Mantle Structure (mantle + structure)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Uplift at lithospheric swells,I: seismic and gravity constraints on the crust and uppermost mantle structure of the Cape Verde mid-plate swell

D. J. Wilson
SUMMARY Wide-angle seismic data have been used to determine the velocity and density structure of the crust and uppermost mantle beneath the Cape Verdes mid-plate swell. Seismic modelling reveals a ,standard' oceanic crust, ,8 km in thickness, with no direct evidence for low-density bodies at the base of the crust. Gravity anomaly modelling within the constraints and resolution provided by the seismic model, does not preclude, however, a layer of crustal underplate up to 3 km thick beneath the swell crest. The modelling shows that while the seismically constrained crustal structure accounts for the short-wavelength free-air gravity anomaly, it fails to fully explain the long-wavelength anomaly. The main discrepancy is over the swell crest where the gravity anomaly, after correcting for crustal structure, is higher by about 30 mGal than it is over its flanks. The higher gravity can be explained if the top 100 km of the mantle beneath the swell crest is less dense than its surroundings by 30 kg m,3. The lack of evidence for low densities and velocities in the uppermost mantle, and high densities and velocities in the lower crust, suggests that neither a depleted swell root or crustal underplate are the origin of the observed shallower-than-predicted bathymetry and that, instead, the swell is most likely supported by dynamic uplift associated with an anomalously low density asthenospheric mantle. [source]

Imaging the lowermost mantle (D,) and the core,mantle boundary with SKKS coda waves

Ping Wang
SUMMARY In our previous studies we developed a method for imaging heterogeneity at and near the core,mantle boundary (CMB) with a generalized Radon transform (GRT) of (transverse component, broad-band) ScS data, and we developed a statistical model for producing images of the D, discontinuity with variable confidence levels. In these applications, the background is smooth and perturbations are represented as contrasts. Here we extend the theory to allow (known) discontinuities, such as the CMB, in the background model. The resulting imaging operator, which is formally not a GRT, can be used, either alone or along with ScS, for the imaging of lowermost mantle structure and, in particular, the D, discontinuity with the scattered SKKS wavefield. Synthetic seismograms calculated with the WKBJ method are used to test the performance of our approach. As a proof of concept, we transform ,38 000 radial component SKKS waveforms into image gathers of a CMB patch beneath Central America. The SKKS image gathers and image traces are in good agreement with the image traces obtained from the GRT transform of ScS data. [source]

A reflector at 200 km depth beneath the northwest Pacific

S. Rost
SUMMARY We present an analysis of precursors to PP produced by underside reflections from discontinuities in the upper mantle beneath the NW Pacific. The events used for this study occur in the western Pacific Rim (New Zealand, Fiji, Tonga, Solomon, New Guinea, Philippine Islands) and are recorded at the short-period Yellowknife Array (YKA) in northern Canada. The source,receiver combination results in PP reflection points which allow us to study the upper mantle structure in a corridor from the Hawaiian Islands to the Kuril subduction zone. To detect the weak precursors in the time window between the P arrival and the PP onset and to identify them as PP underside reflections, special array techniques are used. Our analysis indicates a reflector at a depth of ,200 km beneath the northwestern Pacific. This reflector shows strong topography of some tens of kilometres on length scales of several hundred kilometres, complicating the detection of this reflector in global or regional stacks of seismograms. Different models for the impedance jump across the reflector, the thickness and the possible fine structure of the reflector are modelled using synthetic seismograms and are compared with the data. The thickness of the reflector has to be less than 7 km and the P wave impedance contrast has to be larger than 5.0,6.5 per cent to be detected by this study. This corresponds to a P -velocity jump of ,4 per cent assuming the PREM density model. [source]

Microstructural tectonometamorphic processes and the development of gneissic layering: a mechanism for metamorphic segregation

The Mary granite, in the East Athabasca mylonite triangle, northern Saskatchewan, provides an example and a model for the development of non-migmatitic gneissic texture. Gneissic compositional layering developed through the simultaneous evolution of three microdomains corresponding to original plagioclase, orthopyroxene and matrix in the igneous rocks. Plagioclase phenocrysts were progressively deformed and recrystallized, first into core and mantle structures, and ultimately into plagioclase-rich layers or ribbons. Garnet preferentially developed in the outer portions of recrystallized mantles, and, with further deformation, produced garnet-rich sub-layers within the plagioclase-rich gneissic domains. Orthopyroxene was replaced by clinopyroxene and garnet (and hornblende if sufficient water was present), which were, in turn, drawn into layers with new garnet growth along the boundaries. The igneous matrix evolved through a number of transient fabric stages involving S-C fabrics, S-C-C, fabrics, and ultramylonitic domains. In addition, quartz veins were emplaced and subsequently deformed into quartz-rich gneissic layers. Moderate to highly strained samples display extreme mineralogical (compositional) segregation, yet most domains can be directly related to the original igneous precursors. The Mary granite was emplaced at approximately 900 C and 1.0 GPa and was metamorphosed at approximately 750 C and 1.0 GPa. The igneous rocks crystallized in the medium-pressure granulite field (Opx,Pl) but were metamorphosed on cooling into the high-pressure (Grt,Cpx,Pl) granulite field. The compositional segregation resulted from a dynamic, mutually reinforcing interaction between deformation, metamorphic and igneous processes in the deep crust. The production of gneissic texture by processes such as these may be the inevitable result of isobaric cooling of igneous rocks within a tectonically active deep crust. [source]