Major Policy (major + policy)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Terms modified by Major Policy

  • major policy change

  • Selected Abstracts

    Outcomes for children's health and well-being

    CHILDREN & SOCIETY, Issue 3 2003
    Zarrina Kurtz
    Health outcomes are implicit in the government's major policies on reducing poverty, unemployment and social exclusion, and in environmental regeneration, as well as in explicitly targeted policies for modernising the National Health Service. The impact of policies in childhood are regarded as a key feature in determining socioeconomic outcomes in many domains, among which mental health plays a particularly important part. But although early intervention is recognised as crucial in the achievement of socioeconomic and health policy aims, outcomes in children and for children have only recently received full recognition. This article outlines the impact that government policies may have on health outcomes for children. However, the assessment of changes in health status is difficult and mostly relies on proxy measures. The evidence that any changes can be related to policy is extremely limited and mostly based on small-scale and locally specific projects. What can be learnt from these and from collective analysis of linked projects, such as those funded through the CAMHS Innovation Grant, is discussed. Because of the attention paid by the government to evidence-based policy, outcomes in all domains will become known before long for major national children's policy initiatives such as the Sure Start programme, highlighting the crucial and continuing need for evaluation of the ways in which policies are implemented. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Structural Development of Finnish Universities: Achieving Competitiveness and Academic Excellence

    Jarkko Tirronen
    This paper discusses strategic instruments that are used to enhance the competitiveness of Finnish universities in the context of globalisation, internationalisation and commercialisation of research and education. The Finnish higher education system is currently undergoing a major policy reform, which aims to enhance the competitiveness of Finnish universities through structural development. This article focuses specifically on three themes of structural development: institutional cooperation and mergers between universities; stratification and differentiation; and changes in governance and leadership. Three ongoing projects are used as illustrations. [source]

    The Oldest Old in the Last Year of Life: Population-Based Findings from Cambridge City over-75s Cohort Study Participants Aged 85 and Older at Death

    Jun Zhao MSc
    OBJECTIVES: To characterize people of advanced old age in their last year of life and compare those dying in their late 80s with those dying aged 90 and older to inform policy and planning. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected population-based data from the Cambridge City over-75s Cohort (CC75C) Study, United Kingdom. PARTICIPANTS: Men and women aged 85 and older at death who died less than 1 year after taking part in any CC75C survey (N=321). MEASUREMENTS: Physical health, functional disability, self-rated health, cognitive status. RESULTS: Functional and cognitive impairments were markedly higher for those who died aged 90 and older, predominantly women,than for those who died aged 85 to 89. At least half (49.4,93.6%) of subjects aged 90 and older needed maximum assistance in virtually every daily activity; those aged 85 to 89 needed this only for shopping and laundry. Disability in basic and instrumental activities rose from 59.1% before to 85.4% after the age of 90 and cognitive impairment (Mini-Mental State Examination score ,21) from 41.7% to 69.4%. Despite this and proximity to death, 60.5% and 67.0%, respectively, rated their health positively. Only one in five reported needing more help. CONCLUSION: This study provides new data identifying high levels of physical and cognitive disability in very old people in the year before death. As the very old population rises, so will support needs for people dying in extreme old age. The mismatch between health perceptions and functional limitations suggests that these vulnerable older adults may not seek help from which they could benefit. These findings have major policy and planning implications for end-of-life care for the oldest old. [source]

    Older people and falls: health status, quality of life, lifestyle, care networks, prevention and views on service use following a recent fall

    Brenda Roe
    Aim and objective., This study has investigated older people's experiences of a recent fall, its impact on their health, lifestyle, quality of life, care networks, prevention and their views on service use. Background., Falls are common in older people and prevalence increases with age. Falls prevention is a major policy and service initiative. Design., An exploratory, qualitative design involving two time points. Method., A convenience sample of 27 older people from two primary care trusts who had a recent fall. Taped semi structured qualitative interviews were conducted and repeated at follow up to detect change over time and repeat falls. Data were collected on their experience of falls, health, activities of living, lifestyle, quality of life, use of services, prevention of falls, informal care and social networks. Content analysis of transcribed interviews identified key themes. Results., The majority of people fell indoors (n = 23), were repeat fallers (n = 22) with more than half alone when they fell (n = 15). For five people it was their first ever fall. Participants in primary care trust 1 had a higher mean age than those in primary care trust 2 and had more injurious falls (n = 12, mean age 87 years vs. n = 15, mean age 81 years). The majority of non-injurious falls went unreported to formal services. Falls can result in a decline in health status, ability to undertake activities of living, lifestyle and quality of life. Conclusions., Local informal care and support networks are as important as formal care for older people at risk of falls or who have fallen. Access to falls prevention programmes and services is limited for people living in more rural communities. Relevance to practice., Falls prevention initiatives and services should work with local communities, agencies and informal carers to ensure equitable access and provision of information, resources and care to meet the needs of older people at risk or who have fallen. [source]