Major Prey (major + prey)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Trophodynamic modeling of walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) in the Doto area, northern Japan: model description and baseline simulations

Abstract An age-structured trophodynamic model was constructed to quantitatively analyze factors affecting post-settlement mortality and growth of walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) in the Doto area, the main nursery ground of the Japan Pacific population. The model included (i) multiple age classes of pollock, (ii) a generic predator, (iii) fisheries, and (iv) major prey of pollock. Major processes considered were (i) recruitment, (ii) bottom-up control of somatic growth, (iii) mortality because of predation, cannibalism and fishing, (iv) size-selective prey selection, (v) temperature-dependent bioenergetics such as conversion efficiency and daily consumption rate, and (vi) production and advective supply of prey. By assuming that pollock select prey based upon both relative abundance and predator,prey size relationships, the model accurately simulated seasonal and ontogenetic variations in the diet. However considering ontogenetic segregation, the model showed that, due to cannibalism, newly recruited fish would be totally consumed within 6 months after settlement. By considering segregation (10% overlap during spring and 0.1% during other seasons), an agreement of diet between the simulation and empirical data averaged 82.7% for the different seasons and fish sizes. Euphausiids, the most important prey of pollock, suffered the highest predation impact (22.2 5.3 WWg m,2 yr,1) exceeding annual production in the model domain (17.2 0.1 WWg m,2 yr,1), indicating that an advective supply of prey is necessary to support the pollock population. The daily ration of pollock during spring and summer averaged at 1.2 and 0.6% BW day,1 for small (,200 mm) and large (>200 mm) pollock, respectively; this daily ration was reduced by half during autumn and winter. [source]

Spatio-temporal variation of avian foraging in the rocky intertidal food web

Masakazu Hori
Abstract 1While birds are top predators in most rocky intertidal communities, the relationship between foraging pattern and variability in food web structure has not been studied. This study examined the spatio-temporal variation of both avian foraging and food web structure at an intertidal rocky shore in northern Japan over a 1-year period. 2Seventeen bird species foraged on the intertidal rocky shore. Crows and gulls were dominant, and their major prey was sea urchins that migrated from the sub-tidal to intertidal habitat. Interspecific interactions (i.e. stealing of food, utilization of food waste by other species) occurred between crows and gulls especially when feeding on sea urchins. The prey of the birds showed spatial and temporal partitioning. 3The number of prey items consumed per day by the dominant birds varied with various factors. Factors strongly affecting the foraging pattern of crows were waves, tides, humans and gulls, and those strongly affecting the foraging pattern of gulls were tides, humans, sea urchins and crows. 4In the rocky intertidal food web, most of the top predators were birds, and most of the birds were omnivores. The birds consumed many more species than did other consumers. Food-resource partitioning caused spatio-temporal compartmentation among subwebs in which the top predators were dominant birds. 5Analysis of food web statistics (i.e. web size, numbers of links, linkage density, chain lengths) revealed that the presence/absence of birds did not change the relationships between web size and the other statistics. The food web statistics depended on web size, and the web size was positively related with time spent emersed and temperature when birds were both present and not present. 6Birds often foraged across habitat boundaries, and the main food resource of top predators was the prey species from the subtidal habitat. Therefore, the spatial scale of the Hiura rocky intertidal food web temporally varied with birds foraging across habitat boundaries. [source]

The New Zealand common smelt: biology and ecology

F. J. Ward
The common smelt is one of the most widespread indigenous freshwater fishes in New Zealand. One other member of the family Retropinnidae, Stokellia anisodon(Stokell), is present but is confined to a small region of the South Island. There are many diadromous as well as river and lake resident populations, the latter, sometimes a result of introductions to serve as forage fish for trout. Diadromous smelt spawn during austral autumn,winter on sand bars of lower riverine reaches. Larval stages inhabit coastal marine waters, and the postlarvae to immature stages re-enter rivers and some lowland lakes. Diadromous smelt are distinguished from lowland lake resident forms by high vertebral but low gill raker numbers and larger size and from those present in some isolated waters, by high vertebral numbers alone. Lake or reservoir resident smelt usually spawn in austral spring,summer on sandy shallows at stream mouths or along shorelines. Verified smelt ages (otolith analyses) indicate that in some populations most smelt mature and spawn after c. 1 year. Adult smelt feed on a spectrum of primarily invertebrate animals ranging from small zooplankters to insects and occasionally small fishes. Smelt are a major prey for both brown trout and rainbow trout. Adult smelt are a minor food for the Maori people. As postlarvae they are a component of a few ,whitebait' fisheries. Most smelt populations are increasingly affected by environmental changes induced by human activities. Although many studies have examined problems affecting smelt, further effort is required, along with more basic research. [source]

Food and feeding habits of smooth-coated otters (Lutra perspicillata) and their significance to the fish population of Kerala, India

K. R. Anoop
Abstract Feeding habits of smooth-coated otters Lutra perspicillata were studied by analysing spraints collected from around the Periyar Lake within the Periyar Tiger Reserve, Kerala, India. Remains were identified by the comparison of body parts with a reference collection of appropriate prey species. Two methods were used to estimate the proportions of different prey consumed: frequency of occurrence and score-bulk estimate. The number of prey types in a spraint varied between one and seven. More prey species were found during low water levels (March,April). Fish was the major prey, followed by frogs, crabs, birds and insects. Throughout the study, the exotic tilapia and European carp constituted the major prey in the diet. The quantity of native Deccan mahsheer and endemic Periyar barb in the diet was insignificant. A higher intake of bottom-dwelling catfish was observed during periods of low water, probably because of the increased efficiency of otters to forage at these levels. By consuming large amounts of exotic species, such as tilapia and European carp, otters might contribute to the control of the rapid expansion of these species in the Periyar Lake and adjacent water bodies in the reserve. [source]