Major Preoccupation (major + preoccupation)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts


ABSTRACT Subsequent to the end of the Cold War, analysts groped for an understanding of the overall structures of world politics that marked the emergence of a new epoch. As a result, the concept of empire became a major preoccupation, with the economic and military power of the United States considered sufficient for regarding it as an empire. Due to the proliferation of new microelectronic technologies and for a variety of other specified reasons, however, the constraints inherent in the new epoch make it seem highly unlikely that the U.S. or any other country can ever achieve the status of an empire. In effect, the substantial shrinkage of time and distance in the current period has led to the replacement of the age of the nation-state that originated with the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648 with the age of the networked individual. It is an age that has developed on a global scale and that has brought an end to the history of empires. [source]

Original semiologic standardized evaluation of stratum corneum hydration by Diagnoskin® stripping sample

P. Gasser
Synopsis In a normal and healthy skin, the regular elimination of the superficial corneocytes, called desquamation, is a fundamental physiologic process intended to protect the barrier function of the skin. This invisible loss of corneocytes, individually or in small groups, is incessantly compensated by the divisions of the proliferative layer and the upward cellular maturation in order to maintain the harmonious renewal of the epidermis and the integrity of the stratum corneum. The harmony of this desquamation process is intimately conditioned by a sufficient hydration of the stratum corneum: (i) an abnormal desquamation leads to a disruption of the water barrier function and consequently to a dehydration tendency of the stratum corneum, and (ii) a cutaneous dryness (whatever the cause) is able to disturb the desquamation process. Protecting the water content of the stratum corneum has always been a major preoccupation of the cosmetic industry scientists. Consequently, the moisturizing properties of a cosmetic product are objectively measured by various explorations directly targeted on the hydration (corneometry) and on the level of the water barrier function (transepidermal water loss (TEWL) measurements), which depends directly on the skin hydration state. This intimate linkage of the desquamation process and the water content of the stratum corneum enable us to suggest an indirect assessment of the hydration from a direct study of the desquamation by examining a skin-stripping sample (D-Squames®) by an optical microscope (linked to a computer). We will describe this already known technique and mainly its new and unpublished semiologic exploitation, named Diagnoskin®, whose advantages are its simplicity and its reproducibility particularly interesting in the case of sequential appraisal of dermatologic or cosmetic treatments. Résumé Sur une peau normale et saine, l'élimination régulière des cornéocytes superficiels, appelée desquamation, est un processus physiologique fondamental destinéà préserver la fonction barrière de la peau. La perte invisible des cornéocytes, individuellement ou par petits paquets cellulaires, est sans cesse compensée par les divisions de la couche germinative et la maturation cellulaire ascensionnelle afin de maintenir le renouvellement harmonieux de l'épiderme et l'intégrité du stratum corneum. L'harmonie de ce processus de desquamation est intimement conditionnée par une hydratation suffisante du stratum corneum: une desquamation anormale aboutit à une perturbation de la fonction barrière et donc à une tendance à la déshydratation du stratum corneum, Une sècheresse cutanée (quelle qu'en soit la cause) va perturber la desquamation. Préserver la teneur en eau du stratum corneum est depuis toujours une préoccupation majeure pour le scientifique de l'industrie cosmétique. L'appréciation objective du caractère hydratant d'une crème cosmétique est d'ailleurs mesuré par diverses explorations directement ciblées sur l'hydratation (cornéométrie) et sur l'état de la fonction barrière (Perte Insensible en Eau ,PIE) qui dépend directement de l'état d'hydratation de la peau. Cette liaison intime du niveau d'hydratation du stratum corneum et du phénomène de desquamation nous a fait proposer une évaluation indirecte de l'hydratation à l'aide d'une étude directe de la desquamation par observation au microscope (reliéà un ordinateur) des prélèvements par stripping des cornéocytes superficiels (D-Squames®). Nous décrirons cette technique déjà connue et surtout son exploitation sémiologique nouvelle et inédite, appelée Diagnoskin® dont les avantages sont sa simplicité et son caractère reproductible particulièrement intéressants pour l'évaluation séquentielle de traitements dermatologiques ou cosmétiques. [source]

Beyond the Test: L2 Dynamic Assessment and the Transcendence of Mediated Learning

A major preoccupation in assessment is connecting examinees' performance in assessment and nonassessment contexts. This preoccupation has traditionally been framed in terms of generalizability. This article reconceptualizes this problem from a qualitatively different perspective on human abilities and their development, namely, the Sociocultural Theory of Mind outlined in the work of Vygotsky (1986, 1998). From this perspective, assessment occurs not in isolation from instruction but as an inseparable feature of it. Assessment and instruction are dialectically integrated as a single activity that seeks to understand development by actively promoting it. This pedagogical approach, known as Dynamic Assessment (DA), challenges the widespread acceptance of independent performance as the privileged indicator of individuals' abilities and calls for assessors to abandon their role as observers of learner behavior in favor of a commitment to joint problem solving aimed at supporting learner development. In DA, the traditional goal of producing generalizations from a snapshot of performance is replaced by ongoing intervention in development. Following Vygtosky's argument that true development goes beyond improvement on a given assessment task, DA practitioners have devised a method known as transcendence (TR), in which they collaborate with learners on increasingly complex tasks. In this article, transcendence in the second language (L2) domain is illustrated with examples of advanced learners of French composing oral narratives with support from a mediator. The article concludes with recommendations for future research on TR in L2 development. [source]

Spenser's ,goodly thought': Heroides 15 and The Teares of the Muses

James Harmer
ABSTRACT Ovid's Heroides are engaged by Edmund Spenser's complaint poem The Teares of the Muses (published 1591). Spenser makes use of a shard of text from Heroides 15 (Sappho to Phaon) in an effort to represent the origins of self-consciousness as revealed in the instant of poetic inspiration. At the centre of this representation of Spenser's is the existence of a voice inside the head out of which first emerges the thinking of new thoughts. The sixteenth-century editorial recensions of the well known crux contained in the lines from Heroides 15 with which Spenser engages point to the frisson of such inner speech. Correspondingly, the dialectical quality of the Heroides as voices seeking responses is exploited by Spenser's intertextual poetics in his representation of the momentary fulfilment of a newly created thought. In the resulting display of the immanent origins of self-consciousness, Spenser's Heroides enable his quest to reveal the present source from which a sense of self might develop across past and future; such a development being a major preoccupation of his poetic career. [source]