Maps

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Maps

  • activation map
  • adc map
  • article map
  • brain map
  • cmb map
  • cognitive map
  • comprehensive map
  • concept map
  • conceptual map
  • consensus map
  • contour map
  • density map
  • difference fourier map
  • difference map
  • digital map
  • disease map
  • distribution map
  • electron density map
  • electron-density map
  • electrostatic potential map
  • experimental electron-density map
  • fate map
  • feature map
  • field map
  • flow map
  • flux map
  • fourier map
  • functional map
  • gene map
  • genetic linkage map
  • genetic map
  • genome map
  • global map
  • historical map
  • initial electron-density map
  • integrate map
  • interpretable map
  • kohonen self-organizing map
  • land-cover map
  • linkage map
  • marker map
  • output map
  • parameter map
  • parametric map
  • patterson map
  • peptide map
  • physical map
  • planar map
  • point map
  • potential map
  • probability map
  • proteome map
  • radio map
  • range map
  • reciprocal space map
  • reciprocal-space map
  • reference map
  • regime map
  • retinotopic map
  • richness map
  • road map
  • self-organizing map
  • sensory map
  • shadow map
  • snp map
  • soil map
  • space map
  • statistical parametric map
  • structure map
  • surface map
  • temperature map
  • thematic map
  • three-dimensional map
  • topographic map
  • vegetation map
  • velocity map

  • Terms modified by Maps

  • map algorithm
  • map analysis
  • map change
  • map construction
  • map data
  • map distance
  • map kinase
  • map kinase activation
  • map kinase activity
  • map kinase cascade
  • map kinase inhibitor
  • map kinase kinase
  • map kinase pathway
  • map position
  • map sample
  • map showing
  • map shows

  • Selected Abstracts


    Erectile Function in Two-Kidney, One-Clip Hypertensive Rats is Maintained by a Potential Increase in Nitric Oxide Production

    THE JOURNAL OF SEXUAL MEDICINE, Issue S3 2009
    A. Elizabeth Linder PhD
    ABSTRACT Introduction., Hypertension is closely associated with erectile dysfunction (ED) as it has been observed in many experimental models of hypertension. Additionally, epidemiological studies show that approximately a third of hypertensive patients have ED. Aim., To test the hypothesis that the two-kidney, one-clip (2K-1C) rat model of hypertension displays normal erectile function due to increased nitric oxide (NO) production in the penis. Methods., Ganglionic-induced increase in intracavernosal pressure (ICP)/mean arterial pressure (MAP) ratio was used as an index of erectile function in 2K-1C and in normotensive sham-operated (SHAM) anesthetized rats. Cavernosal strips from hypertensive and normotensive rats were used for isometric tension measurement. The contraction induced by alpha-adrenergic agonist phenylephrine and the relaxation induced by the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and by the Rho-kinase inhibitor Y-27632 were performed in the absence and in the presence of the NO synthase inhibitor N, -nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA). Results., Changes in ICP/MAP induced by ganglionic stimulation were not different between 2K-1C and SHAM rats. The contractile response induced by phenylephrine as well as the relaxation induced by SNP or the Y-27632 were similar in cavernosal strips from both groups. However, in the presence of L-NNA, the relaxation induced by Y-27632 was significantly impaired in 2K-1C compared to SHAM. Conclusions., These data suggest that hypertension and ED could be dissociated from high levels of blood pressure in some animal models of hypertension. Erectile function in 2K-1C hypertensive rats is maintained in spite of the increased Rho-kinase activity by increased NO signaling. Linder AE, Dorrance AM, Mills TM, Webb RC, and Leite R. Erectile function in two-kidney, one-clip hypertensive rats is maintained by a potential increase in nitric oxide production. J Sex Med 2009;6(suppl 3):279,285. [source]


    The Effect of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy on Erectile Function Recovery in a Rat Cavernous Nerve Injury Model

    THE JOURNAL OF SEXUAL MEDICINE, Issue 3 2008
    Alexander Mller MD
    ABSTRACT Introduction., Cavernosal oxygenation appears to be important for preservation of erectile tissue health. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) has been shown to improve tissue oxygenation and has neuromodulatory effects. Aim., This study was designed to define the effects of HBOT on erectile function (EF) and cavernosal tissue in the rat cavernous nerve (CN) injury model. Methods., Four groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were studied: rats with bilateral CN crush, HBOT treated (Crush+/HBOT+); bilateral CN-crush/no HBOT (C+/H,); no crush/no HBOT (C,/H,); and no crush/HBOT (C,/H+). HBOT was delivered daily for 90 minutes at three atmospheres for 10 days commencing the day of CN crush. Main Outcome Measures., Ten days after CN injury, the animals underwent CN stimulation measuring the maximal intracavernosal pressure/mean arterial pressure (ICP/MAP) ratios. Corporal tissue was harvested pre-sacrifice, and immunohistochemically stained for nerve growth factor (NGF), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and cluster of differentiation molecule (CD31). Histologic analysis was performed for Masson's trichrome to assess the smooth muscle,collagen ratio. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase Biotin-dUTP Nick End Labeling assay was used to define apoptotic indices (AIs). Results., The C+/H, group had significantly lower ICP/MAP ratios compared with C,/H, rats, (31% vs. 70%, P < 0.001). C+/H+ rats had significantly higher ICP/MAP ratio recovery compared with the C+/H, group (55% vs. 31%, P = 0.005). NGF and eNOS staining densities were higher in C+/H+ rats compared with C+/H, rats (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively). No difference was seen in CD31 expression. Staining density for MT displayed a trend toward higher smooth muscle preservation after HBOT. AIs were significantly increased by HBOT (P < 0.05). Conclusion., HBOT following a CN injury improved EF preservation in this model, supporting the cavernosal oxygenation concept as protective mechanism for EF. The effects appear to be mediated via preservation of neurotrophic and endothelial factor expression. Mller A, Tal R, Donohue JF, Akin-Olugbade Y, Kobylarz K, Paduch D, Cutter SC, Mehrara BJ, Scardino PT, and Mulhall JP. The effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on erectile function recovery in a rat cavernous nerve injury model. J Sex Med 2008;5:562,570. [source]


    Investigating Driver Injury Severity in Traffic Accidents Using Fuzzy ARTMAP

    COMPUTER-AIDED CIVIL AND INFRASTRUCTURE ENGINEERING, Issue 6 2002
    Hassan T. Abdelwahab
    This paper applies fuzzy adaptive resonance theory MAP (fuzzy ARTMAP) neural networks to analyze and predict injury severity for drivers involved in traffic accidents. The paper presents a modified version of fuzzy ARTMAP in which the training patterns are ordered using the K,means algorithm before being presented to the neural network. The paper presents three applications of fuzzy ARTMAP for analyzing driver injury severity for drivers involved in accidents on highways, signalized intersections, and toll plazas. The analysis is based on central Florida's traffic accident database. Results showed that the ordered fuzzy ARTMAP proved to reduce the network size and improved the performance. To facilitate the application of fuzzy ARTMAP, a series of simulation experiments to extract knowledge from the models were suggested. Results of the fuzzy ARTMAP neural network showed that female drivers experience higher severity levels than male drivers. Vehicle speed at the time of an accident increases the likelihood of high injury severity. Wearing a seat belt decreases the chance of having severe injuries. Drivers in passenger cars are more likely to experience a higher injury severity level than those in vans or pickup trucks. Point of impact, area type, driving under the influence, and driver age were also among the factors that influence the severity level. [source]


    Regional variations in action potential alternans in isolated murine Scn5a+/, hearts during dynamic pacing

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 2 2010
    G. D. K. Matthews
    Abstract Aim:, Clinical observations suggest that alternans in action potential (AP) characteristics presages breakdown of normal ordered cardiac electrical activity culminating in ventricular arrhythmogenesis. We compared such temporal nonuniformities in monophasic action potential (MAP) waveforms in left (LV) and right ventricular (RV) epicardia and endocardia of Langendorff-perfused murine wild-type (WT), and Scn5a+/, hearts modelling Brugada syndrome (BrS) for the first time. Methods:, A dynamic pacing protocol imposed successively incremented steady pacing rates between 5.5 and 33 Hz. A signal analysis algorithm detected sequences of >10 beats showing alternans. Results were compared before and following the introduction of flecainide (10 ,m) and quinidine (5 ,m) known to exert pro- and anti-arrhythmic effects in BrS. Results:, Sustained and transient amplitude and duration alternans were both frequently followed by ventricular ectopic beats and ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation. Diastolic intervals (DIs) that coincided with onsets of transient (tr) or sustained (ss) alternans in MAP duration (DI*) and amplitude (DI,) were determined. Kruskal,Wallis tests followed by Bonferroni-corrected Mann,Whitney U -tests were applied to these DI results sorted by recording site, pharmacological conditions or experimental populations. WT hearts showed no significant heterogeneities in any DI. Untreated Scn5a+/, hearts showed earlier onsets of transient but not sustained duration alternans in LV endocardium compared with RV endocardium or LV epicardium. Flecainide administration caused earlier onsets of both transient and sustained duration alternans selectively in the RV epicardium in the Scn5a+/, hearts. Conclusion:, These findings in a genetic model thus implicate RV epicardial changes in the arrhythmogenicity produced by flecainide challenge in previously asymptomatic clinical BrS. [source]


    Reactive oxygen species in rostral ventrolateral medulla modulate cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex in rats

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 4 2009
    M.-K. Zhong
    Abstract Aim:, The aim of the present study was to investigate whether reactive oxygen species (ROS) in rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) modulate cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex (CSAR) and the enhanced CSAR response caused by microinjection of angiotensin II (Ang II) into the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Methods:, Under urethane and ,-chloralose anaesthesia, renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were recorded in sinoaortic-denervated and cervical-vagotomized rats. The CSAR was evaluated by the RSNA response to epicardial application of capsaicin (1.0 nmol). Results:, Bilateral RVLM microinjection of tempol (a superoxide anion scavenger) or polyethylene glycol-superoxide dismutase (PEG-SOD, an analogue of endogenous superoxide dismutase) attenuated the CSAR, but did not cause significant change in baseline RSNA and MAP. NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitors apocynin or phenylarsine oxide (PAO) also showed similar effects, but SOD inhibitor diethyldithio-carbamic acid (DETC) enhanced the CSAR and baseline RSNA, and increased the baseline MAP. Bilateral PVN microinjection of Ang II (0.3 nmol) enhanced the CSAR and increased RSNA and MAP, which was inhibited by the pre-treatment with RVLM administration of tempol, PEG-SOD, apocynin or PAO. The pre-treatment with DETC in the RVLM only showed a tendency in potentiating the CSAR response of Ang II in the PVN, but significantly potentiated the RSNA and MAP responses of Ang II. Conclusion:, These results suggest that the NAD(P)H oxidase-derived ROS in the RVLM modulate the CSAR. The ROS in the RVLM is necessary for the enhanced CSAR response caused by Ang II in the PVN. [source]


    Chronic inhibition of standing behaviour alters baroreceptor reflex function in rats

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 3 2009
    H. Waki
    Abstract Aim:, To investigate whether daily orthostatic stress during development is an important factor affecting arterial baroreceptor reflex function, we examined the effect of chronic inhibition of upright standing behaviour on the baroreceptor reflex function in rats. Methods:, Upright standing behaviour was chronically inhibited during the developmental period between 3 and 8 weeks of age in Sprague,Dawley rats and heart rate (HR) and aortic nerve activity in response to increased and decreased mean arterial pressure (MAP) was measured after the treatment period. Results:, The baroreceptor cardiac gain in the rats grown without standing behaviour was significantly lower than the control rats grown in a normal commercial cage (1.0 0.1 beats min,1 mmHg,1 vs. 1.6 0.2 beatsmin,1 mmHg,1, P < 0.05). The range of HR change in the MAP,HR functional curve was also lowered by chronic inhibition of orthostatic behaviour (56.2 5.9 beats min,1) compared with that of the control rats (76.8 6.9 beats min,1, P < 0.05). However the aortic afferent function remained normal after the treatment period, indicating that the attenuated baroreceptor reflex function may be due to other mechanisms involving functional alterations in the cardiovascular centres, efferents and/or peripheral organs. Body weight and adrenal weight were not affected by the inhibition of orthostatic behaviour, suggesting that the animals were not exposed to specific stress by this treatment. Conclusion:, These results indicate that active haemodynamic changes induced by orthostatic behaviour are an important factor for setting the basal level of reflex function during development. Moreover, our experimental model may be useful for studying mechanisms of attenuated baroreceptor reflex observed after exposure to a chronic inactive condition. [source]


    Platelet activating factor (PAF) increases plasma protein extravasation and induces lowering of interstitial fluid pressure (Pif) in rat skin

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 1 2005
    V. V. Iversen
    Abstract Aim:, To investigate the ability of the microdialysis technique to measure capillary selectivity of different sized plasma proteins induced by local administration of platelet activating factor (PAF). Methods:, We used hollow plasmapheresis fibres with 3 cm membrane (cut off 3000 kDa) placed on the back of anaesthetized rats. Results:, Platelet activating factor (50 ,g mL,1) administered locally via the fibre, increased extravasation of radiolabelled 125I-HSA from plasma to the microdialysis fibre by approximately 900% compared both to baseline and the control fibre within 70 min (n = 6, P < 0.05). The extravasation in the control fibre did not change over time. HPLC measurement of plasma proteins in the microdialysis perfusate also demonstrated decreased capillary selectivity for proteins in the diameter range of 73 , 56 and 39 after local administration of PAF (n = 6, P < 0.05). PAF also significantly lowered interstitial fluid (Pif) pressure after subcutaneous administration (50 ,g mL,1). Mean arterial pressure (MAP) after intravenous injection of PAF (0.4 ,g kg,1) fell instantly by about 50 mmHg, and stabilized at 50 mmHg after 15 min (n = 6). MAP was unaltered when PAF was given through the microdialysis fibre (n = 4). Both total tissue water (TTW) and extravasation of albumin, measured as the plasma-to-tissue clearance (E-alb) showed a significant increase after PAF (n = 7, P < 0.05). Conclusions:, The present study demonstrates that PAF induces plasma protein extravasation and decrease capillary selectivity of different sized plasma proteins. It also increases transcapillary fluid flux, and lowers Pif, indicating a role for PAF in the interstitium for generation of transcapillary transport of water and large molecules followed by formation of oedema. [source]


    Role of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in response to hypertonic saline loading in rats

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 4 2004
    R. Wangensteen
    Abstract Aims:, This study analyses the influence of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) blockade with 7-nitroindazole (7NI) on the haemodynamic and renal response to a hypertonic saline load (HSL). We also evaluated the effects of non-specific NOS inhibitor N, -nitro- l -arginine methyl ester (l -NAME). Methods:, The following groups were used: controls, rats treated with 7NI at 0.5 or 5 mg kg,1, and rats treated with l -NAME at 0.5 or 5 mg kg,1. A further five groups received an isotonic saline load (ISL). Results:, Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was significantly increased in control rats after HSL. MAP was further increased in both 7NI-treated groups, and the l -NAME groups showed marked dose-related pressor responses. During ISL, MAP was only significantly increased in the group treated with 5 mg kg,1 of l -NAME. The pressure,natriuresis relationship during the experimental period after the HSL was reduced in the 7NI group treated with 5 mg kg,1 and severely attenuated in both l -NAME groups. The increase in plasma sodium was significantly greater after the HSL in both 7NI groups and both l -NAME groups compared with controls. Conclusions:, The present results suggest that nNOS and other NOS isozymes play a counter-regulatory role in the pressor response to HSL. Moreover, the blockade of nNOS with the higher dose of 7NI produces a blunted pressure,natriuresis relationship in response to the HSL. Finally, it is concluded that nNOS participates in the homeostatic cardiovascular and renal response to hypertonic saline loading by attenuating the blood pressure increase and hypernatremia, and facilitating natriuresis. [source]


    Effect of angiotensin II and endothelin-1 receptor blockade on the haemodynamic and hormonal changes after acute blood loss and after retransfusion in conscious dogs

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 4 2004
    R. C. E. Francis
    Abstract Aim:, This study investigates angiotensin II and endothelin-1 mediated mechanisms involved in the haemodynamic, hormonal, and renal response towards acute hypotensive haemorrhage. Methods:, Conscious dogs were pre-treated with angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) and/or endothelin-A (ETA) receptor blockers or not. Protocol 1: After a 60-min baseline period, 25% of the dog's blood was rapidly withdrawn. The blood was retransfused 60 min later and data recorded for another hour. Protocol 2: Likewise, but preceded by AT1 blockade with i.v. Losartan. Protocol 3: Likewise, but preceded by ETA blockade with i.v. ABT-627. Protocol 4: Likewise, but with combined AT1plus ETAblockade. Results:, In controls, haemorrhage decreased mean arterial pressure (MAP) by approximately 25%, cardiac output by approximately 40%, and urine volume by approximately 60%, increased angiotensin II (3.1-fold), endothelin-1 (1.13-fold), vasopressin (116-fold), and adrenaline concentrations (3.2-fold). Glomerular filtration rate and noradrenaline concentrations remained unchanged. During AT1 blockade, the MAP decrease was exaggerated (,40%) and glomerular filtration rate fell. During ETA blockade, noradrenaline increased after haemorrhage instead of adrenaline, and the MAP recovery after retransfusion was blunted. The decrease in cardiac output was similar in all protocols. Conclusions:, Angiotensin II is more important than endothelin-1 for the short-term regulation of MAP and glomerular filtration rate after haemorrhage, whereas endothelin-1 seems necessary for complete MAP recovery after retransfusion. After haemorrhage, endothelin-1 seems to facilitate adrenaline release and to blunt noradrenaline release. Haemorrhage-induced compensatory mechanisms maintain blood flow more effectively than blood pressure, as the decrease in cardiac output , but not MAP , was similar in all protocols. [source]


    Twenty-four-hour non-invasive monitoring of systemic haemodynamics and cerebral blood flow velocity in healthy humans

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 1 2002
    M. DIAMANT
    ABSTRACT Acute short-term changes in blood pressure (BP) and cardiac output (CO) affect cerebral blood flow (CBF) in healthy subjects. As yet, however, we do not know how spontaneous fluctuations in BP and CO influence cerebral circulation throughout 24 h. We performed simultaneous monitoring of BP, systemic haemodynamic parameters and blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (MCAV) in seven healthy subjects during a 24-h period. Finger BP was recorded continuously during 24 h by Portapres and bilateral MCAV was measured by transcranial Doppler (TCD) during the first 15 min of every hour. The subjects remained supine during TCD recordings and during the night, otherwise they were seated upright in bed. Stroke volume (SV), CO and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were determined by Modelflow analysis. The 15 min mean value of each parameter was assumed to represent the mean of the corresponding hour. There were no significant differences between right vs. left, nor between mean daytime vs. night time MCAV. Intrasubject comparison of the twenty-four 15-min MCAV recordings showed marked variations (P < 0.001). Within each single 15-min recording period, however, MCAV was stable whereas BP showed significant short-term variations (P < 0.01). A day,night difference in BP was only observed when daytime BP was evaluated from recordings in the seated position (P < 0.02), not in supine recordings. Throughout 24 h, MCAV was associated with SV and CO (P < 0.001), to a lesser extent with mean arterial pressure (MAP; P < 0.005), not with heart rate (HR) or TPR. These results indicate that in healthy subjects MCAV remains stable when measured under constant supine conditions but shows significant variations throughout 24 h because of activity. Moreover, changes in SV and CO, and to a lesser extent BP variations, affect MCAV throughout 24 h. [source]


    Expression and distribution of distinct variants of E-MAP-115 during proliferation and differentiation of human intestinal epithelial cells

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 4 2003
    Marie-Thrse Vanier
    Abstract Epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation occur concomitant with striking remodeling of the cytoskeleton. Microtubules (MTs) play important roles in these processes, during which the MTs themselves are reorganized and stabilized by microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs). Among the proteins classified as structural MAPs, E-MAP-115 (also named ensconsin) is preferentially expressed in cells of epithelial origin. The aims of this study were, first, to determine if E-MAP-115, like other MAPs, is expressed as different isoforms during differentiation and, second, to perform a detailed analysis of the expression and distribution of any E-MAP-115 variants detected in intestinal epithelial cells during their polarization/differentiation. It was our expectation that these data would help us to develop hypotheses concerning the role of this MAP in epithelial development. We report the expression of three E-MAP-115 transcripts encoding isoforms of 115, 105, and 95 kDa; two display an expression gradient inverse to the third one as Caco-2 cells progress from proliferation through the stages of differentiation. To monitor the proteins produced from each transcript, we used purified polyclonal antibodies against synthetic peptides contained within the 115, 105, and 95 kDa isoforms to assay proliferating and differentiating CaCo-2 cells. Our results indicate that the expression and MT-binding capacity of the 115, 105, and 95 kDa isoforms vary upon proliferation/differentiation of the cells. E-MAP-115 proteins colocalize with MTs in proliferative and differentiated Caco-2 cells; in vivo, they are expressed in both crypt and villus epithelial cells where they are mainly concentrated at the apical pole of the cells. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 55:221,231, 2003. 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Influence of neurohumoral blockade on heart rate and blood pressure responses to haemorrhage in isoflurane anaesthetized rats

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 3 2000
    UllmanArticle first published online: 24 DEC 200
    Four groups of Sprague,Dawley rats were anaesthetized with isoflurane (ISO) (1.7% end-tidal concentration) in 40% oxygen, and mechanically ventilated. The animals were bled 15 mL kg,1 b.w. from the femoral vein over 10 min, followed by an observation period of 30 min. Ten minutes before haemorrhage each group of animals was pre-treated with intravenous injection/infusion of either: isotonic saline (Group B; CON; n=7), vasopressin V1 -receptor antagonist [d(CH2)5Tyr(Me)AVP; 10 ,g kg,1] (Group C; AVP-a; n=7), the non-selective angiotensin II receptor antagonist saralasin (10 ,g kg,1 min,1) (Group D; SAR; n=7) or hexamethonium (10 mg kg,1) (Group E; HEX; n=7). A separate group of conscious animals were pre-treated with isotonic NaCl and subjected to the same haemorrhage protocol (Group A; AW; n=7). Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and blood gases were observed during the experiments. Only pre-treatment with SAR and HEX reduced MAP significantly. The pre-haemorrhage HR was only affected by HEX, which caused a reduction by 17%. The HR was significantly lower at the end of haemorrhage compared with pre-haemorrhage levels in all groups except that group treated with HEX. In that group the HR changed in the opposite direction. The ability to maintain MAP during haemorrhage, and the post-haemorrhage period, was significantly impaired in the groups treated with AVP-a, SAR or HEX compared with the group receiving NaCl. It is concluded that autonomic nervous activity is of major importance for the maintenance of MAP during isoflurane anaesthesia, whereas circulating angiotensin II and vasopressin levels contribute to a much smaller degree in this regard. General anaesthesia in combination with different degrees of neurohumoral blockade impairs the haemodynamic responses to blood loss, seen in conscious individuals. The impairment involves both the early and late phases during haemorrhage, as well as the post-bleeding recovery period. All three neurohumoral systems (autonomic nervous activity, angiotensin II and vasopressin) are of importance for regulating MAP during and after haemorrhage, although the autonomic nervous outflow appears to contribute to a larger extent. [source]


    Validation of the World Health Organization Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST): report of results from the Australian site

    DRUG AND ALCOHOL REVIEW, Issue 3 2005
    DAVID A. L. NEWCOMBE
    Abstract The concurrent, construct, discriminative and predictive validity of the World Health Organization's Alcohol Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) were examined in an Australian sample. One hundred and fifty participants, recruited from drug treatment (n = 50) and primary health care (PHC) settings (n = 100), were administered a battery of instruments at baseline and a modified battery at 3 months. Measures included the ASSIST; the Addiction Severity Index-Lite (ASI-Lite); the Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS); the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI-Plus); the Rating of Injection Site Condition (RISC); the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST); the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT); the Revised Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire (RTQ); and the Maudsely Addiction Profile (MAP). Concurrent validity was demonstrated by significant correlations between ASSIST scores and scores from the ASI-lite, SDS, AUDIT and DAST; and significantly greater ASSIST scores for those with diagnoses of abuse or dependence. Construct validity was established by significant correlations between ASSIST scores and measures of risk factors for the development of drug and alcohol problems. Participants diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder or antisocial personality disorder had significantly higher ASSIST scores than those not diagnosed as such. Discriminative validity was established by the capacity of the ASSIST to discriminate between substance use, abuse and dependence. ROC analysis was able to establish cut-off scores for an Australian sample, with suitable specificities and sensitivities for most substances. Predictive validity was demonstrated by similarity in ASSIST scores obtained at baseline and at follow-up. The findings demonstrated that the ASSIST is a valid screening test for psychoactive substance use in individuals who use a number of substances and have varying degrees of substance use. [source]


    Anterior neural centres in echinoderm bipinnaria and auricularia larvae: cell types and organization

    ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 2 2002
    Thurston C. Lacalli
    Abstract Serial and interval electron micrograph series were used to examine the anterior part of the ciliary band system in the bipinnaria larva of Pisaster ochraceus and the auricularia larva of Stichopus californicus for evidence of ganglion-like organization. The bipinnaria has paired concentrations of Multipolar with Apical Processes (MAP) cells in this region that correspond in position with previously identified clusters of serotonergic and peptidergic neurones. MAP cells located in the centre of the band have well-developed apical processes, but no cilium. Those at the sides of the band have fewer processes, but some have recumbent cilia that extend under the glycocalyx, suggesting a sensory function. Comparable cell types are not found elsewhere in the band, a clear indication that the apical parts of the ciliary band system are organized in a distinctive fashion. Two neuronal cell types were identified in the apical region of the auricularia larva, a conventional bipolar neurone that corresponds with previously described serotonergic apical cells, and more numerous MAP cells for which there is no previous record and hence, no known transmitter. Previous immunocytochemical studies are summarized and re-examined in the light of these results. Relevant evolutionary issues are also discussed, but the data fail to provide strong evidence either for or against Garstang's hypothesis that the chordate brain and spinal cord derive from larval ciliary bands resembling those of modern echinoderms. [source]


    Validation of the alcohol, smoking and substance involvement screening test (ASSIST)

    ADDICTION, Issue 6 2008
    Rachel Humeniuk
    ABSTRACT Aim The concurrent, construct and discriminative validity of the World Health Organization's Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) were examined in a multi-site international study. Participants One thousand and 47 participants, recruited from drug treatment (n = 350) and primary health care (PHC) settings (n = 697), were administered a battery of instruments. Measurements Measures included the ASSIST; the Addiction Severity Index-Lite (ASI-Lite); the Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS); the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI-Plus); the Rating of Injection Site Condition (RISC); the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST); the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT); the Revised Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire (RTQ); and the Maudsley Addiction Profile (MAP). Findings Concurrent validity was demonstrated by significant correlations between ASSIST scores and scores from the ASI-Lite (r = 0.76,0.88), SDS (r = 0.59), AUDIT (r = 0.82) and RTQ (r = 0.78); and significantly greater ASSIST scores for those with MINI-Plus diagnoses of abuse or dependence (P < 0.001). Construct validity was established by significant correlations between ASSIST scores and measures of risk factors for the development of drug and alcohol problems (r = 0.48,0.76). Discriminative validity was established by the capacity of the ASSIST to discriminate between substance use, abuse and dependence. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to establish cut-off scores with suitable specificities (50,96%) and sensitivities (54,97%) for most substances. Conclusions The findings demonstrated that the ASSIST is a valid screening test for identifying psychoactive substance use in individuals who use a number of substances and have varying degrees of substance use. [source]


    Post-treatment of anaerobically treated medium-age landfill leachate

    ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRESS & SUSTAINABLE ENERGY, Issue 1 2010
    Ebru Akkaya
    Abstract This study focused on the removal of COD and NH4+ from medium-age leachate. Experiments were performed in a laboratory-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), a membrane bioreactor (MBR), and using magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) precipitation. MBR and MAP were used for the post-treatment steps for anaerobically treated leachate to increase the removal of organics and ammonium. The UASB reactor removed nearly all biodegradable organics and supplied constant effluent COD for all concentration ranges of influent leachate. Ammonium removal efficiency in the UASB reactor was relatively low and the average value was ,7.9%. Integration of MBR to the effluent of UASB reactor increased the average COD removal efficiency from 51.8 to 65.6% and maximum removal efficiency increased to 74.3%. MAP precipitation was applied as a final step to decrease the ammonium concentration in the effluent of UASB+MBR reactors. The effect of pH and the molar ratio of MAP constituents on the removal of ammonium were evaluated. At optimal conditions (pH: 9.0 and Mg/NH4/PO4: 1/1.2/1.2), 96.6% of ammonium was removed and MAP provided additional COD and turbidity treatment. Consequently, the combined system of MBR and MAP precipitation could be used as an appropriate post treatment option for the anaerobically treated medium-age landfill leachate. 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog, 2010 [source]


    Protein kinase C and extracellular signal regulated kinase are involved in cardiac hypertrophy of rats with progressive renal injury

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION, Issue 2 2004
    H. Takahashi
    Abstract Increased cardiovascular mortality is an unresolved problem in patients with chronic renal failure. Cardiac hypertrophy is observed in the majority of patients with chronic renal failure undergoing haemodialysis. However, the mechanisms, including signal transduction pathways, responsible for cardiac hypertrophy in renal failure remain unknown. We examined the subcellular localization of protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms and phosphorylation activities of 3 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase families in hypertrophied hearts of progressive renal injury rat model by subtotal nephrectomy (SNx). We also examined the effects of a novel angiotensin II type-1 receptor antagonist, CS-866, on the PKC translocation, MAP kinase activity and cardiac hypertrophy in SNx rats. The left ventricle/body weight ratios were significantly larger in SNx rats than in sham rats at 1, 2, and 4 weeks after surgery. The translocation of PKC, and , isoforms to membranous fraction was observed in SNx rat hearts at 1, 2, and 4 weeks after surgery. Activation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, but not p38 MAP kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), was observed at 1 and 2 weeks after surgery. Angiotensin II receptor blockade with CS-866 (1 mg kg,1 day,1) prevented cardiac hypertrophy, PKC translocation and ERK1/2 activation in SNx rats without significant changes in blood pressure. These data suggest that PKC and ERK1/2 are activated by an angiotensin II receptor-mediated pathway and might play an important role in the progression of cardiac hypertrophy in renal failure. [source]


    Low cross-reactivity of T-cell responses against lipids from Mycobacterium bovis and M. avium paratuberculosis during natural infection

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 11 2009
    Ildiko Van Rhijn
    Abstract Although CD1 proteins are known to present mycobacterial lipid antigens to T cells, there is little understanding of the in vivo behavior of T cells restricted by CD1a, CD1b and CD1c, and the relative immunogenicity and immunodominance of individual lipids within the total array of lipids that comprise a bacterium. Because bovines express multiple CD1 proteins and are natural hosts of Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis (MAP), we used them as a new animal model of CD1 function. Here, we report the surprisingly divergent responses against lipids produced by these two pathogens during infection. Despite considerable overlap in lipid content, only three out of 69 animals cross-react with M. bovis and MAP total lipid preparations. The unidentified immunodominant compound of M. bovis is a hydrophilic compound, whereas the immunodominant lipid of MAP is presented by CD1b and was identified as glucose monomycolate (GMM). The preferential recognition of GMM antigen by MAP-infected cattle may be explained by the higher expression of GMM by MAP than by M. bovis. The bacterial species-specific nature of the CD1-restricted, adaptive T-cell response affects the approach to development of lipid based immunodiagnostic tests. [source]


    PRECLINICAL STUDY: Proteomic analysis of methamphetamine-induced reinforcement processes within the mesolimbic dopamine system

    ADDICTION BIOLOGY, Issue 3-4 2008
    Moon Hee Yang
    ABSTRACT Methamphetamine (MAP) is a commonly used, addictive drug, and a powerful stimulant that dramatically affects the central nervous system. In this study, we used the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm in order to study the reinforcing properties of MAP and the herewith associated changes in proteins within the mesolimbic dopamine system. A CPP was induced by MAP after three intermittent intraperitoneal injections (1 mg/kg) in rats and protein profiles in the nucleus accumbens, striatum, prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex and hippocampus were compared with a saline-treated control group. In addition, a group of animals was run through extinction and protein profiles were compared with a non-extinguished group. Protein screening was conducted using two-dimensional electrophoresis analysis which identified 27 proteins in the group that showed MAP-induced CPP. Some of the proteins were confirmed by Western lot analysis. Identified proteins had functions related to the cytoskeleton, transport/endocytosis or exocytosis (e.g. profilin-2 and syntaxin-binding protein), and signal transduction, among others. [source]


    Bi-directional regulation of postsynaptic cortactin distribution by BDNF and NMDA receptor activity

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE, Issue 12 2005
    Junko Iki
    Abstract Cortactin is an F-actin-associated protein which interacts with the postsynaptic scaffolding protein Shank at the SH3 domain and is localized within the dendritic spine in the mouse neuron. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-based time-lapse imaging revealed cortactin redistribution from dendritic cytoplasm to postsynaptic sites by application of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). This response was mediated by mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation and was dependent on the C-terminal SH3 domain. In contrast, activation of N -methyl- d -aspartate (NMDA) receptors induced loss of cortactin from postsynaptic sites. This NMDA-dependent redistribution was blocked by an Src family kinase inhibitor. Conversely, increasing Src family kinase activity induced cortactin phosphorylation and loss of cortactin from the postsynaptic sites. Finally, blocking of endogenous BDNF reduced the amount of cortactin at the postsynaptic sites and an NMDA receptor antagonist prevented this reduction. These results indicate the importance of counterbalance between BDNF and NMDA receptor-mediated signalling in the reorganization of the postsynaptic actin cytoskeleton during neuronal development. [source]


    Two-thumb vs Two-finger Chest Compression in an Infant Model of Prolonged Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 10 2000
    Michele L. Dorfsman MD
    Abstract. Objective: Previous experiments in the authors swine lab have shown that cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) using two-thumb chest compression with a thoracic squeeze (TT) produces higher blood and perfusion pressures when compared with the American Heart Association (AHA)-recommended two-finger (TF) technique. Previous studies were of short duration (1-2 minutes). The hypothesis was that TT would be superior to TF during prolonged CPR in an infant model. Methods: This was a prospective, randomized crossover experiment in a laboratory setting. Twenty-one AHA-certified rescuers performed basic CPR for two 10-minute periods, one with TT and the other with TF. Trials were separated by 2-14 days, and the order was randomly assigned. The experimental circuit consisted of a modified manikin with a fixed-volume arterial system attached to a neonatal monitor via an arterial pressure transducer. The arterial circuit was composed of a 50-mL bag of normal saline solution (air removed) attached to the manikin chest plate and connected to the transducer with a 20-gauge intravenous catheter and tubing. Rescuers were blinded to the arterial pressure tracing. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were recorded in mm Hg, and pulse pressures (PPs) were calculated. Data were analyzed with two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance. Sphericity assumed modeling, with Greenhouse-Geisser and Huynh-Feldt adjustments, was applied. Results: Marginal means for TT SBP (68.9), DBP (17.6), MAP (35.3), and PP (51.4) were higher than for TF SBP (44.8), DBP (12.5), MAP (23.3), and PP (32.2). All four pressures were significantly different between the two techniques (p , 0.001). Conclusion: In this infant CPR model, TT chest compression produced higher MAP, SBP, DBP, and PP when compared with TF chest compression during a clinically relevant duration of prolonged CPR. [source]


    Age-related analysis of insulin resistance, body weight and arterial pressure in the Zucker fatty rat

    EXPERIMENTAL PHYSIOLOGY, Issue 1 2009
    Francesco Di Nardo
    The evolution with ageing of insulin resistance, body weight (BW) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) was studied in a group of Zucker fatty rats (ZFRs, n= 22), between 7 and 16 weeks of age, compared with an age-matched control group of Zucker lean rats (ZLRs, n= 22). The minimal model of glucose kinetics was applied to estimate glucose effectiveness, SG, and insulin sensitivity, SI, from insulinaemia and glycaemia measured during a 70 min intravenous glucose tolerance test. No correlation was found between SG and age in both ZFR and ZLR groups. No significant changes in mean SG between the two groups indicated no alteration of glucose-mediated glucose disposal. Estimates of SI from individual ZFRs were independent of age and, on average, showed 83% reduction (P < 0.001) compared with the ZLR group. Despite the lack of alteration of SI with age, the ZFR group showed an age-related increase of MAP, which correlated with increasing BW (r = 0.71 and P < 0.001). These results support the hypothesis that in our ZFRs, as a suitable genetic model of obesity and hypertension, insulin resistance is fully established at the age of 7 weeks and remains practically unaltered until at least the sixteenth week. An age-related increase in arterial pressure, observed in this strain, relates more properly to increasing BW, rather than insulin resistance. Development of hypertension with increasing age and BW may result from an enhanced insulin-mediated activity of the sympathetic nervous system, as observed in our previously reported study. [source]


    High extracellular [Mg2+]-induced increase in intracellular [Mg2+] and decrease in intracellular [Na+] are associated with activation of p38 MAP kinase and ERK2 in guinea-pig heart

    EXPERIMENTAL PHYSIOLOGY, Issue 12 2008
    Shang-Jin Kim
    High extracellular Mg2+ concentrations ([Mg2+]o) caused a remarkable concentration-dependent and reversible increase in intracellular Mg2+ concentrations ([Mg2+]i) in beating and quiescent guinea-pig papillary muscles, accompanied by a definite decrease in intracellular Na+ concentrations ([Na+]i). A change in 1 mm[Mg2+]o evoked a direct change in 0.0161 mm[Mg2+]i and an inverse change in 0.0263 mm[Na+]i. Imipramine completely abolished the high [Mg2+]o -induced decrease in [Na+]i and remarkably diminished the high [Mg2+]o -induced increase in [Mg2+]i in papillary muscles. High [Mg2+]o also produced a significant activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and extracellular signal-related kinase 2 (ERK2) that was inhibited by pretreatment with imipramine. These results suggest that the high [Mg2+]o -induced increase in [Mg2+]i could be coupled with the decrease in [Na+]i, which might involve activation of the reverse mode of Na+,Mg2+ exchange, accompanied by activation of p38 MAP kinase and ERK2 in the guinea-pig heart. [source]


    Reliability of orthostatic responses in healthy men aged between 65 and 75 years

    EXPERIMENTAL PHYSIOLOGY, Issue 4 2005
    Tim J. Gabbett
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the short-, medium- and long-term reproducibility of cardiovascular responses during 90 head-up tilt (HUT) in healthy older men. Twenty-eight healthy male subjects aged 69 (95% confidence intervals, 68,70) years participated in the study. Eight subjects underwent duplicate 90 HUT tests on consecutive days, while 20 subjects underwent four 90 HUT tests performed at baseline, and after 1 week, 1 month and 1 year. Following a 20-min supine resting period, each subject was rapidly tilted to the upright vertical position (90 HUT) and remained in that position for 15 min. Beat-by-beat recordings of mean (MAP), systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) pressures were made via Finapres, while heart rate (HR) was monitored continuously from an electrocardiogram. No significant test,retest differences (P > 0.05) were observed for the changes in HR, MAP, SBP or DBP during 90 HUT. These measurements demonstrated high reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficient, r= 0.91,0.99, P < 0.05). The supine resting and tilted HR, MAP, SBP and DBP over the 1-week, 1-month and 1-year period were not significantly different (P > 0.05) from baseline, and demonstrated high reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficient, r= 0.82,0.98, P < 0.05). The results of this study demonstrate that in healthy older men, cardiovascular responses during orthostasis are highly reproducible, and this reproducibility is maintained over a 12-month period. These findings demonstrate that the 90 HUT test offers a reproducible method of monitoring longitudinal orthostatic responses in healthy older men. [source]


    Nitric oxide and thyroid gland: modulation of cardiovascular function in autonomic-blocked anaesthetized rats

    EXPERIMENTAL PHYSIOLOGY, Issue 3 2004
    Andrea Lorena Fellet
    We have previously reported that acute administration of NG -nitro- l -arginine methyl ester (l -NAME) increases the mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) in autonomic-blocked (CAB) anaesthetized rats. In the present study we examined whether thyroid and adrenal glands are involved in these pressor and chronotropic responses. Sprague-Dawley rats were studied after bilateral vagotomy and ganglionic blockade with hexamethonium (10 mg kg,1), and stabilization of MAP with infusion of phenylephrine (PE) (6 ,g kg,1 min,1). The rats were divided into groups: L, CAB; PE, CAB + PE bolus (6 ,g kg,1); L-TX, thyroidectomy + CAB; L-AX, adrenalectomy + CAB; TX, only thyroidectomy; C, CAB. L, L-AX and L-TX groups received a bolus of l -NAME (7.5 mg kg,1). Triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxin (T4) and thyrotropin (TSH) levels were measured in L and L-TX rats before and after l -NAME administration. Reduced nicotamide adenine dinucleotide (NADPH) diaphorase activity was determined in heart and aorta of the TX group. The pressor response induced by l -NAME was similar in all groups. l -NAME-induced-tachycardia was associated with this rise in MAP. Adrenalectomy did not modify this chronotropic response, but it was attenuated by thyroidectomy. Thyroidectomy by itself decreased the circulating levels of T3 but it had no effect on the plasma levels of T4 and TSH. L and L-TX groups showed similar levels of circulating T4 and TSH, meanwhile the plasma level of T3 decreased in the L group. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in atria as well as in aorta was greater in the TX group compared with C. When autonomic influences are removed, the thyroid gland modulates intrinsic heart rate via a mechanism that involves, at least in part, the nitric oxide pathway. [source]


    Recent Insights into Carotid Baroreflex Function in Humans Using the Variable Pressure Neck Chamber

    EXPERIMENTAL PHYSIOLOGY, Issue 6 2003
    Paul J. Fadel
    The variable pressure neck chamber has provided an invaluable research tool for the non-invasive assessment of carotid baroreflex (CBR) function in human investigations. The ability to construct complete stimulus-response curves and define specific parameters of the reflex function curve permits statistical comparisons of baroreflex function between different experimental conditions, such as rest and exercise. Results have convincingly indicated that the CBR stimulus-response curve is reset during exercise in an intensity-dependent manner to functionally operate around the prevailing pressure elicited by the exercise workload. Furthermore, both at rest and during exercise, alterations in stroke volume do not contribute importantly to the maintenance of arterial blood pressure by the carotid baroreceptors, and therefore, any reflex-induced changes in cardiac output (Q) are the result of CBR-mediated changes in heart rate. However, more importantly, the CBR-induced changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP) are primarily mediated by alterations in vascular conductance with only minimal contributions from Q to the initial reflex MAP response. Thus, the capacity of the CBR to regulate blood pressure depends critically on its ability to alter vascular tone both at rest and during exercise. This review will emphasize the utility of the variable pressure neck chamber to assess CBR function in human experimental investigations and the mechanisms by which the CBR responds to alterations in arterial blood pressure both at rest and during exercise. [source]


    Identification of a 250 kDa putative microtubule-associated protein as bovine ferritin

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 3 2005
    Evidence for a ferritin, microtubule interaction
    We reported previously on the purification and partial characterization of a putative microtubule-associated protein (MAP) from bovine adrenal cortex with an approximate molecular mass of 250 kDa. The protein was expressed ubiquitously in mammalian tissues, and bound to microtubules in vitro and in vivo, but failed to promote tubulin polymerization into microtubules. In the present study, partial amino acid sequencing revealed that the protein shares an identical primary structure with the widely distributed iron storage protein, ferritin. We also found that the putative MAP and ferritin are indistinguishable from each other by electrophoretic mobility, immunological properties and morphological appearance. Moreover, the putative MAP conserves the iron storage and incorporation properties of ferritin, confirming that the two are structurally and functionally the same protein. This fact led us to investigate the interaction of ferritin with microtubules by direct electron microscopic observations. Ferritin was bound to microtubules either singly or in the form of large intermolecular aggregates. We suggest that the formation of intermolecular aggregates contributes to the intracellular stability of ferritin. The interactions between ferritin and microtubules observed in this study, in conjunction with the previous report that the administration of microtubule depolymerizing drugs increases the serum release of ferritin in rats [Ramm GA, Powell LW & Halliday JW (1996) J Gastroenterol Hepatol11, 1072,1078], support the probable role of microtubules in regulating the intracellular concentration and release of ferritin under different physiological circumstances. [source]


    The P2Y1 receptor mediates ADP-induced p38 kinase-activating factor generation in human platelets

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 8 2000
    Carol Dangelmaier
    U46619, a thromboxane A2 mimetic, but not ADP, caused activation of p38 mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase in aspirin-treated platelets. In nonaspirinated human platelets ADP activated p38 MAP kinase in both a time-and concentration-dependent manner, suggesting that ADP-induced p38 MAP kinase activation requires generation of thromboxane A2. However, neither a thromboxane A2/prostaglandin H2 receptor antagonist SQ29548 and a thromboxane synthase inhibitor, furegrelate, either alone or together, nor indomethacin blocked ADP-induced p38 kinase activation in nonaspirinated platelets. Other cycloxygenase products, PGE2, PGD2, and PGF2,, failed to activate p38 kinase in aspirin-treated platelets. Hence, ADP must be generating an agonist, other than thromboxane A2, via an aspirin-sensitive pathway, which is capable of activating p38 kinase. AR-C66096, a P2TAC (platelet ADP receptor coupled to inhibition of adenylate cyclase) antagonist, did not inhibit ADP-induced p38 MAP kinase activation. The P2X receptor selective agonist, ,,,-methylene ATP, failed to activate p38 MAP kinase. On the other hand, the P2Y1 receptor selective antagonist, adenosine-2,-phosphate-5,-phosphate inhibited ADP-induced p38 kinase activation in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating that the P2Y1 receptor alone mediates ADP-induced generation of the p38 kinase-activating factor. These results demonstrate that ADP causes the generation of a factor in human platelets, which can activate p38 kinase, and that this response is mediated by the P2Y1 receptor. Neither the P2TAC receptor nor the P2X1 receptor has any significant role in this response. [source]


    Below-ground carbon flux and partitioning: global patterns and response to temperature

    FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY, Issue 6 2008
    C. M. Litton
    Summary 1The fraction of gross primary production (GPP) that is total below-ground carbon flux (TBCF) and the fraction of TBCF that is below-ground net primary production (BNPP) represent globally significant C fluxes that are fundamental in regulating ecosystem C balance. However, global estimates of the partitioning of GPP to TBCF and of TBCF to BNPP, as well as the absolute size of these fluxes, remain highly uncertain. 2Efforts to model below-ground processes are hindered by methodological difficulties for estimating below-ground C cycling, the complexity of below-ground interactions, and an incomplete understanding of the response of GPP, TBCF and BNPP to climate change. Due to a paucity of available data, many terrestrial ecosystem models and ecosystem-level studies of whole stand C use efficiency rely on assumptions that: (i) C allocation patterns across large geographic, climatic and taxonomic scales are fixed; and (ii) c. 50% of TBCF is BNPP. 3Here, we examine available information on GPP, TBCF, BNPP, TBCF : GPP and BNPP : TBCF from a diverse global data base of forest ecosystems to understand patterns in below-ground C flux and partitioning, and their response to mean annual temperature (MAT). 4MAT and mean annual precipitation (MAP) covaried strongly across the global forest data base (37 mm increase in MAP for every 1 C increase in MAT). In all analyses, however, MAT was the most important variable explaining observed patterns in below-ground C processes. 5GPP, TBCF and BNPP all increased linearly across the global scale range of MAT. TBCF : GPP increased significantly with MAT for temperate and tropical ecosystems (> 5 C), but variability was high across the data set. BNPP : TBCF varied from 026 to 053 across the entire MAT gradient (,5 to 30 C), with a much narrower range of 042 to 053 for temperate and tropical ecosystems (5 to 30 C). 6Variability in the data sets was moderate and clear exceptions to the general patterns exist that likely relate to other factors important for determining below-ground C flux and partitioning, in particular water availability and nutrient supply. Still, our results highlight global patterns in below-ground C flux and partitioning in forests in response to MAT that in part confirm previously held assumptions. [source]


    Complement Activation in Emergency Department Patients With Severe Sepsis

    ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 4 2010
    John G. Younger
    Abstract Objectives:, This study assessed the extent and mechanism of complement activation in community-acquired sepsis at presentation to the emergency department (ED) and following 24 hours of quantitative resuscitation. Methods:, A prospective pilot study of patients with severe sepsis and healthy controls was conducted among individuals presenting to a tertiary care ED. Resuscitation, including antibiotics and therapies to normalize central venous and mean arterial pressure (MAP) and central venous oxygenation, was performed on all patients. Serum levels of Factor Bb (alternative pathway), C4d (classical and mannose-binding lectin [MBL] pathway), C3, C3a, and C5a were determined at presentation and 24 hours later among patients. Results:, Twenty patients and 10 healthy volunteer controls were enrolled. Compared to volunteers, all proteins measured were abnormally higher among septic patients (C4d 3.5-fold; Factor Bb 6.1-fold; C3 0.8-fold; C3a 11.6-fold; C5a 1.8-fold). Elevations in C5a were most strongly correlated with alternative pathway activation. Surprisingly, a slight but significant inverse relationship between illness severity (by sequential organ failure assessment [SOFA] score) and C5a levels at presentation was noted. Twenty-four hours of structured resuscitation did not, on average, affect any of the mediators studied. Conclusions:, Patients with community-acquired sepsis have extensive complement activation, particularly of the alternative pathway, at the time of presentation that was not significantly reversed by 24 hours of aggressive resuscitation. ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE,2010; 17:353,359 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine [source]