Mania

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Mania

  • acute mania
  • bipolar i mania
  • bipolar mania
  • i mania

  • Terms modified by Mania

  • mania rating scale

  • Selected Abstracts


    Safety, tolerability and efficacy of a rapid dose escalation of quetiapine in bipolar I mania: the FATIMA study

    ACTA NEUROPSYCHIATRICA, Issue 3 2009
    Eric Constant
    Objective: The FATIMA study (FAst TItration of quetiapine fumarate in bipolar I MAnia) evaluated the safety, tolerability and efficacy of a rapid dose escalation of quetiapine in acutely ill bipolar I patients experiencing a manic episode. Methods: In an open-label, phase II pilot study, 29 patients aged 18 years or older, hospitalised with a bipolar I manic episode, received quetiapine twice daily for 21 days. Quetiapine was administered at 200, 400, 600, then 800 mg/day on the first 4 days, with flexible dosing (400,800 mg/day) subsequently. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patient dropouts because of adverse drug reactions during the first 7 days. Secondary safety assessments included incidences of adverse drug reactions and significant changes in vital signs. Efficacy assessments included Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and Clinical Global Impressions Severity of Illness (CGI-S) score changes from day 1 to day 21. Results: Twenty patients (69%) completed the study. No patients withdrew as a result of drug-related adverse events (AEs) during the first 7 days. Twenty-three patients reported 58 adverse events, and most of the adverse events were mild or moderate. No clinically relevant abnormalities in vital signs were reported. Mean YMRS and CGI-S scores decreased significantly from baseline to day 21 (p < 0.001). Response and remission rates were 78 and 70%, respectively, at the end of the study. Conclusion: Rapid dose escalation of quetiapine to 800 mg/day over 4 days was well tolerated and effective in reducing symptoms within 5 days in acutely ill bipolar I patients with a manic episode. [source]


    Mania associated with antidepressant treatment: comprehensive meta-analytic review

    ACTA PSYCHIATRICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 6 2010
    L. Tondo
    Tondo L, Vázquez G, Baldessarini RJ. Mania associated with antidepressant treatment: comprehensive meta-analytic review. Objective:, To review available data pertaining to risk of mania,hypomania among bipolar (BPD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) patients with vs. without exposure to antidepressant drugs (ADs) and consider effects of mood stabilizers. Method:, Computerized searching yielded 73 reports (109 trials, 114 521 adult patients); 35 were suitable for random effects meta-analysis, and multivariate-regression modeling included all available trials to test for effects of trial design, AD type, and mood-stabilizer use. Results:, The overall risk of mania with/without ADs averaged 12.5%/7.5%. The AD-associated mania was more frequent in BPD than MDD patients, but increased more in MDD cases. Tricyclic antidepressants were riskier than serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SRIs); data for other types of ADs were inconclusive. Mood stabilizers had minor effects probably confounded by their preferential use in mania-prone patients. Conclusion:, Use of ADs in adults with BPD or MDD was highly prevalent and moderately increased the risk of mania overall, with little protection by mood stabilizers. [source]


    Mental health improvements of substance-dependent clients after 4 months in a Therapeutic Community

    DRUG AND ALCOHOL REVIEW, Issue 5 2010
    ANNE-MAREE POLIMENI
    Abstract Introduction and Aims. Odyssey House Victoria's Therapeutic Community (TC) accepts substance-dependent clients, including those with co-occurring mental health issues. American data suggest that TCs are effective in rehabilitating such clients; however, Australian research is limited. The aim of the study was to examine Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) profiles of Odyssey House TC residents early in their residency and again after 4 months, to chart changes in MMPI-2 profiles and compare them with norms for psychological health. Design and Methods. The sample comprised 351 clients who were part of the residential program between 1997 and 2007, and who remained in treatment at the TC for at least 4 months. They were administered the MMPI-2 after 5 weeks in treatment and again after 4 months. Results. At the first assessment, the validity scales of the MMPI-2 plus the clinical scales Depression, Psychopathic Deviate, Paranoia, Psychasthenia and Schizophrenia were in the clinical range. At the second assessment, mean scores on all clinical scales except Mania were significantly or near significantly lower and, except for Psychopathic Deviate, within the normal range. The validity scales also demonstrated improvement, although two of the three remained in the clinical range. Discussion and Conclusions. Results indicated that treatment within the TC over this time span was associated with improved mental health. The present study suggests that residential rehabilitation's holistic approach provides a suitable treatment model for clients with co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders.[Polimeni A-M, Moore SM, Gruenert S. Mental health improvements of substance-dependent clients after 4 months in a Therapeutic Community. Drug Alcohol Rev 2010] [source]


    Mental illness, nativity, gender and labor supply

    HEALTH ECONOMICS, Issue 4 2010
    Victoria D. Ojeda
    Abstract We analyzed the impacts of nativity and mental health (MH) on work by gender for non-elderly adults using the 2002 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. We employed two indicators of MH , the K6 scale of Mental Illness (MI) and an indicator for symptoms of Mania or Delusions (M/D). Instrumental variable (IV) models used measures of social support as instruments for MI. Unadjusted work rates were higher for immigrants (vs US-born adults). Regressions show that MI is associated with lower rates of work among US-born males but not immigrant males and females; M/D is associated lower rates of work among US-born males and females, and among immigrant males. Results did not change using IV models for MI. Most persons with MI work, yet symptom severity reduces labor supply among natives especially. Immigrants' labor supply is less affected by MI. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Personality and psychopathology in an impulsive aggressive college sample

    AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR, Issue 1 2006
    Laura E. Helfritz
    Abstract Certain personality traits have been associated with impulsive aggression in both college and community samples, primarily irritability, anger/hostility, and impulsivity. The literature regarding the psychopathology associated with impulsive aggression is relatively sparse and strongly emphasizes DSM-IV-TR [APA, 2000] Axis II personality disorders, although some comorbidity with Axis I clinical disorders has been reported. The current study compares impulsive aggressive (IA) college students with their non-aggressive peers on several self-report measures of personality and psychopathology. Personality results were as predicted, with IAs scoring higher than controls on measures of impulsivity and aggression. Additionally, the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI), which was given for exploratory purposes, revealed a unique pattern of psychopathic traits in impulsive aggression that contained key differences from the callous-unemotional profile seen in premeditated aggression. Contrary to our hypothesis that a specific pattern of psychopathology (personality disorders, bipolar disorder, and adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) would emerge for impulsive aggression, IAs scored significantly higher than controls on nearly every clinical scale of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Somatic Complaints, Anxiety, Anxiety-Related Disorders, Depression, Mania, Schizophrenia, Borderline Features, Antisocial Features, Alcohol Problems, and Drug Problems), indicating a global elevation of psychopathology. In conclusion, while the personality traits and behaviors that characterize impulsive aggression are relatively consistent across individuals, its associated psychopathology is unexpectedly variable. Aggr. Behav. 00:1,10, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Current Approaches to the Challenge of Coronary Heart Disease Risk Assessment: C-Reactive Protein Mania and Imaging-itis?

    PREVENTIVE CARDIOLOGY, Issue 1 2009
    Ezra A. Amsterdam MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Mania after vascular dementia in a patient with bipolar II disorder

    PSYCHIATRY AND CLINICAL NEUROSCIENCES, Issue 1 2006
    YUICHIRO WATANABE md
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Mania profile in a community sample of prepubertal children in Turkey

    BIPOLAR DISORDERS, Issue 4 2008
    Rasim Somer Diler
    Background:, Mania in youth is increasingly recognized and accompanied by substantial psychiatric and psychosocial morbidity. There are no data on prepubertals in the general population and we aimed to search for mania symptoms and its clinical correlations in a community sample of prepubertal Turkish children. Methods:, Among all children (n = 56,335) aged 7,11 in Adana, Turkey, 2,468 children (48% girls) were randomly included. Parents completed Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) 4,18 and Parent-Young Mania Rating Scale (P-YMRS). Cut-off scores of 17 and 27 on total P-YMRS were defined as efficient (probable-mania group) and specific (mania group), respectively, for bipolar profile. We searched for clinical correlations and used logistic regression to show how well each CBCL subscale predicted the presence of mania and probable-mania, after adjusting for any demographic differences. Results:, Parent-Young Mania Rating Scale scores were ,17 but <27 (probable-mania) in 155 (6.3%) children and ,27 (mania) in 32 (1.3%) children. Elevated mood, increased activity levels, and poor insight were the most frequent manic symptoms in our sample. Children with probable-mania and mania had higher scores on all CBCL subscales and the CBCL-Pediatric Bipolar Disorder (CBCL-PBD) profile (sum of attention, aggression, and anxiety/depression subscales). Logistic regression analysis revealed only thought problems on CBCL that predicted probable-mania and mania. Conclusion:, Our study shows that mania profile is common in the community sample of Turkish prepubertal children and does not support the thought that mania is rare outside the US. We need further population-based studies that will use diagnostic interviews and multiple informants. [source]


    Mania as the first manifestation of Wilson's disease

    BIPOLAR DISORDERS, Issue 3 2008
    Alexandre Costa Machado
    Background:, Although mental changes are frequent in Wilson's disease, severe psychiatric disorders occur uncommonly and usually accompany the neurological picture. There are few reports in the literature of Wilson's disease patients with typical bipolar affective disorder (BPAD). Case report:, The authors report the case of a patient with Wilson's disease whose initial manifestation was a manic episode followed by depression. Tremor in the upper limbs appeared one year after the onset of symptoms. The diagnosis of Wilson's disease was established three years after the first symptoms appeared, based on the neuropsychiatric picture, the detection of Kayser,Fleischer rings and the results of diagnostic tests indicating chronic liver disease and copper excess. ATP7B genotyping and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain with proton spectroscopy study were also performed. The patient became asymptomatic two years after starting treatment with penicillamine and remained non-symptomatic controlled during the eight-year follow-up period, without any specific treatment for the BPAD. Conclusions:, To our knowledge, this is a singular report of a case of Wilson's disease in which a manic episode preceded the onset of neurological symptoms. The association between Wilson's disease and bipolar disorder is discussed. [source]


    Psychotic phenomena in 257 young children and adolescents with bipolar I disorder: delusions and hallucinations (benign and pathological)

    BIPOLAR DISORDERS, Issue 1 2008
    Rebecca Tillman
    Objectives:, In contrast to studies of adult bipolar I disorder (BP-I), there is a paucity of data on psychotic phenomena in child BP-I. Therefore, the aim of this work was to describe delusions and hallucinations in pediatric BP-I. Methods:, Subjects were 257 participants, aged 6,16, in either of two large, ongoing, NIMH-funded studies, ,Phenomenology and Course of Pediatric Bipolar Disorders' or ,Treatment of Early Age Mania (TEAM)'. All subjects had current DSM-IV BP-I (manic or mixed phase) with a Children's Global Assessment Scale score ,60 (definite clinical impairment), and all had cardinal mania symptoms (i.e., elation and/or grandiosity). Comprehensive assessments included the Washington University in St. Louis Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (WASH-U-KSADS), which was administered to parents about their children and separately to children about themselves by experienced research clinicians. The WASH-U-KSADS contains modules for developmentally child-age-specific manifestations of numerous categories of psychotic phenomena. Results:, Psychosis was present in 76.3% (n = 196) of subjects, which included 38.9% (n = 100) with delusions, 5.1% (n = 13) with pathological hallucinations, and 32.3% (n = 83) with both. The most common delusion was grandiose (67.7%, n = 174), and the most common pathological hallucination was visual (16.0%, n = 41). Benign hallucinations occurred in 43.6% (n = 112). A median split by age yielded 6,9 year-olds (n = 139) and 10,16 year-olds (n = 118). Analyses of these two groups, and of 6, 7, 8, and 9 year-olds separately, found no significant differences in psychotic phenomena. Conclusions:, Counterintuitively, psychosis was equally prevalent in 6,9 compared to 10,16 year-olds. High prevalence of psychosis in child BP-I warrants focus in intervention strategies and is consistent with increasing evidence of the severity of child-versus adult-onset BP-I. [source]


    Neurocognitive test performance predicts functional recovery from acute exacerbation leading to hospitalization in bipolar disorder

    BIPOLAR DISORDERS, Issue 1-2 2007
    Judith Jaeger
    Objective:, Bipolar disorder (BPD) is associated with significant functional morbidity at a rate which is particularly elevated among patients discharged from hospital. The aim of this study was to examine the degree to which neurocognitive test performance, measured following hospitalization for an acute affective episode, is predictive of functional recovery 1 year later. Methods:, Seventy-eight Zucker Hillside Hospital patients aged 18,59 years and having Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV diagnosis of bipolar I disorder (BPD I), bipolar II disorder (BPD II) or BPD not otherwise specified (NOS) confirmed through a rigorous diagnosis consensus procedure, underwent a comprehensive neurocognitive test battery after initial stabilization (baseline) and were followed for at least 12 months (follow-up). Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) and Clinician-Administered Rating Scale for Mania (CARS-M) ratings were made at baseline and follow-up. At follow-up, functionality was assessed using the Multidimensional Scale for Independent Functioning (MSIF). Logistic regression was used to examine the predictive value of each of six validated neurocognitive domains for determining functionality (MSIF) at follow-up. Baseline and follow-up HAM-D and CARS-M were entered as covariates as was number of days between baseline and follow-up. Results:, Attention and Ideational Fluency were significantly predictive of functional recovery 12 months later. Residual mania but not depression was associated with 12-month MSIF rating. Lithium and benzodiazepine treatment at the time of neurocognitive testing did not affect the results. Conclusions:, This is the first study examining the predictive value of neurocognitive deficits, independent of residual mania or depression, for long-term functional recovery following hospitalization. Selective neurocognitive deficits are predictive of long-term functional recovery and, as such, should be candidate targets in treatment and rehabilitation programs. [source]


    Risk factors predicting onset and persistence of subthreshold expression of bipolar psychopathology among youth from the community

    ACTA PSYCHIATRICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 3 2010
    M. J. A. Tijssen
    Tijssen MJA, Van Os J, Wittchen HU, Lieb R, Beesdo K, Wichers M. Risk factors predicting onset and persistence of subthreshold expression of bipolar psychopathology among youth from the community Objective:, To examine factors increasing the risk for onset and persistence of subthreshold mania and depression. Method:, In a prospective cohort community study, the association between risk factors [a family history of mood disorders, trauma, substance use, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and temperamental/personality traits] and onset of manic/depressive symptoms was determined in 705 adolescents. The interaction between baseline risk factors and baseline symptoms in predicting 8-year follow-up symptoms was used to model the impact of risk factors on persistence. Results:, Onset of manic symptoms was associated with cannabis use and novelty seeking (NS), but NS predicted a transitory course. Onset of depressive symptoms was associated with a family history of depression. ADHD and harm avoidance (HA) were associated with persistence of depressive symptoms, while trauma and a family history of depression predicted a transitory course. Conclusion:, Different risk factors may operate during onset and persistence of subthreshold mania and depression. The differential associations found for mania and depression dimensions suggest partly different underlying mechanisms. [source]


    Patterns of comorbidity in panic disorder and major depression: findings from a nonreferred sample

    DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY, Issue 2 2005
    Joseph Biederman M.D.
    Abstract Previous findings in referred adult samples document major depression as having important moderating effects on the patterns of comorbidity for panic disorder and major depression. This study evaluated whether these patterns of comorbidity are moderated by referral bias. Panic disorder (PD) and major depression (MD) were used to predict the risk for comorbid psychiatric disorders and functional outcomes using data from a large sample of adults who had not been ascertained on the basis of clinical referral (N=1,031). Participants were comprehensively assessed with structured diagnostic interview methodology to evaluate childhood and adult comorbid psychiatric disorders. PD increased the risk for anxiety disorders, independently of MD. MD increased the risk for mania, antisocial personality disorder, psychoactive substance use disorder, disruptive behavior disorders, overanxious disorder, social phobia, and generalized anxiety disorder, independently of PD. These results extend to nonreferred samples' previously reported findings documenting that MD has important moderating effects on patterns of comorbidity for PD and indicate that patterns of comorbidity for PD are not due to referral bias. Depression and Anxiety 21:55,60, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Mania associated with antidepressant treatment: comprehensive meta-analytic review

    ACTA PSYCHIATRICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 6 2010
    L. Tondo
    Tondo L, Vázquez G, Baldessarini RJ. Mania associated with antidepressant treatment: comprehensive meta-analytic review. Objective:, To review available data pertaining to risk of mania,hypomania among bipolar (BPD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) patients with vs. without exposure to antidepressant drugs (ADs) and consider effects of mood stabilizers. Method:, Computerized searching yielded 73 reports (109 trials, 114 521 adult patients); 35 were suitable for random effects meta-analysis, and multivariate-regression modeling included all available trials to test for effects of trial design, AD type, and mood-stabilizer use. Results:, The overall risk of mania with/without ADs averaged 12.5%/7.5%. The AD-associated mania was more frequent in BPD than MDD patients, but increased more in MDD cases. Tricyclic antidepressants were riskier than serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SRIs); data for other types of ADs were inconclusive. Mood stabilizers had minor effects probably confounded by their preferential use in mania-prone patients. Conclusion:, Use of ADs in adults with BPD or MDD was highly prevalent and moderately increased the risk of mania overall, with little protection by mood stabilizers. [source]


    Electroconvulsive therapy is equally effective in unipolar and bipolar depression

    ACTA PSYCHIATRICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 6 2010
    S. Bailine
    Bailine S, Fink M, Knapp R, Petrides G, Husain MM, Rasmussen K, Sampson S, Mueller M, McClintock SM, Tobias KG, Kellner CH. Electroconvulsive therapy is equally effective in unipolar and bipolar depression. Objective:, To determine the relative efficacy of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in the treatment of bipolar (BP) and unipolar (UP) depressive illness and clarify its role in BP depression. Method:, Patients referred for ECT with both UP and BP depressions. [classified by Structured Clinical Interview for DSM (SCID-I) criteria for history of mania] were included in a multi-site collaborative, double-masked, randomized controlled trial of three electrode placements , right unilateral, bifrontal or bitemporal , in a permutated block randomization scheme. Results:, Of 220 patients, 170 patients (77.3%) were classified as UP and 50 (22.7%) as BP depression in the intent-to-treat sample. The remission and response rates and numbers of ECT for both groups were equivalent. Conclusion:, Both UP and BP depressions remit with ECT. Polarity is not a factor in the response rate. In this sample ECT did not precipitate mania in depressed patients. Treatment algorithms for UP and BP depression warrant re-evaluation. [source]


    Folic acid efficacy as an alternative drug added to sodium valproate in the treatment of acute phase of mania in bipolar disorder: a double-blind randomized controlled trial

    ACTA PSYCHIATRICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 6 2009
    A. H. Behzadi
    Objective:, The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of adding folic acid to sodium valproate in the acute phase of mania. Method:, Following a double-blind randomized controlled trial, 88 clinically manic patients with diagnosis of type I bipolar disorder (BID) were divided randomly into two groups (case and control). The case group was treated with folic acid and sodium valproate and the control group with sodium valproate and placebo. The severity of mania was assessed using the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) at the beginning and end of the first, second and third weeks of the study. Results:, The case group's mean manic YMRS measurements (SD) before the initiation of therapy and in the first, second and third weeks of treatment were 34.0 ± 7.7, 26.7 ± 2.1, 18.1 ± 2.1 and 7.1 ± 0.9 respectively. The control group's measurements were 34.7 ± 3.8, 27.3 ± 2.3, 20.7 ± 2.5 and 10.1 ± 1.1. There was a statistically significant difference in YMRS scaling results between the case and control groups after 3 weeks of treatment (7.1 ± 0.9 vs. 10.1 ± 1.1, P = 0.005). Conclusion:, Based on our findings, folic acid seems to be an effective adjuvant to sodium valproate in the treatment of the acute phase of mania in patients with bipolar disorder. [source]


    Preliminary results of a fine-grain analysis of mood swings and treatment modalities of bipolar I and II patients using the daily prospective life-chart-methodology

    ACTA PSYCHIATRICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 6 2009
    C. Born
    Objective:, The study aimed to increase the knowledge about the detailed course differences between different forms of bipolar disorder. Method:, Using the prospective life-chart-clinician version, we compared the fine-grain analysis of mood swings and treatment modalities of 18 bipolar II with 31 bipolar I patients. Results:, During an observational period of a mean of 26 months we observed an increase of euthymic days, and a decrease of (sub)depressive and (hypo)manic days. Days in a (sub)depressed state were more frequent than days of (hypo)mania as well as days of subdepression or hypomania in comparison to days of full-blown depression or mania. Bipolar II patients showed an increase in hypomanic days receiving more frequently antidepressants. Bipolar I patients, with a decrease of manic days, were significantly taking more often mood stabilizers. Conclusion:, Treatment in a specialized bipolar clinic improves the overall outcome, but bipolar II disorder seems to be still treated sub-optimally with a possible iatrogenic increase of hypomanic days. [source]


    The subjective experience of taking antipsychotic medication: a content analysis of Internet data

    ACTA PSYCHIATRICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 2 2009
    J. Moncrieff
    Objective:, We explored the subjective effects associated with olanzapine, risperidone and older antipsychotics. Method:, We conducted a content analysis of an Internet database of comments about prescribed medications. Results:, We analysed 223 comments on risperidone, 170 on olanzapine and 46 relating to three older antipsychotics. The predominant subjective effects produced by all drugs consisted of sedation, cognitive impairment and emotional flattening or indifference. Connections appeared between these effects and Parkinsonian-like symptoms with the older drugs, sexual impairment with risperidone and metabolic effects with olanzapine. The experience of akathisia was frequently linked to suicidal thoughts. Some respondents described how the drugs' subjective effects helped to reduce symptoms of mania, psychosis and anxiety. Conclusion:, The generalisability of Internet data is uncertain. However, the data suggest that adverse subjective effects play a central role in the experience of taking antipsychotic drugs and may be related to the drugs' desired benefits. [source]


    Are antidepressants safe in the treatment of bipolar depression?

    ACTA PSYCHIATRICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 5 2008
    A critical evaluation of their potential risk to induce switch into mania or cycle acceleration
    Objective:, To address whether switch of depression into hypomania or mania or cycle acceleration in patients with bipolar disorder is caused by antidepressants or whether this phenomenon is attributable to the natural history of bipolar disorder itself. Method:, A critical review of the literature, pointing at sources of bias that have been previously overlooked. For examining the causation in question, the Bradford,Hill criteria were applied, i.e. specificity of the potential causative agent, strength of effect, consistency in findings, dose,response relation, temporal relation with exposure to agent preceding effect and biological plausibility. Results:, There is a scarcity of randomized studies addressing the question, and the available studies all suffer from various forms of bias. However, there is some evidence suggesting that antidepressants given in addition to a mood stabilizer are not associated with an increased rate of switch when compared with the rate associated with the mood stabilizer alone. Conclusion:, When combined with a mood stabilizer, antidepressants given for acute bipolar depression seemingly do not induce a switch into hypomania or mania. Whether antidepressants may accelerate episode frequency and/or may cause other forms of destabilization in patients with bipolar disorder remain to be properly studied. [source]


    Novel antipsychotics in bipolar and schizoaffective mania

    ACTA PSYCHIATRICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 6 2004
    G. J. R. Mensink
    Objective:, Novel antipsychotics are increasingly used in the treatment of bipolar and schizoaffective mania. This paper presents an overview of the controlled studies in this field. Method:, Using cross-references, a computerized search was performed on MEDLINE and EMBASE psychiatry covering the period 1990,2002. Results:, Olanzapine and risperidone, added to mood stabilizers, and olanzapine as monotherapy enjoy the most evidential support in terms of efficacy and side-effect profile for their use in acute bipolar mania. The use of modern antipsychotics in bipolar prophylaxis and in both the short- and long-term treatment of schizomania has not been widely studied yet. Conclusion:, More controlled trials are still needed comparing modern antipsychotics as monotherapy and adjunctive to mood stabilizers with conventional antipsychotics, lithium, anticonvulsants and with each other in short-term and, especially, maintenance treatment of (schizo)mania. Partly based on controlled studies, olanzapine, risperidone and other modern antipsychotics could become preferable for these indications. [source]


    Sertraline-induced hypomania: a genuine side-effect

    ACTA PSYCHIATRICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 1 2003
    D. N. Mendhekar
    Objective: Antidepressants including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)-associated mania or hypomania has been well documented in the literature but these patients with switch have either mood disorders or various risk factors for bipolar disorder. This case report examines SSRI-induced hypomania in a patient with dissociative disorder and highlights hypomania as a genuine side-effect of sertraline rather than a switch. Method: A 23-year-old female patient with dissociative disorder has been described. Results: Hypomanic symptoms emerged during treatment with sertraline at the dose of 50 mg/day after 3,4 days of initiation of therapy and had complete recovery within 7 days after stopping sertraline. Conclusion: In the absence of risk factors for manic switch, sertraline-induced hypomania may be a true side-effect of drug. [source]


    Dose,response relationship of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors treatment-emergent hypomania in depressive disorders

    ACTA PSYCHIATRICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 3 2001
    R. Ramasubbu
    Objective:,The notion that antidepressant treatment-associated hypomania or mania being pharmacologically induced has been challenged. To determine whether selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) induced hypomania is secondary to medication effects, we examined the dose,response relationship of SSRI-induced hypomania in two patients with depressive disorder. Method:,Case study. Result:,Hypomanic symptoms emerged during treatment with sertraline at the dose of 300 mg per day in a 45-year-old male with major depression. Paroxetine treatment at the dose of 80 mg per day induced hypomania in a 37-year-old female with dysthymia and trichitillomania. These patients have no family or personal history of bipolar disorder. Hypomania resolved when sertraline was decreased to 200 mg per day and paroxetine to 40 mg per day. No hypomanic switch was observed during 18,24 months follow-up. Conclusion:,In the absence of risk factors for manic switch, SSRI-induced hypomania may be dose-dependent medication effects. [source]


    Treatment emergent mania responding to valproate in a Chinese female adolescent population with eating disorders: A case series

    EUROPEAN EATING DISORDERS REVIEW, Issue 6 2008
    Phern Chern Tor
    Abstract Eating disorders are commonly associated with depressive symptoms. In an adolescent and binge eating population fluoxetine is commonly used to treat co-morbid depression associated with eating disorders. In some patients this may precipitate treatment emergent mania (TEM). Risk factors in the adolescent population include being older, female, having a longer duration of illness, more previous mood episodes, a higher prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism, early-onset anxiety and recent exposure to a mood-elevating agent. Diagnosis and management of these co-morbid conditions is challenging due to the overlapping symptomatology and the adverse effects of both conditions complicating pharmacological management. This is illustrated with three cases in a Chinese female adolescent population that experienced TEM while on fluoxetine and responded to valproate. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]


    Olanzapine in the Treatment of Refractory Migraine and Chronic Daily Headache

    HEADACHE, Issue 6 2002
    Stephen D. Silberstein MD
    Background.,Olanzapine, a thienobenzodiazepine, is a new "atypical" antipsychotic drug. Olanzapine's pharmacologic properties suggest it would be effective for headaches, and its propensity for inducing acute extrapyramidal reactions or tardive dyskinesia is relatively low. We thus decided to assess the value of olanzapine in the treatment of chronic refractory headache. Methods.,We reviewed the records of 50 patients with refractory headache who were treated with olanzapine for at least 3 months. All previously had failed treatment with at least four preventative medications. The daily dose of olanzapine varied from 2.5 to 35 mg; most patients (n = 19) received 5 mg or 10 mg (n = 17) a day. Results.,Treatment resulted in a statistically significant decrease in headache days relative to baseline, from 27.5 ± 4.9 before treatment to 21.1±10.7 after treatment (P < .001, Student t test). The difference in headache severity (0 to 10 scale) before treatment (8.7±1.6) and after treatment (2.2 ± 2.1) was also statistically significant (P < .001). Conclusion.,Olanzapine may be effective for patients with refractory headache, including those who have failed a number of other prophylactic agents. Olanzapine should receive particular consideration for patients with refractory headache who have mania, bipolar disorder, or psychotic depression or whose headaches previously responded to other neuroleptic medications. [source]


    CHARTING THE "TRANSITIONAL PERIOD": THE EMERGENCE OF MODERN TIME IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY

    HISTORY AND THEORY, Issue 1 2006
    GÖRAN BLIX
    ABSTRACT This paper seeks to chart a concept of historical experience that French Romantic writers first developed to describe their own relationship to historical time: the notion of the "transitional period." At first, the term related strictly to the evolving periodic conception of history, one that required breaks, spaces, or zones of indeterminacy to bracket off periods imagined as organic wholes. These transitions, necessary devices in the new grammar of history, also began to attract interest on their own, conceived either as chaotic but creative times of transformation, or, more often, as slack periods of decadence that possessed no proper style but exhibited hybrid traits. Their real interest, however, lies in their reflexive application to the nineteenth century itself, by writers and historians such as Alfred de Musset, Chateaubriand, Michelet, and Renan, who in their effort to define their own period envisioned the "transitional period" as a passage between more coherent and stable historical formations. This prospective self-definition of the "age of history" from a future standpoint is very revealing; it shows not just the tension between its organic way of apprehending the past and its own self-perception, but it also opens a window on a new and paradoxical experience of time, one in which change is ceaseless and an end in itself. The paper also presents a critique of the way the term "modernity" has functioned, from Baudelaire's initial use to the present, to occlude the experience of transition that the Romantics highlighted. By imposing on the nineteenth-century sense of the transitory a heroic period designation, the term "modernity" denies precisely the reality it describes, and sublimates a widespread temporal malaise into its contrary. The paper concludes that the peculiarly "modern" mania for naming one's period is a function of transitional time, and that the concept coined by the Romantics still governs our contemporary experience. [source]


    Altered representation of expected value in the orbitofrontal cortex in mania

    HUMAN BRAIN MAPPING, Issue 7 2010
    Felix Bermpohl
    Abstract Objective: Increased responsiveness to appetitive and reduced responsiveness to aversive anticipatory cues may be associated with dysfunction of the brain reward system in mania. Here we studied neural correlates of gain and loss expectation in mania using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Method: Fifteen manic patients and 26 matched healthy control individuals performed a monetary incentive delay task, during which subjects anticipated to win or lose a varying amount of money. Varying both magnitude and valence (win, loss) of anticipatory cues allowed us to isolate the effects of magnitude, valence and expected value (magnitude-by-valence interaction). Results: Response times and total gain amount did not differ significantly between groups. FMRI data indicated that the ventral striatum responded according to cued incentive magnitude in both groups, and this effect did not significantly differ between groups. However, a significant group difference was observed for expected value representation in the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC; BA 11 and 47). In this region, patients showed increasing BOLD responses during expectation of increasing gain and decreasing responses during expectation of increasing loss, while healthy subjects tended to show the inverse effect. In seven patients retested after remission OFC responses adapted to the response pattern of healthy controls. Conclusions: The observed alterations are consistent with a state-related affective processing bias during the expectation of gains and losses which may contribute to clinical features of mania, such as the enhanced motivation for seeking rewards and the underestimation of risks and potential punishments. Hum Brain Mapp, 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Comparison of carbamazepine and lithium in treatment of bipolar disorder: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials,

    HUMAN PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY: CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL, Issue 1 2009
    Daniela Ceron-Litvoc
    Abstract Objectives To review data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the comparative efficacy of carbamazepine and lithium in treatment of acute manic and maintenance phase of bipolar disorder (BD). Design RCTs were identified through a search strategy that included: electronic databases, reference cross-checking, hand search of non-indexed publications, and book chapters on the treatment of BD comparing carbamazepine with lithium. Outcomes investigated were antimanic effect, trial withdrawal, relapse, hospitalization, need for rescue medication, and presence of adverse effects. Selection of studies and data analysis were performed independently by authors. Whenever possible, data from trials were combined through meta-analyses. Relative risks (RR) were estimated for dichotomous data. Results In acute mania, carbamazepine was similar to lithium on the following outcomes: trial withdrawal due to adverse effects, number of participants with at least one adverse effect, improvement in the Clinical Global Impression (CGI). In acute mania, carbamazepine was associated with fewer trial withdrawals. In maintenance treatment, carbamazepine was similar to lithium in relapses and hospitalization, but there were fewer trial withdrawals due to adverse effects on lithium. Conclusion This review suggests that carbamazepine might be comparable to lithium in terms of efficacy and safety, and therefore a valuable option in the treatment of both manic and maintenance phases. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Effect of risperidone on plasma catecholamine metabolites and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in patients with bipolar disorders

    HUMAN PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY: CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL, Issue 7 2006
    Reiji Yoshimura
    Abstract A combination treatment with a mood stabilizer and an antipsychotic drug is often used in as many as 90% of subjects with acute mania. Recently, augmentation therapy with atypical antipsychotics has been investigated in both the acute and long-term treatment of bipolar disorder with or without psychosis. In the present study, the authors investigated the efficacy of risperidone treatment for both acute manic and depressive episodes in bipolar disorder. Eighteen patients (M/F: 8/10, age: 34,±,15,yr) who met the DSM-IV criteria for bipolar I disorder (12 cases of manic episodes, 6 cases of depressive episodes) with risperidone treatment were evaluated regarding their clinical improvement using the Young Mania rating Scale (YMRS) and the Hamilton rating Scale for Depression (Ham-D). Plasma concentrations of HVA and MHPG were analyzed by HPLC-ECD and plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels were detected by sandwich ELISA. The mean scores of the YMRS were 22, 18, 12, 8, and 5 at time points before and 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks after the risperidone administration, respectively. The mean scores of the Ham-D were 24, 25, 21, 21, and 19 at time points before and 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks after the risperidone administration, respectively. The plasma levels of HVA and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) were observed to have decreased 4 weeks after risperidone administration in manic patients. The levels did not change in depressive patients. The plasma levels of BDNF were decreased in depressive patients compared with manic patients or healthy controls. However, the administration of risperidone did not alter plasma BDNF levels. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    The platelet as a peripheral marker in psychiatric illness

    HUMAN PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY: CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL, Issue 3 2001
    Helein Plein
    Abstract The identification of peripheral markers of psychiatric illness is important if an improvement in the diagnosis and treatment of various diseases with overlapping symptomatology is desired. There are many disorders that not only have overlapping symptomatology, but also have similar biological disturbances. The functional capability of the neurons involved in the disease processes may be at the crux of the underlying pathology. The platelet intracellular calcium response to neurotransmitter stimulation has previously been used as a peripheral marker of psychiatric illness. This review discusses evidence in support of the extended use of the platelet as a peripheral marker. The use of the platelet intracellular calcium response to neurotransmitter stimulation as a state or trait marker in major depression, the specificity and selectivity of this response, and the possible use of the platelet as a peripheral marker in psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia, mania and psychotic depression are shown. Finally, a proposed mechanism for the association between certain psychiatric disorders and cardiovascular disease is discussed. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Late onset mania in the elderly

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GERIATRIC PSYCHIATRY, Issue 8 2010
    Alfred Amaladoss
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]