Major Port (major + port)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Palynological evidence for late Holocene environmental change on the Gimhae fluvial plain, Southern Korean peninsula: Reconstructing the rise and fall of Golden Crown Gaya State

Sangheon Yi
This paper presents the results of detailed studies of palynomorphs recovered from two cores collected near the Yeanri burial mound on the Gimhae fluvial plain. Two local pollen zones were recognized on the basis of variations in the palynofloral assemblage: a lower Pollen Zone I, dominated by a Pinus-Quercus assemblage, and an upper Pollen Zone II, dominated by a Pinus-Quercus -Gramineae assemblage. The palynological and molluscan analyses indicate that the depositional environments changed from a lower intertidal flat of a shallow bay environment to an upper intertidal flat in a shallow bay (before 1280 110 14C yr B.P.), and finally to a fluvial plain similar to that of today. This environmental change may have resulted from uplift along the Yangsan Fault. Afterward, the exposed area was modified by human activities, as indicated by a sudden increase in grassland herbaceous pollen grains. The loss of this bay likely had a dramatic effect on the Golden Crown Gaya State (3rd,7th centuries A.D.), which used it as a major port for regional trade, and may explain why it eventually merged with the Shilla State. 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Sails from the Roman port at Berenike, Egypt

Felicity C. Wild
A 1st-century AD midden deposit at Berenike, a major port on the trade route between the Roman Empire and India, has produced cotton textile fragments reinforced with a rectangular grid-pattern of cotton strips, interpreted as the remains of sails. Webbing fragments of cotton and linen, in some cases attached to stout cotton or linen cloth, may also have come from sails. The only published example of a Roman-Period sail is a linen sail of 1st-century BC-AD date from Thebes in Egypt, to which the Berenike fragments bear a close resemblance. The S-spun linen sails were presumably manufactured in Egypt. Most of the Berenike material, however, was of Z-spun cotton: an import, it is argued, of Indian origin. The construction of Mediterranean-type sails entirely from Indian materials has implications for the presence of Westerners on the Indian sub-continent. [source]

Trauma in the Crusader period city of Caesarea: a major port in the medieval eastern Mediterranean

P. D. MitchellArticle first published online: 14 AUG 200
Abstract Caesarea is the first fortified city to undergo palaeopathological analysis of its Crusader period inhabitants. This study of the 12th and 13th century population aims to determine the major types of trauma present, whether from weapon injuries or accidents. Since the Crusades were known for the significant number of battles and raids that took place, weapon injuries were expected to be common. Thirteen cases of trauma are described and a highly unexpected pattern has come to light. These cases do not include one single example of weapon-related trauma. Every fracture is of a type expected from accidents or interpersonal violence without weapons. Possible explanations include the location of the city deep within Frankish territory and the robust city walls giving effective protection to the inhabitants, and also that the population were involved in activities that left them prone to accidents but not weapon injuries. The other important finding from this study was that the cases of lower limb long bone spiral fractures had healed in a near-anatomical alignment. This is not what we would expect, as a proportion of these injuries would normally have been unstable and tend to heal poorly aligned. The good position could have resulted from surgeons' use of splints to immobilise the bones while they healed. This suggestion is supported by laws of the kingdom of Jerusalem, which stated that surgeons were to be punished if they allowed such fractures to heal at an angle. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Lillian Borrone: Weaving a Web to Revitalize Port Commerce in New York and New Jersey

Hindy Lauer Schachter
In 1988, when Lillian Borrone became the director of the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey's Port Commerce Department, she was the first woman in the world to head a major port. During her 12-year tenure, she revitalized the port's cargo trade. She spearheaded the recovery of a faltering entity through vision, astute marketing, and an inclusive, participatory management style. Her achievements contain valuable lessons for all managers who want to revitalize agency operations. Her career path also serves as a key information source for how women can advance in the male-dominated transportation field. [source]

The development of biocommodities and the role of North West European ports in biomass chains

Johan P. M. Sanders
Abstract Biomass-derived commodities will compete with commodities derived from fossil fuels in 20 years' time. This perspective will explore the economic conditions that will govern the development of, and the trade in these biocommodities. Markets for biocommodities will open up new revenues for both the agricultural and the chemical sector. We shall explore the importance of the biorefinery concept for the establishment of these new markets. Biorefinery is the sustainable processing of biomass into a spectrum of marketable products and energy. Trade in biobased substances will be greatly enhance if standard ,commodities' are defined and produced in several places in the world. Now we turn to the second question of this perspective: where will biocommodities be produced and where will they be used? The choice of where to process the biomass will depend on the type of biomass, transport distances, bulk density, decay rate, ease of handling, the type of process(ses), the presence of markets, the cost of labor, and logistical conditions. Ports, both on the exporting side and on the importing side, will have a major influence on the formation of biomass chains. In export ports, crude or partially pre-treated biomass will be collected and processed/ transformed into a biocommodity. Existing industries, such as feed production, can be combined with the production of biocommodities, The role of port areas and chemical industries in several biomass chains are shown. The combination of a major port and major application markets for biomass, such as feed industry, chemical industry, biofuels industry and power generation, will allow for the formation of a biomass hub. The formation of a biomass hub will be a step-by-step process in which services and exchange markets are added to existing logistical and industrial structures. The port of Rotterdam has an excellent starting point to become a hub in international biomass trade and processing. In the near future, 5,15 years from now, international biomass trade will become standardized and biocommodities will be defined, partly on the basis of technologies still in development. 2009 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd [source]

Populations of North American bean thrips, Caliothrips fasciatus (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae: Panchaetothripinae) not detected in Australia

Mark S Hoddle
Abstract,Caliothrips fasciatus is native to the USA and western Mexico and overwintering adults are regular contaminants in the ,navel' of navel oranges exported from California, USA to Australia, New Zealand and elsewhere. Due to the long history of regular interceptions of C. fasciatus in Australia, a survey for this thrips was undertaken around airports, seaports, public recreational parks and major agricultural areas in the states of Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia and Western Australia to determine whether C. fasciatus has successfully invaded Australia. Host plants that are known to support populations of C. fasciatus, such as various annual and perennial agricultural crops, urban ornamentals and weeds along with native Australian flora, were sampled for this thrips. A total of 4675 thrips specimens encompassing at least 76 species from a minimum of 47 genera, and three families were collected from at least 159 plant species in 67 families. Caliothrips striatopterus was collected in Queensland, but the target species, C. fasciatus, was not found anywhere. An undescribed genus of Thripidae, Panchaetothripinae, was collected from ornamental Grevillea (var. Robyn Gordon) at Perth (Western Australia) Domestic Airport, and is considered to be a native Australian species. This survey has provided valuable information on the background diversity of thrips species associated with various native and exotic plant species around major ports of entry and exit for four of five states in Australia. We suggest that the major reason C. fasciatus has not established in Australia is due to high adult mortality in navels that are kept at low storage temperatures (2.78C) during an 18- to 24-day transit period from California to Australia. [source]