Mantle Depths (mantle + depth)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


SHRIMP U-Pb zircon dating from Sulu-Dabie dolomitic marble, eastern China: constraints on prograde, ultrahigh-pressure and retrograde metamorphic ages

JOURNAL OF METAMORPHIC GEOLOGY, Issue 7 2006
F. L. LIU
Abstract Laser Raman spectroscopy and cathodoluminescence (CL) images show that zircon from Sulu-Dabie dolomitic marbles is characterized by distinctive domains of inherited (detrital), prograde, ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) and retrograde metamorphic growths. The inherited zircon domains are dark-luminescent in CL images and contain mineral inclusions of Qtz + Cal + Ap. The prograde metamorphic domains are white-luminescent in CL images and preserve a quartz eclogite facies assemblage of Qtz + Dol + Grt + Omp + Phe + Ap, formed at 542,693 C and 1.8,2.1 GPa. In contrast, the UHP metamorphic domains are grey-luminescent in CL images, retain the UHP assemblage of Coe + Grt + Omp + Arg + Mgs + Ap, and record UHP conditions of 739,866 C and >5.5 GPa. The outermost retrograde rims have dark-luminescent CL images, and contain low- P minerals such as calcite, related to the regional amphibolite facies retrogression. Laser ablation ICP-MS trace-element data show striking difference between the inherited cores of mostly magmatic origin and zircon domains grown in response to prograde, UHP and retrograde metamorphism. SHRIMP U-Pb dating on these zoned zircon identified four discrete 206Pb/238U age groups: 1823,503 Ma is recorded in the inherited (detrital) zircon derived from various Proterozoic protoliths, the prograde domains record the quartz eclogite facies metamorphism at 254,239 Ma, the UHP growth domains occurred at 238,230 Ma, and the late amphibolite facies retrogressive overprint in the outermost rims was restricted to 218,206 Ma. Thus, Proterozoic continental materials of the Yangtze craton were subducted to 55,60 km depth during the Early Triassic and recrystallized at quartz eclogite facies conditions. Then these metamorphic rocks were further subducted to depths of 165,175 km in the Middle Triassic and experienced UHP metamorphism, and finally these UHP metamorphic rocks were exhumed to mid-crustal levels (about 30 km) in the Late Triassic and overprinted by regional amphibolite facies metamorphism. The subduction and exhumation rates deduced from the SHRIMP data and metamorphic P,T conditions are 9,10 km Myr,1 and 6.4 km Myr,1, respectively, and these rapid subduction,exhumation rates may explain the obtained P,T,t path. Such a fast exhumation suggests that Sulu-Dabie UHP rocks that returned towards crustal depths were driven by buoyant forces, caused as a consequence of slab breakoff at mantle depth. [source]


Ultrahigh-pressure eclogite transformed from mafic granulite in the Dabie orogen, east-central China

JOURNAL OF METAMORPHIC GEOLOGY, Issue 9 2007
Y.-C. LIU
Abstract Although ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks are present in many collisional orogenic belts, almost all exposed UHP metamorphic rocks are subducted upper or felsic lower continental crust with minor mafic boudins. Eclogites formed by subduction of mafic lower continental crust have not been identified yet. Here an eclogite occurrence that formed during subduction of the mafic lower continental crust in the Dabie orogen, east-central China is reported. At least four generations of metamorphic mineral assemblages can be discerned: (i) hypersthene + plagioclase garnet; (ii) omphacite + garnet + rutile + quartz; (iii) symplectite stage of garnet + diopside + hypersthene + ilmenite + plagioclase; (iv) amphibole + plagioclase + magnetite, which correspond to four metamorphic stages: (a) an early granulite facies, (b) eclogite facies, (c) retrograde metamorphism of high-pressure granulite facies and (d) retrograde metamorphism of amphibolite facies. Mineral inclusion assemblages and cathodoluminescence images show that zircon is characterized by distinctive domains of core and a thin overgrowth rim. The zircon core domains are classified into two types: the first is igneous with clear oscillatory zonation apatite and quartz inclusions; and the second is metamorphic containing a granulite facies mineral assemblage of garnet, hypersthene and plagioclase (andesine). The zircon rims contain garnet, omphacite and rutile inclusions, indicating a metamorphic overgrowth at eclogite facies. The almost identical ages of the two types of core domains (magmatic = 791 9 Ma and granulite facies metamorphic zircon = 794 10 Ma), and the Triassic age (212 10 Ma) of eclogitic facies metamorphic overgrowth zircon rim are interpreted as indicating that the protolith of the eclogite is mafic granulite that originated from underplating of mantle-derived magma onto the base of continental crust during the Neoproterozoic (c. 800 Ma) and then subducted during the Triassic, experiencing UHP eclogite facies metamorphism at mantle depths. The new finding has two-fold significance: (i) voluminous mafic lower continental crust can increase the average density of subducted continental lithosphere, thus promoting its deep subduction; (ii) because of the current absence of mafic lower continental crust in the Dabie orogen, delamination or recycling of subducted mafic lower continental crust can be inferred as the geochemical cause for the mantle heterogeneity and the unusually evolved crustal composition. [source]


A general model for the intrusion and evolution of ,mantle' garnet peridotites in high-pressure and ultra-high-pressure metamorphic terranes

JOURNAL OF METAMORPHIC GEOLOGY, Issue 2 2000
Brueckner
Garnet-bearing peridotite lenses are minor but significant components of most metamorphic terranes characterized by high-temperature eclogite facies assemblages. Most peridotite intrudes when slabs of continental crust are subducted deeply (60,120 km) into the mantle, usually by following oceanic lithosphere down an established subduction zone. Peridotite is transferred from the resulting mantle wedge into the crustal footwall through brittle and/or ductile mechanisms. These ,mantle' peridotites vary petrographically, chemically, isotopically, chronologically and thermobarometrically from orogen to orogen, within orogens and even within individual terranes. The variations reflect: (1) derivation from different mantle sources (oceanic or continental lithosphere, asthenosphere); (2) perturbations while the mantle wedges were above subducting oceanic lithosphere; and (3) changes within the host crustal slabs during intrusion, subduction and exhumation. Peridotite caught within mantle wedges above oceanic subduction zones will tend to recrystallize and be contaminated by fluids derived from the subducting oceanic crust. These ,subduction zone peridotites' intrude during the subsequent subduction of continental crust. Low-pressure protoliths introduced at shallow (serpentinite, plagioclase peridotite) and intermediate (spinel peridotite) mantle depths (20,50 km) may be carried to deeper levels within the host slab and undergo high-pressure metamorphism along with the enclosing rocks. If subducted deeply enough, the peridotites will develop garnet-bearing assemblages that are isofacial with, and give the same recrystallization ages as, the eclogite facies country rocks. Peridotites introduced at deeper levels (50,120 km) may already contain garnet when they intrude and will not necessarily be isofacial or isochronous with the enclosing crustal rocks. Some garnet peridotites recrystallize from spinel peridotite precursors at very high temperatures (c. 1200 C) and may derive ultimately from the asthenosphere. Other peridotites are from old (>1 Ga), cold (c. 850 C), subcontinental mantle (,relict peridotites') and seem to require the development of major intra-cratonic faults to effect their intrusion. [source]


Ultrahigh-pressure and Retrograde Metamorphic Ages for Paleozoic Protolith of Paragneiss in the Main Drill Hole of the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project (CCSD-MH), SW Sulu UHP Terrane

ACTA GEOLOGICA SINICA (ENGLISH EDITION), Issue 3 2006
LIU Fulai
Abstract, Laser Raman spectroscopy and cathodoluminescence (CL) images show that most zircon crystals separated from paragneiss in the main drill hole of the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project (CCSD-MH) at Maobei, southwestern Sulu terrane, contain low-pressure mineral-bearing detrital cores, coesite-bearing mantles and quartz-bearing or mineral inclusion-free rims. SHRIMP U-Pb dating on these zoned zircons yield three discrete and meaningful age groups. The detrital cores yield a large age span from 659 to 313 Ma, indicating the protolith age for the analyzed paragneiss is Paleozoic rather than Proterozoic. The coesite-bearing mantles yield a weighted mean age of 228 5 Ma for the UHP event. The quartz-bearing outmost rims yield a weighted mean age of 213 6 Ma for the retrogressive event related to the regional amphibolite facies metamorphism in the Sulu UHP terrane. Combined with previous SHRIMP U-Pb dating results from orthogneiss in CCSD-MH, it is suggested that both Neoproterozoic granitic protolith and Paleozoic sedimentary rocks were subducted to mantle depths in the Late Triassic. About 15 million years later, the Sulu UHP metamorphic rocks were exhumed to mid-crustal levels and overprinted by an amphibolite-facies retrogressive metamorphism. The exhumation rate deduced from the SHRIMP data and metamorphic P-T conditions is about 6.7 km/Ma. Such a fast exhumation suggests that the Sulu UHP paragneiss and orthogneiss returned towards the surface as a dominant part of a buoyant sliver, caused as a consequence of slab breakoff. [source]