Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Manner

  • accurate manner
  • activity-dependent manner
  • adaptive manner
  • additive manner
  • age-dependent manner
  • antigen-specific manner
  • appropriate manner
  • atp-dependent manner
  • autocrine manner
  • biphasic manner
  • blind manner
  • blinded manner
  • calcium-dependent manner
  • cell type-specific manner
  • cell-specific manner
  • competitive manner
  • complementary manner
  • complex manner
  • comprehensive manner
  • concentration dependent manner
  • concentration-dependent manner
  • concerted manner
  • consistent manner
  • contact-dependent manner
  • context-dependent manner
  • continuous manner
  • controllable manner
  • controlled manner
  • conventional manner
  • cooperative manner
  • cost-effective manner
  • density-dependent manner
  • dependent manner
  • diastereoselective manner
  • different manner
  • distributed manner
  • dose dependent manner
  • dose-dependant manner
  • dose-dependent manner
  • dose-related manner
  • double-blind manner
  • double-blinded manner
  • dynamic manner
  • effective manner
  • efficient manner
  • flexible manner
  • graded manner
  • high-throughput manner
  • independent manner
  • integrate manner
  • invasive manner
  • iterative manner
  • kinase-dependent manner
  • like manner
  • linear manner
  • mendelian manner
  • non-competitive manner
  • nonlinear manner
  • novel manner
  • objective manner
  • opposite manner
  • orderly manner
  • paracrine manner
  • ph-dependent manner
  • phosphorylation-dependent manner
  • piecewise manner
  • positive manner
  • precise manner
  • predictable manner
  • prospective manner
  • quantitative manner
  • receptor-dependent manner
  • region-specific manner
  • regioselective manner
  • reliable manner
  • reproducible manner
  • response manner
  • retinotopic manner
  • reversible manner
  • robust manner
  • same manner
  • saturable manner
  • selective manner
  • sensitive manner
  • sequence-specific manner
  • sequential manner
  • sex-specific manner
  • significant manner
  • similar manner
  • simple manner
  • site-specific manner
  • specific manner
  • stage-specific manner
  • standardized manner
  • stereoselective manner
  • straightforward manner
  • strain-dependent manner
  • substrate-dependent manner
  • synergistic manner
  • systematic manner
  • time dependent manner
  • time-dependent manner
  • timely manner
  • tissue-specific manner
  • top-down manner
  • type-specific manner
  • uniform manner
  • unique manner
  • voltage-dependent manner
  • well-controlled manner

  • Terms modified by Manner

  • manner analogous
  • manner comparable
  • manner consistent
  • manner dependent
  • manner independent
  • manner similar

  • Selected Abstracts

    Controlling Light Emission in Luminescent Solar Concentrators Through Use of Dye Molecules Aligned in a Planar Manner by Liquid Crystals

    Paul P. C. Verbunt
    Abstract A luminescent solar concentrator (LSC) is a potential low-cost enhancement of the standard large-area silicon photovoltaic panels for the generation of electricity from sunlight. In this work, guest,host systems are investigated using anisotropic fluorescent dyes and liquid crystal mesogens to control the direction of emitted light in the LSC. It is determined that up to 30% more light is emitted from the edge of an LSC waveguide with planar dye alignment parallel to the alignment direction than from any edge of an LSC with no alignment (isotropic). The aligned samples continue to show dichroic performance after additions of both edge mirrors and rear scattering layer. [source]

    A Pentecostal Way of Doing Theology: Method and Manner

    This article emphasizes the necessity of doing Pentecostal theology by means of an integrative methodology and in a narrative manner that flows out of Pentecostal identity. Pentecostal theology must move beyond the impasse created by subsuming its identity under the rubric of ,Evangelical' in order for it to articulate a vibrant fully orbed mature Pentecostal theology. This can be accomplished only when ,Pentecostal' is taken seriously as an authentic Christian tradition with its own view of reality. I argue that one very important way of articulating a Pentecostal theology in keeping with its identity is to ground it pneumatologically and organize it around the Five-fold Gospel. [source]

    Oxygen Tension Regulates the Expression of ANK (Progressive Ankylosis) in an HIF-1-Dependent Manner in Growth Plate Chondrocytes,,

    Raihana Zaka
    Abstract The proximal promoter region of ANK, a gene that codes for a protein that regulates the transport of inorganic pyrophosphate, contains two hypoxia responsive elements (HREs); therefore, we studied the expression and function of ANK at different oxygen tensions. ATDC5 and N1511 clonal chondrocytic cells were cultured in either hypoxia (2% O2) or normoxia (21% O2). Transcript and protein levels of ANK were depressed in hypoxic conditions, as were levels of extracellular pyrophosphate (ePPi). To determine whether HIF-1 was involved in the oxemic response, Hif-1, knockdown cells were exposed to varying oxygen conditions and ANK expression was assessed. Knockdown of Hif-1, resulted in low levels of expression of ANK in hypoxia and normoxia. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays explored the binding of Hif-1, to ANK HREs and showed that Hif-1, is able to bind to the HREs of ANK more avidly in normoxia than in hypoxia. Furthermore, functional studies of Hif-1, activity using luciferase reporter assays of wildtype and mutagenized HREs showed that only HRE-1 binds Hif-1, in normoxia. Expression of ANK in growth plate and articular cartilage was low in hypoxic regions of the tissues, and higher levels of ANK expression were observed in the synovium and meniscus in regions that have a normally higher oxygen tension. The data suggest that ANK expression and function in vitro and in vivo are repressed in hypoxic environments and that the effect is regulated by HIF-1. [source]

    Percentage of Body Recovered and Its Effect on Identification Rates and Cause and Manner of Death Determination,

    Debra A. Komar Ph.D.
    ABSTRACT: Anthropologists frequently encounter cases in which only partial human remains are recovered. This study reports how the percentage of the body recovered affects identification (ID) rates and cause and manner of death determination. A total of 773 cases involving anthropology consults were drawn from the New Mexico medical examiner's office (1974,2006). Results indicate a significant correlation between body percent recovered and ID rates, which ranged from 89% for complete bodies to 56% when less than half the body was present. Similar patterns were evident in cause/manner determination, which were the highest (83% and 79%, respectively) in complete bodies but declined to 40% when less than half the body was found. The absence of a skull also negatively impacted ID and ruling rates. Findings are compared with general autopsy ID rates (94,96%) and cause/manner determination rates (96,99%) as well as prior published rates for individual casework and mass death events. [source]

    Ethanol Attenuates the HFS-Induced, ERK-Mediated LTP in a Dose-Dependent Manner in Rat Striatum

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 1 2009
    Gui Qin Xie
    Background:, The striatum has been implicated to play a role in the control of voluntary behavior, and striatal synaptic plasticity is involved in instrumental learning. Ethanol is known to alter synaptic plasticity, in turn altering the behavior of human and animals. However, it remains unclear whether the striatum plays a role in the effects of ethanol on the central nervous system. The objective of this investigation was to study the effects of acute perfusion of ethanol on long-term potentiation (LTP) to elucidate the mechanisms of addictive drugs in the striatum. In addition, we investigated the contribution of intracellular extracellular signal regulated protein kinase (ERK) signaling pathway to corticostriatal LTP induction. Methods:, The stimulation evoked population spikes (PS) were recorded from the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) slices of rat using the extracellular recording technique. The LTP in DMS slices was induced by high-frequency stimulation (HFS). The ERK level of the DMS was assessed with the Western blot technique. Results:, U0126, the inhibitor of ERK, eliminated or significantly attenuated the LTP induced by HFS of the PS in the DMS. MK801 and APV, N -methyl- d -aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR) antagonists, inhibited the induction of striatal LTP, and HFS-induced ERK activation decreased in the slices treated with MK801 in the DMS. Clinically relevant concentrations of ethanol (22 to 88 mM) dose-dependently attenuated the HFS-induced striatal LTP and ERK activation in this brain region. Conclusions:, The LTP of the PS in the DMS is, at least partly, mediated by the ERK pathway coupling to NMDARs. Ethanol attenuated the HFS-induced, ERK-mediated LTP in a dose-dependent manner in this brain region. These results indicate that ethanol may change the synaptic plasticity of corticostriatal circuits underlying the learning of goal-directed instrumental actions, which is mediated by an intracellular ERK signaling pathway associated with NMDARs. [source]

    Acute Ethanol Inhibits Extracellular Signal,Regulated Kinase, Protein Kinase B, and Adenosine 3,:5,-Cyclic Monophosphate Response Element Binding Protein Activity in an Age- and Brain Region,Specific Manner

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 4 2005
    L Judson Chandler
    Background: As little as a single episode of exposure of the developing brain to ethanol can result in developmental neuropathology and mental retardation. Extracellular signal,regulated kinases (ERKs), protein kinase B (PKB), and adenosine 3,:5,-cyclic monophosphate response element binding protein (CREB) are messenger molecules that play important roles in neuronal plasticity and survival. This study was undertaken to examine the effects of acute ethanol on ERK, PKB, and CREB activation in the brain. Methods: Immunoblot analysis was used to determine the effects of a 1-hr exposure of ethanol on levels of phospho-ERC in primary cortical cultures and in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of postnatal day 5 (PN5), postnatal day 21 (PN21), and adult rats. Results: In cortical cultures, ethanol (100 mM) significantly reduced activity-dependent activation of phospho-ERK, phospho-PKB, and phospho-CREB by approximately 50%. In PN5 rats, ethanol (3.5 g/kg) inhibited both phospho-ERK and phospho-PKB in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus but was without effect in the cerebellum. A similar brain region,specific inhibition of phospho-ERK was observed in PN21 rats, whereas in adult rats, ethanol inhibited phospho-ERK in all three brain regions. In contrast, ethanol had no effect on phospho-PKB in either PN21 or adult rats. Without exception, ethanol inhibited phospho-CREB in an identical brain region, and age-dependent manner as was observed for phospho-ERK. Finally, administration of the NMDA antagonist MK-801 (0.5 mg/kg) to PN5 rats had no effect on phospho-ERK or phospho-PKB levels in any brain region. Conclusion: The results demonstrate that acute ethanol inhibits ERK/PKB/CREB signaling in brain. This inhibition occurs in an age- and brain region,specific manner, with inhibition of PKB restricted to a time during the brain growth-spurt period. Furthermore, the lack of effect of MK-801 suggests that inhibition of NMDA receptors is unlikely to play a major role in binge ethanol inhibition of ERK/PKB/CREB signaling in vivo. [source]

    Chronic Ethanol Administration Alters Immunoreactivity for GABAA Receptor Subunits in Rat Cortex in a Region-Specific Manner

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 8 2000
    A. Chistina Grobin
    Background: Chronic ethanol administration has a plethora of physiological effects. Among the most consistently observed findings is a change in the expression pattern of ,-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor subunits in the rat brain cortex. These findings led to the hypothesis of "subunit substitution" to account for changes in receptor function without changes in receptor number. Methods: We used subunit (,1 and ,4) specific antibodies and a combination of immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting to examine subregions of cortex (prefrontal, cingulate, motor, parietal, and piriform) for their response to 2 weeks of forced ethanol administration. Results: Overall, cortical immunoreactivity for the ,1 subunit was decreased and for the ,4 subunit increased whether measured immunohistochemically or by immunoblotting. Piriform cortex exhibited a bidirectional change in GABAA receptor ,1 and ,4 immunoreactivity, similar to that previously observed in preparations of whole cortex. However, in parietal cortex, declines in ,1 immunoreactivity (55 ± 12% control value [CV] and 88.3 ± 4.3% CV; immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting, respectively) were not accompanied by concomitant increases in ,4 immunoreactivity (104 ± 8% CV and 116 ± 9.3% CV; immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting, respectively). Conversely, ,4 immunoreactivity increased in cingulate cortex (210 ± 30% CV and 134 ± 9.5% CV; immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting, respectively) without a decline in ,1 immunoreactivity (90 ± 4% CV and 91.3 ± 3.9% CV; immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting, respectively). Prefrontal and motor cortex exhibited GABAA receptor subunit peptide alterations, but these changes varied with the method of analysis. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that ethanol dependence results in nonuniform changes in GABAA receptor subunit peptide levels across the rat brain cortex and suggest that mechanisms which subserve functional changes in receptor activity may vary in accordance with anatomic or cellular differences within the cortex. [source]

    ChemInform Abstract: Highly Stereoselective Addition to Alkoxy or Hydroxy Ketones Using an ,-Stannyl Ester,Stannous Chloride System in a Chelation-Controlled Manner.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 19 2001
    Makoto Yasuda
    Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a "Full Text" option. The original article is trackable via the "References" option. [source]

    Bedside Manner: Restoring an Ancient Art

    Esther K. Choo MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Manners of contestation: "citizen science" and "indigenous knowledge" in West Africa and the Caribbean

    Melissa Leach

    Ethics in Twain's Connecticut Yankee1

    ORBIS LITERARUM, Issue 2 2006
    Bong Eun Kim
    Despite his frequent utterances in favor of Native Americans, Twain has been interpreted as generally unfavorable to them. However, Emmanuel Levinas's concept of the ,ethical encounter with the absolute other' in ,Is ontology fundamental?' illuminates Twain's affirmative ethics towards Native Americans in his novel A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court (1889). The comparison of Twain's novel with the Native Alaskan Harold Napoleon's Yuuyaraq: The Way of the Human Being (1996), an autobiographical report on the extermination of Alaskan aboriginals and their culture, demonstrates that Twain's British Arthurian fantasy embodies his postcolonial indictment for the massacre of Native Americans. The Chippewa/Ojibway Anishinaabe critic Gerald Vizenor's new code ,postindian' in Manifest Manners: Narratives on Postindian Survivance (1994) exposes the latent postindian aspect of Twain's discourse. Levinas's ethics and the late twentieth-century Native American texts disclose the ethical prevision implied in Twain's time travelogue. Deconstructing the typological Canaan myth, Twain implies that Native Americans should have been encountered in terms of the absolute other and thus problematizes his forefathers' colonial zeal to exterminate Native Americans and assimilate Native American survivors. [source]

    Myth, Manners, & Memory by Charles Reagan Wilson

    Ray B. Browne
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    A Show about Nothing: Seinfeld and the Modern Comedy of Manners

    David P. Pierson
    First page of article [source]

    Interactive soft-touch dynamic deformations

    Hui Chen
    Abstract It is crucial for the users to touch, grasp and manipulate the interested objects through our sense of touch in many interactive applications, such as on-line computer games, interactive cartoon design, and virtual prototyping. In this paper, we propose an interactive haptic deformation approach which incorporates the dynamic simulation of mass,spring systems and flexible control of free-form deformation in the touch-enabled soft-object deformation. Through distributing mass, spring and damping coefficients of the object to the bounded Bezier volume lattice, the deformation of the object related to the haptic avatar follows the physical laws and has high working rate. Both homogenous and inhomogenous materials are simulated. The anchor nodes of haptic input are specified to create amazing special effects during the interactive haptic deformation. Interactive haptic deformations of three-type tropic fishes, Angel, Demekin, and GuppyBlueGrass, have been experimented to simulate vivid fish swimming processes in the virtual ocean scene. Our proposed approach provides touch-enabled input and efficient performance in the flexible deforming controls, letting the objects move in a dynamic, cartoon-style deforming manner. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    As-consistent-As-possible compositing of virtual objects and video sequences

    Guofeng Zhang
    Abstract We present an efficient approach that merges the virtual objects into video sequences taken by a freely moving camera in a realistic manner. The composition is visually and geometrically consistent through three main steps. First, a robust camera tracking algorithm based on key frames is proposed, which precisely recovers the focal length with a novel multi-frame strategy. Next, the concerned 3D models of the real scenes are reconstructed by means of an extended multi-baseline algorithm. Finally, the virtual objects in the form of 3D models are integrated into the real scenes, with special cares on the interaction consistency including shadow casting, occlusions, and object animation. A variety of experiments have been implemented, which demonstrate the robustness and efficiency of our approach. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    On-line motion blending for real-time locomotion generation

    Sang Il Park
    Abstract In this paper, we present an integrated framework of on-line motion blending for locomotion generation. We first provide a novel scheme for incremental timewarping, which always guarantees that the time goes forward. Combining the idea of motion blending with that of posture rearrangement, we introduce a motion transition graph to address on-line motion blending and transition simultaneously. Guided by a stream of motion specifications, our motion synthesis scheme moves from node to node in an on-line manner while blending a motion at a node and generating a transition motion at an edge. For smooth on-line motion transition, we also attach a set of example transition motions to an edge. To represent similar postures consistently, we exploit the inter-frame coherency embedded in the input motion specification. Finally, we provide a comprehensive solution to on-line motion retargeting by integrating existing techniques. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Web based laboratory in electromagnetic compatibility using a Java applet

    S. K. Goudos
    Abstract A web based virtual laboratory in electromagnetic compatibility using a Java applet is presented. The Java applet makes use of Green's functions calculations inside a rectangular cavity. The induced electric fields and surface currents on cavity walls are calculated and visualized in a user-friendly manner. Various source configurations are examined. A number of laboratory exercises using the applet is given. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Comput Appl Eng Educ 14: 269,280, 2006; Published online in Wiley InterScience (; DOI 10.1002/cae.20087 [source]

    Cross-institutional assessment: Development and implementation of the On-line Student Survey System

    Raymond Hoare
    Abstract As ABET has increased the need for routine student assessments, engineering faculty are faced with the problem of doing this in an efficient manner that minimizes the time required to conduct, tabulate, and analyze the requisite surveys. To meet this need, researchers at the University of Pittsburgh have developed the On-line Student Survey System (OS3) to facilitate EC 2000 assessment and cross-institutional benchmarking. OS3 allows multiple engineering schools to conduct customized, routine program evaluations using Web-based surveys specifically designed to meet EC 2000 objectives. Since its inception, seven engineering schools have adopted OS3. This article provides an overview of the system, a des-cription of its survey instruments, and an evaluation of the system. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Comput Appl Eng Educ 10: 88,97, 2002; Published online in Wiley InterScience (; DOI 10.1002/cae.10013 [source]

    Recovering Structure from r -Sampled Objects

    O. Aichholzer
    For a surface in 3-space that is represented by a set S of sample points, we construct a coarse approximating polytope P that uses a subset of S as its vertices and preserves the topology of . In contrast to surface reconstruction we do not use all the sample points, but we try to use as few points as possible. Such a polytope P is useful as a ,seed polytope' for starting an incremental refinement procedure to generate better and better approximations of based on interpolating subdivision surfaces or e.g. Bézier patches. Our algorithm starts from an r -sample S of . Based on S, a set of surface covering balls with maximal radii is calculated such that the topology is retained. From the weighted ,-shape of a proper subset of these highly overlapping surface balls we get the desired polytope. As there is a rather large range for the possible radii for the surface balls, the method can be used to construct triangular surfaces from point clouds in a scalable manner. We also briefly sketch how to combine parts of our algorithm with existing medial axis algorithms for balls, in order to compute stable medial axis approximations with scalable level of detail. [source]

    Simulation of two-phase flow with sub-scale droplet and bubble effects

    Viorel Mihalef
    Abstract We present a new Eulerian-Lagrangian method for physics-based simulation of fluid flow, which includes automatic generation of sub-scale spray and bubbles. The Marker Level Set method is used to provide a simple geometric criterion for free marker generation. A filtering method, inspired from Weber number thresholding, further controls the free marker generation (in a physics-based manner). Two separate models are used, one for sub-scale droplets, the other for sub-scale bubbles. Droplets are evolved in a Newtonian manner, using a density-extension drag force field, while bubbles are evolved using a model based on Stokes' Law. We show that our model for sub-scale droplet and bubble dynamics is simple to couple with a full (macro-scale) Navier-Stokes two-phase flow model and is quite powerful in its applications. Our animations include coarse grained multiphase features interacting with fine scale multiphase features. [source]

    A Local/Global Approach to Mesh Parameterization

    Ligang Liu
    Abstract We present a novel approach to parameterize a mesh with disk topology to the plane in a shape-preserving manner. Our key contribution is a local/global algorithm, which combines a local mapping of each 3D triangle to the plane, using transformations taken from a restricted set, with a global "stitch" operation of all triangles, involving a sparse linear system. The local transformations can be taken from a variety of families, e.g. similarities or rotations, generating different types of parameterizations. In the first case, the parameterization tries to force each 2D triangle to be an as-similar-as-possible version of its 3D counterpart. This is shown to yield results identical to those of the LSCM algorithm. In the second case, the parameterization tries to force each 2D triangle to be an as-rigid-as-possible version of its 3D counterpart. This approach preserves shape as much as possible. It is simple, effective, and fast, due to pre-factoring of the linear system involved in the global phase. Experimental results show that our approach provides almost isometric parameterizations and obtains more shape-preserving results than other state-of-the-art approaches. We present also a more general "hybrid" parameterization model which provides a continuous spectrum of possibilities, controlled by a single parameter. The two cases described above lie at the two ends of the spectrum. We generalize our local/global algorithm to compute these parameterizations. The local phase may also be accelerated by parallelizing the independent computations per triangle. [source]

    Sweep-based Freeform Deformations

    Seung-Hyun Yoon
    We propose a sweep-based approach to the freeform deformation of three-dimensional objects. Instead of using a volume enclosing the whole object, we approximate only its deformable parts using sweep surfaces. The vertices on the object boundary are bound to the sweep surfaces and follow their deformation. Several sweep surfaces can be organized into a hierarchy so that they interact with each other in a controlled manner. Thus we can support intuitively plausible shape deformation of objects of arbitrary topology with multiple control handles. A sweep-based approach also provides important advantages such as volume preservation. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our technique in several examples. Categories and Subject Descriptors (according to ACM CCS): I.3.5 [Computational Geometry and Object Modeling]: Curve, surface, solid, and object representations [source]

    Progressive Simplification of Tetrahedral Meshes Preserving All Isosurface Topologies

    Yi-Jen Chiang
    In this paper, we propose a novel technique for constructing multiple levels of a tetrahedral volume dataset whilepreserving the topologies of all isosurfaces embedded in the data. Our simplification technique has two majorphases. In the segmentation phase, we segment the volume data into topological-equivalence regions, that is, thesub-volumes within each of which all isosurfaces have the same topology. In the simplification phase, we simplifyeach topological-equivalence region independently, one by one, by collapsing edges from the smallest to the largesterrors (within the user-specified error tolerance, for a given error metrics), and ensure that we do not collapseedges that may cause an isosurface-topology change. We also avoid creating a tetrahedral cell of negative volume(i.e., avoid the fold-over problem). In this way, we guarantee to preserve all isosurface topologies in the entiresimplification process, with a controlled geometric error bound. Our method also involves several additionalnovel ideas, including using the Morse theory and the implicit fully augmented contour tree, identifying typesof edges that are not allowed to be collapsed, and developing efficient techniques to avoid many unnecessary orexpensive checkings, all in an integrated manner. The experiments show that all the resulting isosurfaces preservethe topologies, and have good accuracies in their geometric shapes. Moreover, we obtain nice data-reductionrates, with competitively fast running times. [source]

    A Risk-Cost Optimized Maintenance Strategy for Corrosion-Affected Concrete Structures

    Chun-Qing Li
    It is also observed that some severely deteriorated concrete structures survive for many years without maintenance. This raises the question of why and how to maintain corrosion-affected concrete structures, in particular in the climate of an increasing scarcity of resources. The present article attempts to formulate a maintenance strategy based on risk-cost optimization of a structure during its whole service life. A time-dependent reliability method is employed to determine the probability of exceeding a limit state at each phase of the service life. To facilitate practical application of the formulated maintenance strategy, an algorithm is developed and programmed in a user-friendly manner with a worked example. A merit of the proposed maintenance strategy is that models used in risk assessment for corrosion-affected concrete structures are related to some of the design criteria used by practitioners. It is found in the article that there exists an optimal number of maintenances for cracking and delamination that returns the minimum total cost for the structure in its whole life. The maintenance strategy presented in the article can help structural engineers, operators, and asset managers develop a cost-effective management scheme for corrosion-affected concrete structures. [source]

    Proportional-Integral-Plus Control of an Intelligent Excavator

    Jun Gu
    Previous work using LUCIE was based on the ubiquitous PI/PID control algorithm, tuned on-line, and implemented in a rather ad hoc manner. By contrast, the present research utilizes new hardware and advanced model-based control system design methods to improve the joint control and so provide smoother, more accurate movement of the excavator arm. In this article, a novel nonlinear simulation model of the system is developed for MATLAB/SIMULINK©, allowing for straightforward refinement of the control algorithm and initial evaluation. The PIP controller is compared with a conventionally tuned PID algorithm, with the final designs implemented on-line for the control of dipper angle. The simulated responses and preliminary implementation results demonstrate the feasibility of the approach. [source]

    Proposing magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia in low-field MRI

    Pádraig Cantillon-Murphy
    Abstract This work examines feasibility, practical advantages, and disadvantages of a combined MRI/magnetic particle hyperthermia (MPH) system for cancerous tumor treatment in low perfusion tissue. Although combined MRI/hyperthermia systems have been proposed and constructed, the current proposal differs because the hyperthermia system would be specifically designed to interact with the magnetic nanoparticles injected at the tumor site. The proposal exploits the physical similarities between the magnetic nanoparticles currently employed for MPH and those used as superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) contrast agents in MR imaging. The proposal involves the addition of a rotating magnetic field RF hyperthermia source perpendicular to the MRI B0 field which operates in a similar manner to the MRI RF excitation field, B1, but at significantly higher frequency and field strength such that the magnetic nanoparticles are forced to rotate in its presence. This rotation is the source of increases in temperature which are of therapeutic benefit in cancer therapy. For rotating magnetic fields with amplitudes much smaller than B0, the nanoparticles' suspension magnetization rapidly saturates with increasing B0. Therefore, the proposal is best suited to low-field MRI systems when magnetic saturation is incomplete. In addition, careful design of the RF hyperthermia source is required to ensure no physical or RF interference with the B1 field used for MRI excitation. Notwithstanding these caveats, the authors have shown that localized steady-state temperature rises in small spherical tumors of up to 10°C are conceivable with careful selection of the nanoparticle radius and concentration, RF hyperthermia field amplitude and frequency. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Concepts Magn Reson Part A 36A: 36,47, 2010. [source]

    Alignment and structural analysis of membrane polypeptides by 15N and 31P solid-state NMR spectroscopy

    Burkhard Bechinger
    Abstract In contrast to solution NMR spectroscopy, where complete or almost complete averaging leads to isotropic values, the anisotropic character of nuclear interactions is apparent in solid-state NMR spectra. The orientation dependence of chemical shift and dipolar or quadrupolar interactions has been used to obtain dynamic as well as angular information from polypeptides that strongly interact with phospholipid bilayers. This article illustrates the advantageous characteristics of the anisotropic 15N or 31P chemical shift interactions that in a direct manner allow one to obtain information on the alignment of helical polypeptides or of phospholipid head groups with respect to the membrane normal. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Concepts Magn Reson 18A: 130,145, 2003 [source]

    Maximum likelihood constrained deconvolution.

    I: Algorithm, qualitative, quantitative enhancement in synthetic two-dimensional NMR spectra
    Abstract The maximum likelihood method is a constrained iterative spectral deconvolution technique in which a spectral fitting model is determined by minimizing the variance of fit in the time domain in a nonlinear iterative manner. Application of this method to synthetic 2-dimensional (2-D) NMR spectra, which have heavily overlapped multiplets associated with low signal to noise ratios, yields contrast-enhanced spectra with simultaneous noise suppression and resolution improvement. This protocol greatly facilitates peak recognition and often partitions overlapping multiplets into individual components, leading to a more accurate interpretation of resonance frequencies, coupling constants, and multiplets than does the conventional apodization or Fourier transform method. These advantages are useful for constructing reliable 3-D molecular structures for complex molecular systems. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Concepts Magn Reson 14: 402,415, 2002 [source]

    A reference model for grid architectures and its validation

    Wil van der Aalst
    Abstract Computing and data-intensive applications in physics, medicine, biology, graphics, and business intelligence require large and distributed infrastructures to address the challenges of the present and the future. For example, process mining applications are faced with terrabytes of event data and computationally expensive algorithms. Computer grids are increasingly being used to deal with such challenges. However, grid computing is often approached in an ad hoc and engineering-like manner. Despite the availability of many software packages for grid applications, a good conceptual model of the grid is missing. This paper provides a formal description of the grid in terms of a colored Petri net (CPN). This CPN can be seen as a reference model for grids as it clarifies the basic concepts at the conceptual level. Moreover, the CPN allows for various kinds of analyses ranging from verification to performance analysis. We validate our model based on real-life experiments using a testbed grid architecture available in our group and we show how the model can be used for the estimation of throughput times for scientific workflows. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Performance evaluation of an autonomic network-aware metascheduler for Grids

    A. Caminero
    Abstract Grid technologies have enabled the aggregation of geographically distributed resources in the context of a particular application. The network remains an important requirement for any Grid application, as entities involved in a Grid system (such as users, services, and data) need to communicate with each other over a network. The performance of the network must therefore be considered when carrying out tasks such as scheduling, migration or monitoring of jobs. Surprisingly, many existing quality of service efforts ignore the network and focus instead on processor workload and disk access time. Making use of the network in an efficient and fault-tolerant manner is challenging. In a previous contribution, we proposed an autonomic network-aware scheduling architecture that is capable of adapting its behavior to the current status of the environment. Now, we present a performance evaluation in which our proposal is compared with a conventional scheduling strategy. We present simulation results that show the benefits of our approach. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]