Mantle Rocks (mantle + rock)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Isotopic and petrological evidence of fluid,rock interaction at a Tethyan ocean,continent transition in the Alps: implications for tectonic processes and carbon transfer during early ocean formation

Abstract We report overprinting stable isotope evidence of fluid,rock interaction below two detachment faults along which mantle rocks were exhumed to the seafloor, between the respective landward and seaward limits of oceanic and continental crust, at a Tethyan ocean,continent transition (OCT). This OCT, which is presently exposed in the Tasna nappe (south-eastern Switzerland) is considered an on-land analogue of the well-studied Iberian OCT. We compare our results with the fault architecture (fault core,damage zone,protolith) described by Caine et al. [Geology (1996) Vol. 24, pp. 1025,1028]. We confirm the existence of a sharp boundary between the fault core and damage zone based on isotopic data, but the boundary between the damage zone and protolith is gradational. We identify evidence for: (1) pervasive isotopic modification to 8.4 ± 0.1, which accompanied or post-dated serpentinization of these mantle rocks at an estimated temperature of 67,109°C, (2) either (i) partial isolation of some highly strained regions [fault core(s) and mylonite] from this pervasive isotopic modification, because of permeability reduction (Caine et al.) or (ii) subsequent isotopic modification caused by structurally channelled flow of warm fluids within these highly strained regions, because of permeability enhancement, and (3) isotopic modification, which is associated with extensive calcification at T = 54,100°C, primarily beneath the younger of the two detachment faults and post-dating initial serpentinization. By comparing the volumetric extent of calcification with an experimentally verified model for calcite precipitation in veins, we conclude that calcification could have occurred in response to seawater infiltration, with a calculated flux rate of 0.1,0.2 m year,1 and a minimum duration of 0.2,4.0 × 104 years. The associated time-averaged uptake flux of carbon during this period was 8,120 mol m,2 year,1. By comparison with the estimated area of exhumed mantle rocks at the Iberian OCT, we calculate a maximum annual uptake flux for carbon of 2,30 Tg year,1. This is an order of magnitude greater than that for carbon exchange at the mid-ocean ridges and 0.1,1.4% of the global oceanic uptake flux for carbon. [source]

Ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism and exhumation of garnet peridotite in Pohorje, Eastern Alps

Abstract New evidence for ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism (UHPM) in the Eastern Alps is reported from garnet-bearing ultramafic rocks from the Pohorje Mountains in Slovenia. The garnet peridotites are closely associated with UHP kyanite eclogites. These rocks belong to the Lower Central Austroalpine basement unit of the Eastern Alps, exposed in the proximity of the Periadriatic fault. Ultramafic rocks have experienced a complex metamorphic history. On the basis of petrochemical data, garnet peridotites could have been derived from depleted mantle rocks that were subsequently metasomatized by melts and/or fluids either in the plagioclase-peridotite or the spinel-peridotite field. At least four stages of recrystallization have been identified in the garnet peridotites based on an analysis of reaction textures and mineral compositions. Stage I was most probably a spinel peridotite stage, as inferred from the presence of chromian spinel and aluminous pyroxenes. Stage II is a UHPM stage defined by the assemblage garnet + olivine + low-Al orthopyroxene + clinopyroxene + Cr-spinel. Garnet formed as exsolutions from clinopyroxene, coronas around Cr-spinel, and porphyroblasts. Stage III is a decompression stage, manifested by the formation of kelyphitic rims of high-Al orthopyroxene, aluminous spinel, diopside and pargasitic hornblende replacing garnet. Stage IV is represented by the formation of tremolitic amphibole, chlorite, serpentine and talc. Geothermobarometric calculations using (i) garnet-olivine and garnet-orthopyroxene Fe-Mg exchange thermometers and (ii) the Al-in-orthopyroxene barometer indicate that the peak of metamorphism (stage II) occurred at conditions of around 900 °C and 4 GPa. These results suggest that garnet peridotites in the Pohorje Mountains experienced UHPM during the Cretaceous orogeny. We propose that UHPM resulted from deep subduction of continental crust, which incorporated mantle peridotites from the upper plate, in an intracontinental subduction zone. Sinking of the overlying mantle and lower crustal wedge into the asthenosphere (slab extraction) caused the main stage of unroofing of the UHP rocks during the Upper Cretaceous. Final exhumation was achieved by Miocene extensional core complex formation. [source]

Petrochemical constraints for dual origin of garnet peridotites from the Dabie-Sulu UHP terrane, eastern-central China

Garnet peridotites occur as lenses, blocks or layers within granulite,amphibolite facies gneiss in the Dabie-Sulu ultra-high-pressure (UHP) terrane and contain coesite-bearing eclogite. Two distinct types of garnet peridotite were identified based on mode of occurrence and petrochemical characteristics. Type A mantle-derived peridotites originated from either: (1) the mantle wedge above a subduction zone, (2) the footwall mantle of the subducted slab, or (3) were ancient mantle fragments emplaced at crustal depths prior to UHP metamorphism, whereas type B crustal peridotite and pyroxenite are a portion of mafic,ultramafic complexes that were intruded into the continental crust as magmas prior to subduction. Most type A peridotites were derived from a depleted mantle and exhibit petrochemical characteristics of mantle rocks; however, Sr and Nd isotope compositions of some peridotites have been modified by crustal contamination during subduction and/or exhumation. Type B peridotite and pyroxenite show cumulate structure, and some have experienced crustal metasomatism and contamination documented by high 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.707,0.708), low ,Nd(t) values (,6 to ,9) and low ,18O values of minerals (+2.92 to +4.52). Garnet peridotites of both types experienced multi-stage recrystallization; some of them record prograde histories. High- P,T estimates (760,970 °C and 4.0,6.5±0.2 GPa) of peak metamorphism indicate that both mantle-derived and crustal ultramafic rocks were subducted to profound depths >100 km (the deepest may be ,180,200 km) and experienced UHP metamorphism in a subduction zone with an extremely low geothermal gradient of <5 °C km,1. [source]