Making

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Making

  • bread making
  • care decision making
  • cheese making
  • clinical decision making
  • consumer decision making
  • decision making
  • end-of-life decision making
  • environmental decision making
  • ethical decision making
  • foreign policy decision making
  • individual decision making
  • judicial decision making
  • juror decision making
  • local decision making
  • meaning making
  • medical decision making
  • own making
  • place making
  • policy decision making
  • policy making
  • sense making
  • shared decision making
  • strategic decision making
  • strategy making
  • therapeutic decision making
  • treatment decision making

  • Terms modified by Making

  • making change
  • making comparison
  • making decision
  • making process
  • making progress
  • making recommendation
  • making sense
  • making test
  • making use

  • Selected Abstracts


    POLICE SUSPICION AND DISCRETIONARY DECISION MAKING DURING CITIZEN STOPS,

    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 2 2005
    GEOFFREY P. ALPERT
    This study examines the influence of racial, demographic and situational variables on types of police suspicion and the ancillary decision to stop and question suspects. Data were drawn from an observational study of police decision making in Savannah, Georgia. Based on the literature, we hypothesized that minority suspects will be more likely to be viewed suspiciously by the police for nonbehavioral reasons. We also hypothesize that minority status will play a significant role in the decision to stop and question suspicious persons. The findings from this study provide partial support for these hypotheses. The results indicate that minority status does influence an officer's decision to form nonbehavioral as opposed to behavioral suspicion, but that minority status does not influence the decision to stop and question suspects. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding race and its role in police decision making. [source]


    DETERRENCE, CONTEXT, AND CRIME DECISION MAKING

    CRIMINOLOGY AND PUBLIC POLICY, Issue 1 2008
    GREG POGARSKY
    First page of article [source]


    REFLECTIONS ON THE STATE OF CONSENSUS-BASED DECISION MAKING IN CHILD WELFARE

    FAMILY COURT REVIEW, Issue 1 2009
    Bernie Mayer
    Consensus approaches to child protection decision making such as mediation and family group conferencing have become increasingly widespread since first initiated about 25 years ago. They address but are also constrained by paradoxes in the child protection system about commitments to protecting children and to family autonomy. In a series of surveys, interviews, and dialogues, mediation and conferencing researchers and practitioners discussed the key issues that face their work: clarity about purpose, system support, family empowerment, professional qualifications, and coordination among different types of consensus-building efforts. Consensus-based decision making in child protection will continue to expand and grow but will also continue to confront these challenges. [source]


    CHILDREN'S AND PARENTS' PERCEPTIONS ON CHILDREN'S PARTICIPATION IN DECISION MAKING AFTER PARENTAL SEPARATION AND DIVORCE*

    FAMILY COURT REVIEW, Issue 1 2008
    Judy Cashmore
    This article outlines the views of children and parents involved in family law disputes, about the need for and appropriateness of children's participation in decisions regarding residence and contact arrangements. Ninety parents and 47 children (ranging in age from 6 to 18 years) who had been through parental separation, were interviewed. Both parents and children had a range of views about the general appropriateness and fairness of children being involved, but the great majority, particularly of parents, thought that children should have a say in these matters. Core findings of the study include the considerable influence that older children had over the arrangements either in the aftermath of the separation or in making further changes over time, and the higher stated need of children who had experienced violence, abuse, or high levels of conflict to be heard than those in less problematic and noncontested matters. Parents involved in contested proceedings supported the participation of children at a younger age than those who were not. There was a reasonable degree of agreement between parents and children about the need for children to be acknowledged and the value of their views being heard in the decision-making process. Parents, however, expressed concern about the pressure and manipulation that children can face and exert in this process, whereas children were generally more concerned about the fairness of the outcomes, and maintaining their relationships with their parents and siblings. [source]


    CHANNING COPE AND THE MAKING OF A MIRACLE VINE,

    GEOGRAPHICAL REVIEW, Issue 2 2004
    DEREK H. ALDERMAN
    ABSTRACT. The history of kudzu illustrates the fluidity with which people can redefine their cultural relationship with exotic species. Although much of American society views the fast-growing Asian vine as a pest, this has not always been the case. During the first half of the twentieth century, individual entrepreneurs and government officials touted kudzu as a "miracle vine" and carried out massive planting campaigns across the southeastern United States. This study traces the changing place of kudzu within southern society from its introduction in the late 1800s to the present. Specific attention is devoted to the role that the gentleman farmer, author, and radio personality Channing Cope played in popularizing the cultivation of kudzu. Cope's promotional activities are interpreted as environmental claims making. Analysis focuses on the metaphors he used in persuading the public of kudzu's supposed benefits. Conducting such an examination advances our general understanding of the historical geography of exotics in America and the importance of human agency and cultural representation in the spread of non-native organisms. [source]


    GLUTEN EXTRACTED FROM FRESH PASTA BY-PRODUCT: PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND POTENTIAL USE IN BREAD MAKING

    JOURNAL OF TEXTURE STUDIES, Issue 3 2010
    RAOUDHA ELLOUZE GHORBEL
    ABSTRACT The chemical, functional, rheological and structural properties of gluten extracted from fresh durum wheat pasta by-product (PG) were studied and compared with those of the commercial soft wheat gluten (CG). PG had lower starch and fat contents, lower adhesiveness and higher emulsifying and foaming stabilities than CG, whereas CG had higher foaming capacity, cohesiveness and chewiness. CG gave also a more open matrix surface morphology than PG. The glutens did not show a significant difference of their protein content, water absorption, hardness and springiness. They showed also similar dynamic rheological behaviors (G,, G, and tan ,) at low frequencies (<4 Hz). In addition, PG and CG can be used in the bread-baking process since addition (2%, flour basis) to dough characterized by a low bread-making quality improved significantly its strength (W) and its elasticity-to-extensibility ratio (P/L). PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS The pasta by-product could be considered as an excellent source of gluten and may be used as an improver in bread making. This hypothesis is supported by determining the functional and rheological properties of the gluten extracted from fresh pasta by-product. Furthermore, addition of 2% of this gluten to low bread-making quality wheat flour leads to an improvement of the dough alveographic characteristics (W and P/L) and an increase in bread volume by 46%. [source]


    INTEGRATING HUMANS IN ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT USING MULTI-CRITERIA DECISION MAKING,

    JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN WATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION, Issue 2 2003
    Georgios E. Pavlikakis
    ABSTRACT: The Ecosystem Management (EM) process belongs to the category of Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) problems. It requires appropriate decision support systems (DSS) where "all interested people" would be involved in the decision making process. Environmental values critical to EM, such as the biological diversity, health, productivity and sustainability, have to be studied, and play an important role in modeling the ecosystem functions; human values and preferences also influence decision making. Public participation in decision and policy making is one of the elements that differentiate EM from the traditional methods of management. Here, a methodology is presented on how to quantify human preferences in EM decision making. The case study of the National Park of River Nestos Delta and Lakes Vistonida and Ismarida in Greece, presented as an application of this methodology, shows that the direct involvement of the public, the quantification of its preferences and the decision maker's attitude provide a strong tool to the EM decision making process. Public preferences have been given certain weights and three MCDM methods, namely, the Expected Utility Method, Compromise Programming and the Analytic Hierarchy Process, have been used to select alternative management solutions that lead to the best configuration of the ecosystem and are also socially acceptable. [source]


    MAKING UP THE TRUTH

    PACIFIC PHILOSOPHICAL QUARTERLY, Issue 3 2009
    STEVEN L. REYNOLDS
    A recent account of the meaning of ,real' leads to a view of what anti-realism should be that resembles fictionalism, while not being committed to fictionalism as such or being subject to some of the more obvious objections to that view. This account of anti-realism explains how we might ,make up' what is true in areas such as mathematics or ethics, and yet these made-up truths are resistant to alterations, even by our collective decisions. Finally it is argued that the sort of anti-realism suggested explains the appearance that the ethical domain supervenes on the naturalistic. [source]


    ASSESSING THE CANDIDATE AS A WHOLE: A HISTORICAL AND CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT FOR PERSONNEL DECISION MAKING

    PERSONNEL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 2 2002
    SCOTT HIGHHOUSEArticle first published online: 7 DEC 200
    Although individual assessment is a thriving area of professional practice in industry, it receives little, if any, attention from textbooks on industrial psychology or personnel management. This article is an attempt to establish individual assessment's place in the history of personnel selection, and to examine why the practice has survived despite receiving little attention in research and graduate training. It is argued that the clinical, holistic approach that has characterized individual-assessment practice has survived primarily because the "elementalistic" testing approach, focusing on traits and abilities, has often been dismissed as inadequate for addressing the complexities of the executive profile. Moreover, public displeasure with standard paper-and-pencil testing in the 1960s and 1970s made the holistic approach to assessment an attractive, alternative. The article contrasts individual assessment practice with the current state of knowledge on psychological assessment and personnel decision making. Like psychotherapy in the 1950s, individual psychological assessment appears to have achieved the status of functional autonomy within psychology. [source]


    MINDS IN THE MAKING: ATTACHMENT, THE SELF-ORGANIZING BRAIN, AND DEVELOPMENTALLY-ORIENTED PSYCHOANALYTIC PSYCHOTHERAPY

    BRITISH JOURNAL OF PSYCHOTHERAPY, Issue 3 2001
    Allan N. Schore
    First page of article [source]


    Movie Making at Pixar: A Collaboration of Art and Technology

    COMPUTER GRAPHICS FORUM, Issue 3 2005
    Rob Cook
    This talk takes you behind the scenes at Pixar Animation Studios for an in-depth look at how its 3d computer graphics films are made. Making a computer animated film involves people with artistic talent and people with technical skills working together in close collaboration. The process starts with the development of the story and continues with modeling the geometry, adding articulation controls, using those controls to animate the characters, simulating things like water and cloth and hair, defining the look of the surfaces, putting lights in the scene, adding special effects, rendering, and post-production. Special emphasis is given to the roles of technology and computer graphics research in supporting the filmmaker. [source]


    Advanced Heart Failure: Prognosis, Uncertainty, and Decision Making

    CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE, Issue 5 2007
    Jane G. Zapka ScD
    Heart failure is a serious clinical management challenge for both patients and primary care physicians. The authors studied the perceptions and practices of internal medicine residents and faculty at an academic medical center in the Southeast to guide design of strategies to improve heart failure care. Data were collected via a self-administered survey. Eighty-nine faculty and resident physicians in general internal medicine and geriatrics participated (74% response rate). Items measured perceived skills and barriers, adherence to guidelines, and physician understanding of patient prognosis. Case studies explored practice approaches. Clinical knowledge and related scales were generally good and comparable between physician groups. Palliative care and prognostic skills were self-rated with wide variance. Physicians rated patient noncompliance and low lifestyle change motivation as major barriers. Given the complexities of caring for elderly persons with heart failure and comorbid conditions, there are significant opportunities for improving physician skills in decision making, patient-centered counseling, and palliative care. [source]


    Improvement In Blood Pressure Control With Impedance Cardiography-Guided Pharmacologic Decision Making

    CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE, Issue 1 2004
    Donald L. Sharman MD
    Previous reports have demonstrated improvement in blood pressure (BP) control utilizing noninvasive hemodynamic measurements with impedance cardiography (ICG). The purpose of this article is to report the effect of utilizing ICG-guided decision making to treat uncontrolled hypertension in a community generalist setting. Patient medical records were retrospectively reviewed for subjects on two antihypertensive agents with systolic blood pressure ,140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure ,90 mm Hg. All subjects were treated utilizing a previously published ICG-guided treatment algorithm. Twenty-one subjects met the BP and medication criteria. BP at entry was 157.213.9/78.79.9 mm Hg. Subjects were treated for 21585 days (5.02.0 visits). After ICG-guided treatment, 12/21 (57.1%) achieved sustained BP control (p<0.001). BP was lowered to 141.622.0 (p<0.001)/77.110.7 (p>0.05) mm Hg. Antihypertensive agents increased from 2.00.0 to 2.50.7 (p<0.05). In this series of subjects with uncontrolled BP taking two antihypertensive agents, ICG-guided pharmacologic decision making resulted in significant reduction in BP and improvement in BP control. [source]


    Comparative Constitutionalism and the Making of A New World Order

    CONSTELLATIONS: AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CRITICAL AND DEMOCRATIC THEORY, Issue 4 2005
    Vlad F. Perju
    First page of article [source]


    An Experimental Investigation of Approaches to Audit Decision Making: An Evaluation Using Systems-Mediated Mental Models,

    CONTEMPORARY ACCOUNTING RESEARCH, Issue 2 2005
    AMY K. CHOY
    Abstract The objective of this research is to articulate a decision-making foundation for the systems audit approach. Under this audit approach, the auditor first gains an understanding of the auditee's economic environment, strategy, and business processes and then forms expectations about its performance and financial reporting. Proponents of this audit approach argue that decision making is enhanced because the knowledge of the system allows the auditor to focus on the most important risks. However, there has not been an explicit framework to explain how systems knowledge can enhance decision making. To provide such a framework, we combine mental model theory with general systems theory to produce a hypothesis we refer to as a systems-mediated mental model hypothesis. We test this hypothesis using experimental economics methods. We find that (1) subjects make systematic errors under the setting without an organizing framework provided by the systems information, and (2) the presence of an organizing framework results in lower reporting errors. Importantly, the organizing framework significantly enhances decision making in the settings where the environment changed. Establishing a decision-making foundation for systems audits can provide an important building block that, in part, can contribute to the development of a more effective and efficient audit technology - an important objective now when audits are facing a credibility crisis. [source]


    Reading the Sermon the Mount: Character Formation and Decision Making in Matthew 5,7

    CONVERSATIONS IN RELIGION & THEOLOGY, Issue 2 2005
    Article first published online: 11 OCT 200
    Books reviewed: Charles Talbert, Reading the Sermon the Mount: Character Formation and Decision Making in Matthew 5,7 Reviewed by Leslie Houlden [source]


    Media Reviews Available Online

    ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 12 2006
    Article first published online: 28 JUN 200
    Book reviewed in this article: Pediatric Resuscitation: A Practical Approach. Edited by Mark G. Roback, Stephen J. Teach. Anyone, Anything, Anytime (A History of Emergency Medicine) By Brian J. Zink. Emergency Medicine Decision Making: Critical Choices in Chaotic Environments By Scott Weingart, Peter Wyer. Cardiology Clinics: Chest Pain Units issue Edited by Ezra A. Amsterdam, J. Douglas Kirk MD. Pediatric Emergency Medicine Quick Glance Edited by Ghazala Q. Sharieff, Madeline Matar Joseph, Todd W. Wylie. Emergency Medicine Written Board Review. By Scott H. Plantz, Dwight Collman. Emergency Medicine Oral Board Review. By William Gossman, Scott H. Plantz. Emergency Medicine Q & A. By Joseph Lex, Lance W. Kreplick, Scott H. Plantz, Daniel Girazadas Jr. [source]


    "THEY COME IN PEASANTS AND LEAVE CITIZENS": Urban Villages and the Making of Shenzhen, China

    CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY, Issue 3 2010
    JONATHAN BACH
    ABSTRACT This essay examines the ongoing process of postsocialist transformation at the intersection of cultural and economic forces in an urban environment through the example of the so-called "urban villages"(chengzhongcun) in Shenzhen, China, a booming southern Chinese city and former Special Economic Zone next to Hong Kong. This essay ethnographically examines the role of former rural collectives encircled by a city that has exploded from farmland to an export-driven city of over 14 million people in little over one generation. These villages form an internal other that is both the antithesis and the condition of possibility for Shenzhen city. By co-opting the market economy in ways that weave them into the fabric of the contemporary global city, the villages become as much an experiment as the Special Economic Zone itself. This essay analyzes the urban,rural divide as complicit in each other's continued production and effacement and explores how village and city exploit the ambiguities of their juxtaposition in the making of Shenzhen. [source]


    Of Ships and Saints: History, Memory, and Place in the Making of Moreno Mexican Identity

    CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY, Issue 1 2001
    Laura A. Lewis
    First page of article [source]


    Sourcing Research as an Intellectual Network of Ideas,

    DECISION SCIENCES, Issue 3 2008
    G. Tomas M. Hult
    ABSTRACT What are the current intellectual clusters in the sourcing literature? How do these clusters relate to each other? How has sourcing-related research changed over the last 10 years? We respond to these questions by examining the intellectual structure of research in the sourcing literature across 21 journals during the last decade (1998,2007). Multidimensional scaling is used to analyze cocitation data involving 72,003 citations from 1,960 sourcing articles. The results indicate that 10 different sourcing clusters emerged in the 1998,2002 period and 6 sourcing clusters surfaced in the 2003,2007 period. Five of the intellectual clusters in 1998,2002 disappeared in 2003,2007, five clusters remained, and one new cluster materialized in 2003,2007 that did not exist in the earlier period (Managerial Behavior and Upstream Decision Making). [source]


    A Modeling Framework for Supply Chain Simulation: Opportunities for Improved Decision Making,

    DECISION SCIENCES, Issue 1 2005
    D. J. Van Der Zee
    ABSTRACT Owing to its inherent modeling flexibility, simulation is often regarded as the proper means for supporting decision making on supply chain design. The ultimate success of supply chain simulation, however, is determined by a combination of the analyst's skills, the chain members' involvement, and the modeling capabilities of the simulation tool. This combination should provide the basis for a realistic simulation model, which is both transparent and complete. The need for transparency is especially strong for supply chains as they involve (semi)autonomous parties each having their own objectives. Mutual trust and model effectiveness are strongly influenced by the degree of completeness of each party's insight into the key decision variables. Ideally, visual interactive simulation models present an important communicative means for realizing the required overview and insight. Unfortunately, most models strongly focus on physical transactions, leaving key decision variables implicit for some or all of the parties involved. This especially applies to control structures, that is, the managers or systems responsible for control, their activities and their mutual attuning of these activities. Control elements are, for example, dispersed over the model, are not visualized, or form part of the time-indexed scheduling of events. In this article, we propose an alternative approach that explicitly addresses the modeling of control structures. First, we will conduct a literature survey with the aim of listing simulation model qualities essential for supporting successful decision making on supply chain design. Next, we use this insight to define an object-oriented modeling framework that facilitates supply chain simulation in a more realistic manner. This framework is meant to contribute to improved decision making in terms of recognizing and understanding opportunities for improved supply chain design. Finally, the use of the framework is illustrated by a case example concerning a supply chain for chilled salads. [source]


    Decision Making with Uncertain Judgments: A Stochastic Formulation of the Analytic Hierarchy Process*

    DECISION SCIENCES, Issue 3 2003
    Eugene D. Hahn
    ABSTRACT In the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), priorities are derived via a deterministic method, the eigenvalue decomposition. However, judgments may be subject to error. A stochastic characterization of the pairwise comparison judgment task is provided and statistical models are introduced for deriving the underlying priorities. Specifically, a weighted hierarchical multinomial logit model is used to obtain the priorities. Inference is then conducted from the Bayesian viewpoint using Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. The stochastic methods are found to give results that are congruent with those of the eigenvector method in matrices of different sizes and different levels of inconsistency. Moreover, inferential statements can be made about the priorities when the stochastic approach is adopted, and these statements may be of considerable value to a decision maker. The methods described are fully compatible with judgments from the standard version of AHP and can be used to construct a stochastic formulation of it. [source]


    Decision Making in a Standby Service System,

    DECISION SCIENCES, Issue 3 2000
    H. V. Ravinder
    A standby service option allows a firm to lower its risk of not having sufficient capacity to satisfy demand without investing in additional capacity. Standby service options currently exist in the natural gas, electric, and water utility industries. Firms seeking standby service are typically large industrial or institutional organizations that, due to unexpectedly high demand or interruptions in their own supply system, look to a public utility to supplement their requirements. Typically, the firm pays the utility a reservation fee based on a nominated volume and a consumption charge based on the volume actually taken. In this paper, a single-period model is developed and optimized with respect to the amount of standby capacity a firm should reserve. Expressions for the mean and variance of the supplier's aggregate standby demand distribution are developed. A procedure for computing the level of capacity needed to safely meet its standby obligations is presented. Numerical results suggest that the standby supplier can safely meet its standby demand with a capacity that is generally between 20 to 50% of the aggregate nominated volume. [source]


    A "Modest Proposal" for Making the Standardized Normal Distribution Tables in Business Statistics Texts to an Upper-Tail Format,

    DECISION SCIENCES JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE EDUCATION, Issue 1 2007
    Ram B. Misra
    First page of article [source]


    Dean Acheson and the Making of "the West"

    DIPLOMATIC HISTORY, Issue 3 2008
    Fraser J. Harbutt
    First page of article [source]


    JFK and the U.S.-Israeli Relationship

    DIPLOMATIC HISTORY, Issue 2 2005
    Zach Levey
    Book reviewed: Warren Bass. Support Any Friend: Kennedy's Middle East and the Making of the U.S.-Israel Alliance. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003. 336 pp. Notes, bibliography, index. $30.00 (hardcover). [source]


    The Power of the Last Word in Legislative Policy Making

    ECONOMETRICA, Issue 5 2006
    B. Douglas Bernheim
    We examine legislative policy making in institutions with two empirically relevant features: agenda setting occurs in real time and the default policy evolves. We demonstrate that these institutions select Condorcet winners when they exist, provided a sufficient number of individuals have opportunities to make proposals. In policy spaces with either pork barrel or pure redistributional politics (where a Condorcet winner does not exist), the last proposer is effectively a dictator or near-dictator under relatively weak conditions. [source]


    Visual Function is Stable in Patients Who Continue Long-Term Vigabatrin Therapy: Implications for Clinical Decision Making

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 4 2001
    Scott R. Paul
    Summary: ,Purpose: Vigabatrin (VGB) has been shown to cause visual field constriction and other forms of mild visual dysfunction. We determined the safety of continuing VGB therapy in patients who had received prolonged treatment (>2 years) with the drug by serially monitoring changes in visual function over a 1-year period of continued therapy. We also followed up patients who discontinued VGB to see whether alternative therapies are effective. Methods: Fifteen of 17 patients who continued VGB therapy had visual-function testing (visual acuity, color vision, kinetic and static perimetry) every 3 months for 1 year. Eighteen patients who discontinued VGB were given alternative antiepileptic drugs (AEDs); their seizure responses were measured after ,3 months of treatment. Results: Patients continuing VGB showed no worsening of visual acuity, color vision, or visual-field constriction beyond that measured in the initial test. Many patients who discontinued VGB had good seizure control with either newer or previously unsuccessful AEDs. Conclusions: For patients who have an excellent response to VGB and only mild visual changes, continued therapy may be safe with close visual monitoring. Patients who do not have a significant reduction in seizures or who experience considerable visual dysfunction with VGB may respond well to alternative therapies. [source]


    Spaces of Encounter: Public Bureaucracy and the Making of Client Identities

    ETHOS, Issue 3 2010
    Lauren J. Silver
    I emphasize the material deficits, spatial barriers, and bureaucratic procedures that restrict the storylines clients and officials use to make sense of one another. This article is drawn from a two-year ethnographic study with African American young mothers (ages 16,20) under the custody of the child welfare system. I focus here on the experiences of one young mother and explore several scenarios in her struggle to obtain public housing. I argue that service deficits can be explained not by the commonly articulated narratives of client "shortcomings" but, rather, by the nature of the organizational and material conditions guiding exchanges between public service gatekeepers and young mothers. I suggest that this work advances narrative approaches to psychological anthropology by attending to the roles of social and material boundaries in framing the stories people can tell each other. [identity, adolescent mothers, public bureaucracy, service negotiation, narrative] [source]


    Achieving Quality in Clinical Decision Making: Cognitive Strategies and Detection of Bias

    ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 11 2002
    Pat Croskerry MD
    Clinical decision making is a cornerstone of high-quality care in emergency medicine. The density of decision making is unusually high in this unique milieu, and a combination of strategies has necessarily evolved to manage the load. In addition to the traditional hypothetico-deductive method, emergency physicians use several other approaches, principal among which are heuristics. These cognitive short-cutting strategies are especially adaptive under the time and resource limitations that prevail in many emergency departments (EDs), but occasionally they fail. When they do, we refer to them as cognitive errors. They are costly but highly preventable. It is important that emergency physicians be aware of the nature and extent of these heuristics and biases, or cognitive dispositions to respond (CDRs). Thirty are catalogued in this article, together with descriptions of their properties as well as the impact they have on clinical decision making in the ED. Strategies are delineated in each case, to minimize their occurrence. Detection and recognition of these cognitive phenomena are a first step in achieving cognitive de-biasing to improve clinical decision making in the ED. [source]