verzaschese und Val di Livo Ziegenpopulationen untersucht. Diese Populationen, mit Größen zwischen 1000 und 8000 Tieren, werden den größten Teil des Jahres auf Weiden der lombardischen Alpen gehalten. Die vier erstgenannten Populationen sind erst kürzlich standardisierte Rassen; gegenwärtig werden sie mit EU-Mitteln für die Erhaltung seltener Rassen, unterstützt. Auf der Basis des erkennbaren genetischen Profils muß die Rasse Val di Livo als eine Primärpopulation eingeordnet werden. Phänotypische Variabilität wurde auf der Basis von sechs Körpermaßen an 60,140 ausgewachsenen Ziegen je Rasse geschätzt, die genetische Variation wurde auf der Basis von 201 AFLP-Loci gemessen. Die Aufteilung der gesamten molekularen Varianz in Varianzkomponenten innerhalb und zwischen Populationen zeigt, daß der größte Teil der molekularen Variabilität innerhalb der Populationen auftritt, und nur 8,8% der Gesamtvarianz auf die Varianz zwischen den Populationen entfällt. Morphologische und molekulare Marker erzeugten unabhängige Distanzwerte und unterschiedliche upgma-Cluster. Es kann die Hypothese aufgestellt werden, daß die morphologische Einzigartigkeit der Val di Livo Ziege stärker auf Umwelteffekte und Selektionsdruck als auf eine unterschiedliche Herkunft oder genomische Evolution zurückzuführen ist. Dagegen scheint Orobica auf Genomebene von den anderen Rassen abzuweichen, was durch einen nicht dokumentierten süditalienischen Ursprung erklärt werden könnte. Eine objektive Bewertung von Prioritäten für Konservierungsmaßnahmen dürfte in Zukunft auf einen integrierten Gebrauch molekularer Marker, Informationen über quantitative Merkmale sowie der genetischen Variation bezüglich der Adaptationsfähigkeit basieren. [source]

    A male bovine linkage map for the ADR granddaughter design

    H. Thomsen
    Summary The aim of this paper is to present the construction of a male genetic linkage map as a result of the bovine genome mapping project, which is a common effort of the German cattle breeding federation (ADR), four animal breeding institutes, three blood group laboratories and two animal data and breeding value evaluation centres. In total 20 grandsires with 1074 sires were provided from the German cattle population as reference families, 16 of these paternal half-sib groups are German Holstein families (DH), three are German Simmental (ST) families, and one is a Brown Swiss family (BS). Of 265 markers included in the linkage map, 248 were microsatellite markers, five were bovine blood group systems, eight SSCP markers and four proteins and enzymes. More than 239 000 genotypes resulted from typing the offspring for the respective markers and these were used for the construction of the map. On average 478 informative meioses were provided from each marker of the map. The summarized map length over all chromosomes was 3135.1 cM with an average interval size of 13.34 cM. About 17, 35.7 and 79.1% of the map intervals showed a maximum genetic distance between the adjacent markers of 5, 10 and 20 cM, respectively. The number of loci ranged from two (pseudoautosomal region of the sex chromosome, BTAY) to 15 (BTA23) with an average of 8.8 markers per chromosome. Comparing the length of the chromosomes shows variation from 49.6 cM for BTA26 to 190.5 cM for BTA1 with a mean of 107.7 cM for all autosomes of the genetic linkage map. It was possible to identify chromosomal discrepancies in locus order and map intervals by comparison with other published maps. The map provided sufficient marker density to serve as a useful tool for a scan of segregating quantitative trait loci. Zusammenfassung Im vorliegenden Artikel wird die Erstellung der genetischen Markerkarten für das Rindergenom im Rahmen des Genomanalyseprojektes der Arbeitsgemeinschaft Deutscher Rinderzüchter (ADR) vorgestellt. Auf der Basis des ,Granddaughter Designs' wurde ein Familienmaterial bestehend aus 20 väterlichen Halbgeschwistergruppen mit 1074 Söhnen für die Typisierung mit genetischen Markern bereitgestellt. Insgesamt 16 dieser paternalen Halbgeschwisterfamilien lassen sich der Rasse Deutsche Holsteins zuordnen, drei Familien entstammen der Rasse Deutsches Fleckvieh, und eine Familie gehört der Rasse Deutsches Braunvieh an. Dabei variiert die Anzahl der Söhne von 19,128 pro Vater. Für die Typisierung wurden 248 Mikrosatellitenmarker aus bereits publizierten Karten ausgewählt. Zusätzlich konnten 8 SSCP-und RFLP Marker, 5 Blutgruppensysteme und 4 Proteinmarker zur Entwicklung der genetischen Karte herangezogen werden. Die Anzahl der Marker variierte von 2 (pseudoautosomaler Bereich des Geschlechtschromosoms) bis 15 (Chromosom 23), wobei durchschnittlich 8.8 genetische Marker pro Chromosom typisiert wurden. Im Durchschnitt lieferten die genetischen Marker 478 informative Meiosen pro Marker. Alle Typisierungsergebnisse wurden in die Kieler Markerdatenbank übertragen und auf etwaige Fehler geprüft. Als Ergebnis konnten die genetischen Karten für alle 29 Autosomen und den pseudoautosomalen Bereich des Geschlechtschromosoms erstellt werden. Dabei wurde ein Bereich von 3135.1 cM des Rindergenoms abgedeckt, wobei die Länge des durchschnittlichen Markerintervalls 13.34 cM beträgt. Die Längen der Chromosomen zeigten eine Variation von 49.6 cM für Chromosom 26 bis zu 190.5 cM für Chromosom 1. Aufgrund der Anzahl informativer Meiosen und der Markerdichte bildet diese genetische Markerkarte in gutes Instrument für eine genomweite Suche nach segregierenden Genorten, die für die Variation von quantitativen Merkmalen verantwortlich sind. [source]

    The course of some bone remodelling plasma metabolites in healthy horses and in horses offered a calcium-deficient diet

    V. De Behr
    Summary An inquiry was carried out to assess the concentrations of plasma metabolites related to bone remodelling in 21 saddle horses of Warmblood breed aged 4,26 years, five draught horses of Ardennes breed aged 4,10 years, and 10 Ardennes foals aged 9,11 months. They were fed according to normal feeding practice in Belgium. The changes in some bone remodelling plasma metabolite concentrations were studied when an unbalanced diet was offered and later corrected for four Warmblood horses. Bone formation was evaluated by bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP), total alkaline phosphatase (TALP) and osteocalcin (bone gla-protein, OC). Bone resorption was assessed by hydroxyproline (HYP). Total calcium, ionized calcium, phosphorus (P) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25-(OH)D] concentrations were more or less constant. The comparison of four bone remodelling factors between the Ardennes and Warmblood horses showed higher concentrations in the Ardennes breed. Bone marker concentrations decreased according to age. The correction of the unbalanced Ca : P diet induced inconsistent effects at plasma level. The interpretation of the different bone parameters appeared to be difficult if not associated with other parameters such as a complete anamnesis and clinical examination of the animal in addition to dietary evaluation. Zusammenfassung Verlauf verschiedener Knochenmarker bei gesunden Pferden und bei Pferden, welche mit einer in Bezug auf Kalzium unausgewogenen Ration gefüttert wurden Eine Studie zur Erfassung der Konzentrationen von Knochenmarkern wurde bei 21 Warmblütern im Alter von 4 bis 26 Jahren, fünf Ardenner Kaltblütern im Alter von 4 bis 10 Jahren und 10 Ardenner Kaltblutfohlen im Alter von 9 bis 11 Monaten durchgeführt. Die Pferde wurden gemäss der normalen Fütterungpraxis in Belgien gefüttert. Der Verlauf der Knochenmarkerkonzentrationen wurde auch bei vier Pferden gemessen, die zunächst mit einer unausgewogenen Ration in Bezug auf Kalzium und dann mit einer korrigierenden Ration gefüttert wurden. Der Knochenaufbau wurde anhand der Aktivität der knochenspezifischen alkalischen Phosphatase (BALP), der totalen alkalischen Phosphatasen (TALP) und anhand des Osteocalcin (bone gla-proteine, OC) gemessen. Der Knochenabbau wurde anhand des Hydroxyprolins (HYP) gemessen. Die Konzentrationen des totalen Kalziums, ionisierten Kalziums, Phosphors (P), und 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D] waren unverändert. Beim Vergleich der vier gemessenen Knochenmakerkonzentrationen bei den Ardenner Kaltblütern mit den Warmblutpferden konnte gezeigt werden, dass die Kaltblüter deutlich höhere Konzentrationen hatten als die Warmblüter. Die Konzentrationen der Marker nahmen mit steigendem Alter der Pferde ab. Die Korrektur der unausgewogenen Ca:P Ration ergab nicht eindeutige Veränderungen der Plasmakonzentrationen der verschiedenen Marker. Die Interpretation der verschiedenen Knochenmarker erscheint schwierig, wenn nicht andere Parameter, wie eine komplette Anamnese und eine klinische Untersuchung, sowie eine Auswertung der Ration hinzugezogen werden. [source]

    Hypothalamic,Pituitary,Adrenocortical Axis Dysregulation in Acute Temporomandibular Disorder and Low Back Pain: A Marker for Chronicity?,

    John P. Garofalo
    Dysregulation of the hypothalamic,pituitary,adrenocortical (HPA) axis is believed to be a valid biological marker of stress. This study evaluating changes in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and low back pain (LBP) to determine whether dysregulation of this system represents a marker for chronicity. Salivary cortisol samples were collected from 78 patients (TMD = 41, LBP = 37) upon waking up and 20 minutes later daily for 2 weeks. High-risk patients for chronic pain had different overall cortisol levels versus low-risk patients. High-risk patients exhibited greater variability in terms of cortisol secretion compared with low-risk patients, F(1, 1,243) = 17.73, p < .000. These results provide evidence of a neuroendocrine mechanism underlying a constellation of psychosocial risk factors for chronic pain. [source]

    Respiratory Function as a Marker of Bone Health and Fracture Risk in an Older Population,

    Alireza Moayyeri
    Abstract Identification of those at high risk of osteoporosis and fractures using clinically available tests beyond BMD measures is a major clinical challenge. We examined forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), an easily obtainable measure of respiratory function, as a clinical measure for fracture prediction. In the context of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-Norfolk Study, 8304 women and 6496 men 42,81 yr of age underwent a health check including spirometry and heel quantitative ultrasonography between 1997 and 2000 and were followed up for incident hip fractures until 2007. The main outcome measures were broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) of the heel (cross-sectional analysis) and hip fracture risk (prospective analysis). In multivariate regression models, a 1-liter increase in FEV1 was associated with a statistically significant 2.2-dB/MHz increase in BUA, independent of age, smoking, height, body mass index, history of fracture, and use of corticosteroids. Mean FEV1 was significantly lower among 84 women and 36 men with hip fracture compared with other participants. In multivariate proportional-hazard regression models, the relative risk (RR) of hip fracture associated with a 1-liter increase in FEV1 was 0.5 (95% CI, 0.3,0.9; p < 0.001) for both men and women. RR of hip fracture for a 1 SD increase in FEV1 was approximately equivalent to a 0.5 SD increase in BUA among women (1 SD among men) and an ,5-yr decrease in age among both men and women. Middle-aged and older people with low respiratory function are at increased risk of osteoporosis and hip fracture. FEV1, an easy, low-cost, and feasible clinical measure, may help improve the identification of high-risk groups. [source]

    RANK Expression as a Cell Surface Marker of Human Osteoclast Precursors in Peripheral Blood, Bone Marrow, and Giant Cell Tumors of Bone

    Gerald J Atkins
    Abstract RANK expression in vivo on hematopoietic subsets including pre-osteoclasts, identified by monoclonal antibodies, has not been described. We describe the lineages that express RANK in bone marrow, peripheral blood, and GCTs. We show that CD14+RANKhigh cells constitute a circulating pre-osteoclast pool. Introduction: The expression of RANK by subsets of hematopoietic cells has not been adequately studied in humans. While attributed to the monocytoid lineage, the phenotype of the pre-osteoclast (pre-OC) with respect to RANK expression in vivo remains unclear. We tested monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) raised against the extracellular domain of recombinant human RANK for reactivity with normal peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM) mononuclear cells (PBMNCs and BMMNCs, respectively). We also tested reactivity with giant cell tumor cells (GCT), a confirmed source of pre-OC and mature OCs. Materials and Methods: Human PBMNCs, BMMNCs, and GCT cells were analyzed for reactivity with anti-RANK MAbs by flow cytometry in combination with hematopoietic lineage restricted markers. GCTs were also analyzed by immunofluorescence. CD14+ monocytoid cells were sorted by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) based on their relative RANK expression and cultured under OC-forming conditions. Results: RANK+ cells were detected similarly by three independent anti-RANK MAbs. One MAb (80736) immunoprecipitated RANK,RANKL complexes from surface-biotinylated GCT lysates. Using dual-color flow cytometry, RANK was detected on CD14+ (monocytoid), CD19+ (B-lymphoid), CD56+ (NK cell), and glycophorin A+ erythroid progenitors. Minor populations of both CD3+ T lymphocytes and BM CD34+ hematopoietic progenitors also expressed cell surface RANK. In GCTs, RANK expression was identified on mononuclear CD45+CD14+,V,3+c-Fms+ cells, likely to be committed pre-OC, and on multinucleated CD45+,V,3+TRACP+ OCs. Importantly, sorted CD14+RANKhigh PBMNCs treated with recombinant RANKL and macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) gave rise to approximately twice the number of osteoclasts than RANKmid or RANKlow cells. Conclusions: These results suggest that committed monocytoid RANK+ pre-OCs are represented in the marrow and circulate in the periphery, forming a pool of cells capable of responding rapidly to RANKL. The ability to reliably detect committed pre-OC in peripheral blood could have important clinical applications in the management of diseases characterized by abnormal osteoclastic activity. [source]

    Childhood Fractures Are Associated With Decreased Bone Mass Gain During Puberty: An Early Marker of Persistent Bone Fragility?,

    Serge L Ferrari MD
    Abstract Whether peak bone mass is low among children with fractures remains uncertain. In a cohort of 125 girls followed over 8.5 years, 42 subjects reported 58 fractures. Among those, BMC gain at multiple sites and vertebral bone size at pubertal maturity were significantly decreased. Hence, childhood fractures may be markers of low peak bone mass acquisition and persistent skeletal fragility. Introduction: Fractures in childhood may result from a deficit in bone mass accrual during rapid longitudinal growth. Whether low bone mass persists beyond this period however remains unknown. Materials and Methods: BMC at the spine, radius, hip, and femur diaphysis was prospectively measured over 8.5 years in 125 girls using DXA. Differences in bone mass and size between girls with and without fractures were analyzed using nonparametric tests. The contribution of genetic factors was evaluated by mother-daughter correlations and that of calcium intake by Cox proportional hazard models. Results: Fifty-eight fractures occurred in 42 among 125 girls (cumulative incidence, 46.4%), one-half of all fractures affecting the forearm and wrist. Girls with and without fractures had similar age, height, weight. and calcium intake at all time-points. Before and during early puberty, BMC and width of the radius diaphysis was lower in the fracture compared with no-fracture group (p < 0.05), whereas aBMD and BMAD were similar in the two groups. At pubertal maturity (Tanner's stage 5, mean age ± SD, 16.4 ± 0.5 years), BMC at the ultradistal radius (UD Rad.), femur trochanter, and lumbar spine (LS), and LS projected bone area were all significantly lower in girls with fractures. Throughout puberty, BMC gain at these sites was also decreased in the fracture group (LS, ,8.0%, p = 0.015; UD Rad., ,12.0%, p = 0.004; trochanter, ,8.4%, p = 0.05 versus no fractures). BMC was highly correlated between prepuberty and pubertal maturity (R = 0.54,0.81) and between mature daughters and their mothers (R = 0.32,0.46). Calcium intake was not related to fracture risk. Conclusions: Girls with fractures have decreased bone mass gain in the axial and appendicular skeleton and reduced vertebral bone size when reaching pubertal maturity. Taken together with the evidence of tracking and heritability for BMC, these observations indicate that childhood fractures may be markers for low peak bone mass and persistent bone fragility. [source]

    Serum TRACP 5b Is a Useful Marker for Monitoring Alendronate Treatment: Comparison With Other Markers of Bone Turnover,

    Arja Nenonen MSc
    Abstract We studied clinical performance of serum TRACP 5b and other bone turnover markers, including S-CTX, U-DPD, S-PINP, S-BALP, and S-OC, for monitoring alendronate treatment. TRACP 5b had higher clinical sensitivity, area under the ROC curve, and signal-to-noise ratio than the other markers. Introduction: The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical performance of serum TRACP 5b (S-TRACP5b) with that of other markers of bone turnover in the monitoring of alendronate treatment. Materials and Methods: This double-blinded study included 148 healthy postmenopausal women that were randomly assigned into two groups: one receiving 5 mg alendronate daily (n = 75) and the other receiving placebo (n = 73) for 12 months. All individuals in both groups received calcium and vitamin D daily. The bone resorption markers S-TRACP5b, serum C-terminal cross-linked telopeptides of type I collagen (S-CTX), and total urinary deoxypyridinoline (U-DPD), and the serum markers of bone formation procollagen I N-terminal propeptide (S-PINP), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (S-BALP), and total osteocalcin (S-OC) were assessed at baseline and at 3, 6, and 12 months after initiation of treatment. Lumbar spine BMD (LBMD) was measured at baseline and 12 months. Results: Compared with the placebo group, LBMD increased, and all bone markers decreased significantly more in the alendronate group (p < 0.001 for each parameter). The decrease of S-TRACP5b after first 3 months of alendronate treatment correlated significantly with the changes of all other markers except S-OC, the best correlation being with S-CTX (r = 0.60, p < 0.0001). The changes of LBMD at 12 months only correlated significantly with the changes of S-TRACP5b (r = ,0.32, p = 0.005) and S-CTX (r = ,0.24, p = 0.037) at 3 months. Based on clinical sensitivity, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, and signal-to-noise ratio, S-TRACP5b, S-CTX, and S-PINP were the best markers for monitoring alendronate treatment. Clinical sensitivity, area under the ROC curve, and signal-to-noise ratio were higher for S-TRACP5b than for the other markers. Conclusion: These results show that S-TRACP5b, S-CTX, and S-PINP are useful markers for monitoring alendronate treatment. [source]

    Evidence From Data Searches and Life-Table Analyses for Gender-Related Differences in Absolute Risk of Hip Fracture After Colles' or Spine Fracture: Colles' Fracture as an Early and Sensitive Marker of Skeletal Fragility in White Men,

    Patrick Haentjens
    Abstract Based on data searches and life-table analyses, we determined the long-term (remaining lifetime) and short-term (10- and 5-year) absolute risks of hip fracture after sustaining a Colles' or spine fracture and searched for potential gender-related differences. In aging men, Colles' fractures carry a higher absolute risk for hip fracture than spinal fractures in contrast to women. These findings support the concept that forearm fracture is an early and sensitive marker of male skeletal fragility. Introduction: Colles' fracture occurrence has been largely ignored in public health approaches to identify target populations at risk for hip fracture. The aim of this study was to estimate the long-term and short-term absolute risks of hip fracture after sustaining a Colles' or spine fracture and to search for potential gender-related differences in the relationship between fracture history and future fracture risk. Materials and Methods: To determine the long-term (remaining lifetime) and short-term (10- and 5-year) absolute risks of hip fracture, we applied life-table methods using U.S. age- and sex-specific hip fracture incidence rates, U.S. age-specific mortality rates for white women and men, pooled hazard ratios for mortality after Colles' and spine fracture, and pooled relative risks for hip fracture after Colles' and spine fracture, estimated from cohort studies by standard meta-analytic methods. Results: Our results indicate that the estimated remaining lifetime risks are dependent on age in both genders. In women, remaining lifetime risks increase until the age of 80 years, when they start to decline because of the competing probabilities of fracture and death. The same pattern is found in men until the age of 85 years, the increment in lifetime risk being even more pronounced. As expected, the risk of sustaining a hip fracture was found to be higher in postmenopausal women with a previous spine fracture compared with those with a history of Colles' fracture. In men, on the other hand, the prospective association between fracture history and subsequent hip fracture risk seemed to be strongest for Colles' fracture. At the age of 50, for example, the remaining lifetime risk was 13% in women with a previous Colles' fracture compared with 15% in the context of a previous spine fracture and 9% among women of the general population. In men at the age of 50 years, the corresponding risk estimates were 8%, 6%, and 3%, respectively. Similar trends were observed when calculating 5- and 10-year risks. Conclusions: In aging men, Colles' fractures carry a higher absolute risk for hip fracture than spinal fractures in contrast to women. These findings support the concept that forearm fracture is an early and sensitive marker of male skeletal fragility. The gender-related differences reported in this analysis should be taken into account when designing screening and treatment strategies for prevention of hip fracture in men. [source]

    Uric Acid as a Marker for Renal Dysfunction in Hypertensive Women on Diuretic and Nondiuretic Therapy

    Hyperuricemia is a common finding in hypertensive patients, especially among those who are on diuretic therapy. However, its clinical relevance regarding cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease (CKD) has not clearly been established. The authors assessed whether, in a population of 385 hypertensive women categorized according to diuretic therapy, the stratification in quartiles by uric acid levels would identify a gradient of changes in renal function and in risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The following were evaluated: serum uric acid, glycemia, total and fractional cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoprotein (Apo) B, Apo A-I, and C-reactive protein. Renal function was assessed by serum creatinine, albuminuria, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation, whereas cardiovascular risk was estimated through the Framingham score. A total of 246 women were on diuretic therapy; 139 were taking other antihypertensive medications. There was a reduction in eGFR parallel to the increase in uric acid levels, regardless of diuretic use and without a concomitant increase in albuminuria. In both groups, higher uric acid levels translated into an increase in metabolic syndrome components, in markers of insulin resistance, triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein levels, and Apo B/Apo A-I ratios, as well as in Framingham scores. Hyperuricemia was associated with an increase in inflammatory markers only in patients on diuretic therapy. In a binary logistic regression, hyperuricemia (uric acid >6.0 mg/dL) was independently associated with CKD (eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m²) (odds ratio, 2.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.61,4.3; P<.001). In hypertensive women, the presence of hyperuricemia indicated a substantial degree of kidney dysfunction as well as a greater cardiovascular risk profile. [source]

    Human Herpesvirus-8: A Useful Marker for Distinguishing Kaposi Sarcoma and Kaposi Sarcoma-like Pyogenic Granuloma

    A. Uzieblo
    Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a vascular neoplasm associated with human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) infection. On occasion, KS may histologically mimic pyogenic granulomas (PG), a common benign vascular tumor of the skin. Using immunoperoxidase stains, we examined 28 PG and 4 PG-like KS for HHV-8 to determine the specificity of positive staining in this setting. All PG-like KS demonstrated nuclear staining for HHV-8. No staining was identified in any of the PG. Furthermore, histologic criteria often used to differentiate between these two entities were not helpful in difficult cases. The only distinguishing features were the presence/absence of HHV-8 staining and, in some cases, clinical history. The presence of HHV-8 nuclear staining appears to be a specific marker for KS when comparing PG and PG-like KS. Given the lack of distinguishing morphologic criteria, we suggest performing immunoperoxidase stains for HHV-8 on any PG occurring in a clinically atypical setting. [source]

    Exercise-Induced Nonsustained Ventricular Tachycardia: A Significant Marker of Coronary Artery Disease?

    Diagnostic exercise stress testing is commonly performed in patients with known or suspected cardiovascular disease. The significance of an ischemic response, manifested as significant ST-segment depression, angina pectoris, transient myocardial perfusion abnormalities, or combinations thereof, is well established. However, the diagnostic implications of exercise-induced nonsustained VT are uncertain, especially as an isolated finding. The patient had threatening ventricular arrhythmias at peak exercise without an ischemic response. Subsequent cardiac catheterization revealed significant CAD requiring percutaneous coronary intervention. [source]

    Serum Free Sialic Acid as a Marker of Alcohol Abuse

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 6 2007
    Lech Chrostek
    Background: Previous studies have shown that serum total sialic acid (TSA) concentration significantly increases during alcohol abuse. Chronic ethanol consumption impairs glycosylation of many proteins. The increased desialylation rate of serum glycoproteins is one of the effects of alcohol abuse. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic value of free sialic acid (FSA) as a marker of alcohol abuse. Methods: We determined serum FSA concentrations in the group of 156 alcoholic subjects and 35 healthy control subjects by means of a modification of the thiobarbituric acid method. The alcoholic group was divided into subgroups according to their history of abuse. Results: The FSA concentration was significantly higher in alcoholic subjects than in healthy controls. The subjects who consumed alcohol for longer than a week showed significantly higher FSA level than those who consumed alcohol for a shorter period. The serum FSA concentration was significantly higher in alcoholic subjects with elevated markers of liver dysfunction. The diagnostic accuracy of FSA was high, although it did not differ from TSA, and was limited by its low sensitivity. Conclusions: This study shows that FSA concentration in the sera of alcoholic subjects is increased. The low diagnostic sensitivity is accompanied by high specificity, however the accuracy is high and similar to the accuracy of TSA. Free sialic acid does not seem to be a better marker of alcohol abuse than TSA and current markers. [source]

    Is Recent Hospitalization a Marker for Moderate-Severe Persistent Asthma in School Children?

    Marina Reznik
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Platelet Adenylyl Cyclase Activity as a Trait Marker of Alcohol Dependence

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 6 2000
    John A. Menninger
    Background: There is compelling evidence that genetic factors play a major role in the development of alcohol dependence. Platelet adenylyl cyclase (AC) activity has been proposed as a biochemical marker for differentiating alcohol-dependent and nondependent subjects, but the sensitivity and specificity of this marker have not been ascertained. The objective of this study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of platelet AC activity in identifying alcohol-dependent subjects and to ascertain the effect of medical/psychiatric variables, drinking and smoking history, and age and body weight on AC activity. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted from 1995 to 1998. Participants were 210 Australian White men who were community volunteers and alcohol treatment inpatients in Sydney, Australia. There were 41 nondrinkers, 140 drinkers, and 29 men who were entering alcohol treatment. The main outcome measure was platelet AC activity. Classification variables were plasma ethanol, ,-glutamyltransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, serum carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT), and urinary5-hydroxytryptophol/5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HTOL/5-HIAA) levels, and World Health Organization/International Society for Biomedical Research on Alcoholism Interview Schedule variables, which included alcohol use and dependence criteria. Results: Among subjects who reported abstinence for at least 4 days, both cesium fluoride (CsF)- and forskolin-stimulated platelet AC activities were significantly lower in those with a lifetime history of alcohol dependence compared with those with no such history (p < 0.005 and p < 0.05, respectively). The sensitivity and specificity of CsF-stimulated AC activity to discriminate individuals with a lifetime history of alcohol dependence were 75% and 79%, respectively. Similar values for sensitivity and specificity for CsF-stimulated AC activity were calculated when discriminating current alcohol dependence in the subjects in our sample. Irrespective of the history of alcohol dependence, persons who had consumed alcohol recently (within the last 3,4 days) showed significantly higher mean basal, CsF-stimulated, and forskolin-stimulated AC activity (p < 0.001), as did those who had elevated 5-HTOL/5-HIAA ratios or CDT levels, indicative of recent (heavy) drinking. The "normalization" of platelet AC activity to baseline levels after an individual stops drinking may be related to the generation of new platelets during the abstinence period. Conduct disorder and antisocial personality disorder were not associated with low AC activity, but low forskolin-stimulated AC activity was associated with major depression. Conclusions: We found that CsF- and forskolin-stimulated platelet AC activity discriminates between subjects with and without alcohol dependence in a population of subjects who had not consumed significant quantities of ethanol recently. Recent alcohol consumption is a confounding variable that can alter the measured levels of AC activity. Forskolin-stimulated platelet AC activity also may be influenced by a history of major depression. [source]

    Editorial: Proteinuria in Chronic Kidney Disease in Cats,Prognostic Marker or Therapeutic Target?

    Jonathan Elliott
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Cosegregation of a Factor VIII Microsatellite Marker with Mild Hemophilia A in Golden Retriever Dogs

    Marjory B. Brooks
    Mild hemophilia A (factor VIII deficiency) was diagnosed in Golden Retrievers and pedigree studies were undertaken to test the cosegregation of an intragenic factor VIII marker with the disease phenotype. The study population consisted of 30 client-owned dogs (22 males and 8 females). Hemophilic males (n = 12) typically demonstrated prolonged bleeding after trauma or surgery rather than spontaneous hemorrhagic events. The affected males had a proportionate reduction in factor VIII coagulant activity (mean FVIII:C = 4%) and factor VIII protein concentration (mean FVIII:Ag = 3%). Twenty-five dogs (10 affected males, 8 clear males, 2 obligate carrier dams, and 5 suspect carrier daughters) were genotyped for a factor VIII microsatellite marker, with allele size assigned by an automated capillary electrophoresis system. Five distinct marker alleles were present in the study pedigree and a 300-base pair allele was found to segregate with the hemophilia A phenotype. The inheritance of the hemophilia-associated allele defined carrier status for 5 suspect daughters of obligate carrier dams. The limitations inherent to linkage analyses (ie, lack of access to key family members and homozygosity at the marker locus) did not preclude carrier detection in this pedigree. We conclude that genotype analysis for the intragenic factor VIII marker can aid in control of canine hemophilia A through enhanced carrier detection. [source]

    On the genetic diversity in the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene of Platymantis frogs from Western New Guinea (Anura: Ceratobatrachidae)

    F. Köhler
    Abstract Platymantis is a group of neobatrachian frogs that occurs from the Philippines to New Guinea , an area situated at the interface between the Australian and Asian biogeographical region that is highly fragmented by stretches of open sea. Partial sequences of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene are herein used to infer the relationships of species from the Indonesian part of New Guinea (Papua and West Papua Province). The phylogenetic trees reveal a deep bifurcation between the Asian and Western New Guinean clades being consistent with phylogeographic patterns observed in various other faunal groups. While most species are well differentiated in the examined locus, low interspecific genetic distances between one and three percent were observed in the New Guinean species Platymantis papuensis and P. cryptotis as well as P. pelewensis from Palau. Platymantis papuensis and P. pelewensis are geographically separated from each other by a 1100 km stretch of open sea. The minor degree of genetic differentiation between both species points to a recent event of transmarine dispersal as causation for the occurrence of P. pelewensis on Palau. The low genetic differentiation between P. cryptotis and the sympatric P. papuensis, two species that are bioacoustically and morphologically distinct, may indicate its possibly recent evolutionary origin or, alternatively, yet undetected hybridization between the two species. The same may also hold true for frogs from Yapen that exhibit calls different from the sympatric P. papuensis. Tentatively referred to as Platymantis spec., these frogs are also genetically not well differentiated. It is furthermore concluded that the partly low genetic differentiation of the New Guinean Platymantis species render this group one of the cases in which DNA barcoding would likely fail to produce reliable results. Zusammenfassung Arten der Gattung Platymantis besiedeln ein Gebiet, das sich von den Philippinen bis nach Papua-Neuguinea erstreckt. Dieses stark fragmentierte Areal befindet sich an der Nahtstelle zwischen der australischen und asaitischen biogeographischen Region. Wir analysiereten Sequenzfragmente des mitochondrialen Gens der 12S rRNA, um die phylogenetische Verwandtschaft dieser Frösche aus dem indonesischen Teil von Neuguinea zu erhellen (Provinzen Papua und West-Papua). Die phylogenetischen Bäume zeigen übereinstimmend eine tiefe Zweigliederung zwischen den Linien auf den Philippinen und Neuguinea. Obwohl die meisten Arten in bezug auf den untersuchten Marker gut voneinander zu differenzieren sind, werden zwischen einigen nur niedrige genetische Distanzen von 1,3% beobachtet. Im Falle von P. papuensis und P. pelewensis, die durch etwa 1100 km offenen Ozean voneinander getrennt sind, wird die geringe Differenzierung als Hinweis dafür gedeutet, dass beide erst seit relativ kurzer Zeit voneinander getrennt sind. Im Falle der beiden sympatrisch vorkommend Arten P. cryptotis und P. papuensis (letztere charakterisiert durch bioakustische und morphometrische Merkmale) deutet die geringe genetische Differenzierung entweder darauf hin, dass es sich um relativ junge Arten handelt oder dass beide miteinander hybridisieren. Gleiches gilt für die von P. papuensis bioakustisch differenzierbaren Fr,sche von P. spec. [source]

    Maximal small extensions of o-minimal structures

    Janak Ramakrishnan
    Abstract A proper elementary extension of a model is called small if it realizes no new types over any finite set in the base model. We answer a question of Marker, and show that it is possible to have an o-minimal structure with a maximal small extension. Our construction yields such a structure for any cardinality. We show that in some cases, notably when the base structure is countable, the maximal small extension has maximal possible cardinality (© 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Occurrence of "J Waves" in 12-Lead ECG as a Marker of Acute Ischemia and Their Cellular Basis

    The "J wave" (also referred to as "the Osborn wave,""the J deflection," or "the camel's hump") is a distinctive deflection occurring at the QRS-ST junction. In 1953, Dr. John Osborn described the "J wave" as an "injury current" resulting in ventricular fibrillation during experimental hypothermia. Although "J Wave" is supposed to be pathognomonic of hypothermia, it is seen in a host of other conditions such as hypercalcemia, brain injury, subarachnoid hemorrhage, cardiopulmonary arrest from over sedation, the Brugada syndrome, vasospastic angina, and idiopathic ventricular fibrillation. However, there is paucity of literature data as regards to ischemic etiology of "J Wave." In this article, we present a case where "J waves" were probably induced by ischemia. We also discuss the mechanism of ischemia-induced "J wave" accentuation and its prognostic implications. [source]

    Signal-Averaged Electrocardiographic Parameter Progression as a Marker of Increased Electrical Instability in Two Cases with an Overt Form of Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy

    BAUCE, B., et al.: Signal-Averaged Electrocardiographic Parameter Progression as a Marker of In-creased Electrical Instability in Two Cases with an Overt Form of Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy. In arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) the fibrofatty substitution of the RV myocardium constitutes the substrate for reentrant circuits, leading to the onset of ventricular arrhythmias. This pathological process also accounts for "delayed ventricular potentials" that could be recorded as late potentials using the signal-averaged ECG technique (SAECG). This study examined two patients affected by overt forms of ARVC who showed a worsening of the electrical instability associated with a fast progression of SAECG parameters, while all the other clinical findings remained unchanged. This suggests a possible role of SAECG parameter progression as a marker of increased electrical instability. [source]